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linciation to which the affections of good men will naturally become attached from use, and the more attached the better they are; as instruments, however mean in man's estimation, which serve as yehicles through which healing and virtue go forth from CHRIST to restore our souls' maladies; as moulds of thought and expresJord's sion to those suits which, in the majestic words of Hooker1, "the Shalang “ ALMIGHTY doth there sit to hear, and angels, intermingled as

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This consideration will afford a high value and importance to many changes in themselves apparently trivial; and it must be remembered that the lessons of Divine wisdom are often written in the very smallest characters, and that it is not from single letters or syllables, but from the combination of them, when carefully put together, that those lessons are to be understood. The proof will consist more in an accumulation of a number of little detached accidents, all tending collectively to one great purport or effect, than in any signal revolutions or events. It is necessary therefore to claim a patient attention to each, and assent is only required, if the evidence for the whole appears to bear out the case. Each point may be but slight in itself, yet all these in their connexions one with another may be such as to form a perceptible and distinct chain, partially indeed interrupted by clouds from our view, yet such as may be seen to extend far beyond the reach of man's contrivance, so as to show that it can be no other chain than that which is suspended from the throne of God.

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3. The three divisions of the argument.

These indications of a superintending Providence will be considered in regard to three points into which the subject naturally resolves itself in its various bearings.

The first is, that these changes through a long course of time have one prevailing character, and that so deeply and so gently infused, as to prove no human intention, and so extensive as to imply a design beyond the limited range of man's foresight.

1 B. v. c. 25. 2.

Secondly, that they are replete with Providential remedies and warnings against those peculiar evils which have since arisen, and are likely to increase in the last days, as Scripture has foretold.

And, thirdly, that changes in the external condition of the Church, and its pervading peculiarities, harmonize with those that are internal, so as to indicate one controlling design and purpose.

In all these cases it will, I think, appear, that though in tracing historically these alterations, external circumstances were not such as we could have wished or approved, yet that, notwithstanding, there has resided in the Church a Divine life, a power of assimilating, and converting, and turning into nourishment, heterogeneous, and often hurtful substances. And thence it has happened that, notwithstanding the worldly influences to which she has been subject, the King's Daughter, though she has passed through the fire, has been in misfortune, and is in captivity, yet, under all changes, is still "glorious within," and "her clothing "of wrought gold."

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4. That we have given us the language of servants rather
than sons.

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The first point which I would wish to show is, that through these alterations there runs one prevailing tendency, to put into our mouths the language of servants rather than that of sons. Now, though it may be matter of doubt whether the Reformation was in all respects what the name imports, or whether it were brought about in general by motives of sincere repentance, yet it must be allowed that it was a call to repentance on the part of GOD, a call to the Church to return to her first love and repent ; and that it was on the part of man a profession of repentance. Previously therefore to, and independently of, any proof, it seems not unreasonable to suppose, that, as in the case of an individual, so also with the Church at large, He who sees the returning penitent afar off, and hastens to meet him, should also put those

becoming words into his mouth, by which he confesses himself
to have forfeited the claim of sonship, and to be willing to be
received in a lower state.

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5. The Collects.

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First of all, to turn our attention to the Collects, and the alterations made respecting them. They are indeed not many, but consist either in the entire rejection of the older, and the substitution of a new form, or in the adaptation of another old one, or else in a slight change of expression, in the process of their passing into the English form. When we compare them, as they now stand, with earlier Liturgies, and endeavour to ascertain the causes of the changes, we do not find, I think, that the rejections or alterations of the ancient prayers have taken place merely on account of "the interpolations of things false "and superstitious as is usually stated to be the case. But one thing I cannot but observe, that, whether designedly or not, these changes seem to have one drift, and bear one way, in the point alluded to, namely this, that entire Collects, or expressions in them, which imply the privileges of the faithful, or spiritual rejoicing, as of sons, are dropped; and prayers substituted in a lower tone.

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To take the first Collect in Advent. It is one newly intro-
duced, and though it is mainly remodelled on the language of the
Epistle and Gospel, Mr. Palmer gives a Latin prayer which he
supposes
it to resemble. The difference in the two forms con-
sists in this-we find that in the ancient form there are the words
"who rejoice according to the flesh for the coming of Thine only
begotten Son"." These are not in ours, but we have instead
the sentence, "in the time of this mortal life, in which Thy Son
"JESUS CHRIST came to visit us in great humility."

Proceeding to Christmas-day, we find in King Edward's First

1 See Bishop Mant's Common Prayer, on the Collects.

2 "Qui de Adventu Unigeniti tui secundum carnem lætantur."

