mass, and the other publick functions daily, but they are almost perpetually employing themselves in the several parts of their cures: instructing the youth, hearing confessions, and visiting the sick and besides all this, they are under the constant obligation of the breviary."-Bishop Burnet, Pref. to his Disc. on Past. Care.


41. HOMILY." To the house or temple of God, at all times by common order appointed, are all people that be gedly indeed, bound with all diligence to resort, unless by sickness or other most urgent causes they be letted therefro. . . . . . If we would compare our negligence in resorting to the house of the LORD there to serve Him, with the diligence of the Jews in coming daily very early, sometime by great journeys, to their temple, and when the multitude could not be received within the Temple, the fervent zeal that they had, declared in standing long without and praying we may justly in this comparison condemn our slothfulness and negligence, yea plain contempt, in coming to the LORD's house, standing so near unto us, so seldom and scarcely at any time."-First Part of the Homily" of the right Use of the Church."

42. DR. CAVE." The Christian Churches began to rise apace, according as they met with more quiet and favourable times; especially under Valerian, Gallienus, Claudius, Aurelian, and some other emperors: of which times Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 1. 8. c. 1. p. 292.) tells us, that the bishops met with the highest respect and kindness both from people and governors. And adds: But who shall be able to reckon up the innumerable multitudes that daily flocked to the faith of CHRIST, the number of congregations in every city?" &c.-Dr. Cave's Primit, Christianity, part i. 6.

43. "As that day [the Jewish Sabbath] was kept as a commemoration of GoD's Sabbath, or resting from the work of creation, so was this set apart for religious uses, as the solemn memorial of CHRIST's resting from the work of our redemption in this world, completed upon the day of His resurrection. Which brings into my mind that custom of theirs, so universally common in those days, that whereas at other times they kneeled at

prayers, on the LORD's day they always prayed standing, as is expressly affirmed both by Justin Martyr (Ap. 2. p. 98.) and Tertullian (De Coron. c. 3. p. 102.): the reason of which we find in the author of the Questions and Answers in Justin Martyr. (Resp. ad Quest. 115. p. 468.) It is (says he), that by this means we may be put in mind both of our fall by sin, and our resurrection or restitution by the grace of CHRIST: that for six days we pray upon our knees, is in token of our fall by sin; but that on the LORD's day we do not bow the knee, does symbolically represent our resurrection."-Cave's Primitive Christianity, part i. c. 7. p. 163.

44. "Their family duties were usually performed in this order at their first rising in the morning they were wont to meet together and to betake themselves to prayer (as is plainly implied in Chrysostom's Exhortation 1), to praise God for the protection and refreshment of the night, and to beg His grace and blessing for the following day: this was done by the master of the house, unless some minister of religion were present. 'Tis probable that at this time they recited the Creed or some confession of their faith, by which they professed themselves Christians, and as it were armed themselves against the assaults of dangers and temptations; however, I question not but that now they read some parts of Scripture, which they were most ready to do at all times, and therefore certainly would not omit it now. That they had their set hours for prayer, the third, sixth, and ninth, hour, is plain both from Cyprian, Clem. Alex. and others: this they borrowed from the Jews. . . ... When night approached, before their going to rest, the family was again called to prayer, after which they went to bed: about midnight they were generally wont to rise to pray and to sing hymns to God."-Cave's Primitive Christianity, part i. c. 9. pp. 262. 266.

45. "Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. lib. ii. c. 23. p. 63, ex Hegesippo) reports of St. James the Just, that he was wont every day to go alone into the church, and there kneeling upon the pave

1 Hom. I. de Prec. tom. 1. p. 750. Ed. Duc. Basil. Ep. ad Greg. de Vit, Solit. tom. 3. p. 43. (Ep. ii. 2. Ed. B.)

ment so long to pour out his prayers to GoD, till his knees became as hard as a camel's."-Cave's Primitive Christianity, ubi sup.



46. "At first (while the spirit of Christianity was yet warm and vigorous, and the hearts of men passionately inflamed with the love of CHRIST) it is more than probable they communicated every day, or as oft as they came together for publick worship, insomuch that the canons apostolical (Can. 9.) and the synod of Antioch (Can. 2.) threaten every one of the faithful with excommunication, who come to church to hear the Holy Scriptures, but stay not to participate of the Lord's Supper. ... This custom of receiving the Sacrament every day continued some considerable time in the Church, though in some places longer than in others, especially in the Western Churches. From Cyprian' we are fully assured it was so in his time: We receive the Eucharist every day (says he), as the food that nourishes us to salvation.'-The like St. Ambrose 2 seems to intimate of Milan, whereof he was bishop; nay, and after him St. Hierome tells us it was the custom of the Church of Rome; and St. Augustine seems pretty clearly to intimate that it was not unusual in his time. In the Churches of the East this custom wore off sooner, though more or less according as the primitive zeal did abate and decay; St. Basil telling us, that in his time they communicated four times a week, on the LORD's day, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, yea, and upon other days too, if the memory or festival of any martyr fell upon them."-Cave's Primitive Christianity, part i. c. 2. p. 339.

47. GEORGE HERBERT." His obedience and conformity to the Church, and the discipline thereof, was singularly remarkable. Though he abounded in private devotions, yet went he every morning and evening with his family to the church, and by his example, exhortations, and encouragements, drew the greater part of his parishioners to accompany him daily

2 De Sacr. 1. v. c. 4. § 25.


1 De Or. Dom. p. 494. Ed. Ven.

3 Adv. Jovian. lib. i. p. 30, &c.

De Serm. Dom. in Mont. I. ii. 25. Ep. 118, ad Jan. (Ep. 54. 4. Ed. B.)
Bas. Ep. 289, ad Cæsarium Patric. (Ep. 93. Ed. B.)

VOL. V.-84.


in the publick celebration of divine service."-Preface to "The Temple."

"Mr. Herbert's own practice was to appear constantly with his wife and three nieces (the daughters of a deceased sister) and his whole family twice every day at the church prayers, in the chappel which does almost joyn to his parsonage-house. And for the time of his appearing, it was strictly at the canonical hours of 10 and 4, and then and there he lifted up pure and charitable hands to GOD in the midst of the congregation. And he would joy to have spent that time in that place, where the honour of his Master JESUS dwelleth; and there, by that inward devotion which he testified constantly by an humble behaviour and visible adoration, he, like Joshua, brought not only his own houshold thus to serve the LORD,' but brought most of his parishioners, and many gentlemen in the neighbourhood, constantly to make a part of his congregation twice a day; and some of the meaner sort of his parish did so love and reverence Mr. Herbert, that they would let their plow rest when Mr. Herbert's saints'-bell rung to prayers, that they might also offer their devotions to God with him, and would then return back to their plow. And his most holy life was such, that it begat such reverence to GOD, and to him, that they thought themselves the happier, when they carried Mr. Herbert's blessing back with them to their labour. Thus powerful was his reason, and his example, to perswade others to a practical piety and devotion. And his constant public prayers did never make him to neglect his own private devotions, nor those prayers that he thought himself bound to perform with his family. . . . . . Thus he continued, till a consumption so weakened him, as to confine him to his house, or to the chappel, which does almost joyn to it; in which he continued to read prayers constantly twice every day, though he were very weak in one of which times of his reading, his wife observed him to read in pain, and told him so, and that it wasted his spirits, and weakened him; and he confessed it did, but said,


his life could not be better spent than in the service of his Master JESUS, who had done and suffered so much for him. But (said he) I will not be wilful; for though my spirit be willing,

yet I find my flesh is weak; and therefore Mr. Bostock shall be appointed to read prayers for me to-morrow, and I will now be only a hearer of them, till this mortal shall put on immortality.' And Mr. Bostock did the next day undertake and continue this happy employment, till Mr. Herbert's death."-Izaac Walton's Life of Herbert, pp. 307. 313.

48. NICHOLAS FARRER.-" Mr. Farrer having seen the manners and vanities of the world, and found them to be, as Mr. Herbert says, 'a nothing between two dishes,' did so contemn it, that he resolved to spend the remainder of his life in mortifications, and in devotion, and in charity, and to be alwaies prepared for death..... He being accompanied with most of his family, did himself use to read the common prayers (for he was a deacon) every day, at the appointed hours of ten and four, in the parish church, which was very near his house, and which he had both repaired and adorned; and he did also constantly read the Mattins every morning at the hour of six, either in the church, or in an oratory, which was within his own house and many of the family did there continue with him after the prayers were ended, and there they spent some hours in singing hymns or anthems, sometimes in the church, and often to an organ in the oratory: and there they sometimes betook themselves to meditate, or to pray privately, or to read a part of the New Testament to themselves, or to continue their praying or reading the Psalms and in case the Psalms were not alwaies read in the day, then Mr. Farrer, and others of the congregation, did at night, at the ring of a watch-bell, repair to the church or oratory, and there betake themselves to prayers, and lauding Goo, and reading the Psalms that had not been read in the day; and when these, or any part of the congregation grew weary or faint, the watch-bell was rung, sometimes before, and sometimes after midnight, and then another part of the family rose, and maintained the watch, sometimes by praying, or singing lauds to GOD, or reading the Psalms; and when after some hours they also grew weary or faint, then they rung the watch-bell, and were also relieved by some of the former, or by a new part of the society, which continued their devotions until morning. And it is to be noted

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