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Book, there was a double service for this festival; and the Collect, which was afterwards omitted, is the following:

"GOD, which makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the "birth of Thy only Son JESUS CHRIST: Grant that as we joyfully "receive Him for our Redeemer, so we may with sure confidence "behold Him when He shall come to be our Judge."

Compare the more subdued prayer for renewal, in the Collect we have for this day, with this one which is now omitted, or with the Collect in the Parisian Breviary, which is thus1:

"O GOD, who hast given the bread of angels to be the food of "the faithful in the fold of the Church, grant us, we pray Thee, “in this present world, a foretaste of the sweetness of the heavenly "joys, that, in that which is to come, Thou mayest lead us to the "fulness of everlasting rewards, through the same 1—”

1

The object of Divine wisdom, in these changes, may have been that, as "leaping for joy," and being "exceedingly glad," are commands given only, in Scripture, on occasions of external persecution and distress, such were not suited for the times of worldly prosperity which our Church was to be tempted with beyond others. But I only speak now of the fact.

In like manner take the Sunday after Ascension Day; one cannot but at once inquire, why the former Collect for this day has not been retained? The present Collect I can only find used as an antiphone in the Roman Breviary on this day. The Collect in the Parisian Breviary alludes to the gifts poured on the Apostles, as if still continued in the Church. That selected for our use is, that we be not left "comfortless," "ne nos derelinquas orphanos."

The Collect for St. John the Baptist's day is another instance; in the Sarum Missal and Parisian Breviary it is 2,

1 "Deus, qui panem Angelorum in præsepi Ecclesiæ cibum fecisti fidelium, "da nobis, quæsumus, in præsenti sæculo degustare cœlestium dulcedinem "gaudiorum, ut in futuro perducas nos ad satietatem æternorum præmiorum. "Per eundem."

2" Deus, qui præsentem diem honorabilem nobis in beati Joannis nativitate "fecisti; da populis tuis spiritualium gratiam gaudiorum, et omnium fidelium "4 mentes dirige in viam salutis æternæ ; per."

"O GOD, who hast made this present day honourable unto us by "the nativity of the blessed John, grant unto Thy people the grace of spiritual joys; and direct the minds of all the faithful unto "the way of eternal salvation, through—"

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Compare this with our own, of him who was sent to prepare "the way of our SAVIOUR, by preaching of repentance, that we may "follow his doctrine and life, truly repent, and patiently suffer." There is in the Roman Missal another Collect for this day, which might be quoted, with the former, as bearing on the same point of view.

For St. Bartholomew's day the Latin form1 begins thus— "Almighty and everlasting God, who hast afforded unto us the "reverend and holy joy of this day in the festival of Thy blessed Apostle Bartholomew;" this is altered in ours, but the latter part is the same, which it may be observed is purely practical.

Add to this, that although we have indeed on Whit-Sunday retained the ancient prayer which speaks of "rejoicing" in the comfort of the SPIRIT, yet even at this season the daily Collects, which speak of the adoption and spiritual joy, find no place in ours. Take for instance the following, which is found on Monday in WhitsunWeek in the Missals (on Friday in the Parisian Breviary):

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1 "Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui hujus diei venerandam sanctamque "lætitiam in beati Bartholomæi Apostoli tui festivitate tribuisti," &c.

2 As the Sarum and Roman Missal will be often alluded to in this treatise, it may be as well to say something concerning them. Our own Coll. Epist. and Gospel, are mostly taken from the Sarum. In addition to which the Sarum has the Introit or Psalm at the commencement; the Graduale, or verses of Scripture, chaunted after the Gospel; the Offertorium, or a verse from Scripture, after the Epistle and the Creed; and also a Post-Communion Collect. These Graduales (as they are termed) are very striking and beautiful in the Sarum Missal; they are called Graduale from being chaunted on the steps of the Pulpit (see Origines Liturgicæ, v. i. p. 308): and followed by Allelujah, except from Septuagesima to Easter, which was also usual after the Gospel. The Roman Missal, though for the most part similar to that of Sarum, has some alterations (e. g. for a great part of the year their Epistle is that which in the Sarum Missal and in our own Prayer Book is found to be that for the preceding week). The Roman is also marked with some apparently Popish innovations; innovations, from which the Sarum is comparatively free: for instance, besides a Collect the same as our own and that of Sarum, they have three more, one respecting the Virgin, another against the persecutors of the Church, and a third for the Pope. A

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