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L A w. Art. 60. A Dictionary of the Norman, or Old French Language ; • collected from such Acts of Parliament, Parliament Rolls, Journals,
Acts of State, Records, Law Books, Ancient Historians, and Manuscrip:s, as relate to this Nation. To which are added the Laws of William the Conqueror, with Notes and References. By Robert Kelham of Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. 6s. Brooke. 1779.
The uncouth and barbarous dialect in which our records antecedendly to the reign of Edward the Third, and many public inftro. ments since that time, are written, long maintained its ground with the writers on law. Most of the Reports till within a century were communicated in this technical language. But since it is now universally fallen into disuse, the professors of the jaw have contented themselves with a general acquaintance with its phraseology, relin: quishing all pretensions to a more nice and critical skill to professed antiquaries. Hence, however, have been experienced some inconve. niences. How little the Norman or Law French is at present understood by the gentlemen at the bar, is decilively incwp by Mr. Kelham, who relates (and the incident, it must be confefTed, reflects on them no credit) chat ' at a late remarkable trial a French gentleman was called in to read and explain some Norman French charters in one of our courts of judicature. As the knowledge of this old language is still che only key to many curious antiquities, and to rever I of our early writers, the present publication will be found of considerable affistance to those who are engaged in researches of this nature. Ms. Kelham's reputation as an antiquary is a fuficient pledge frip the fidelity and accuracy of the work.
The laws of William the Conqueror are subjoined in the Norman French, with a Latin and an English translation. They are brought toge:her into one point of view, in order 10 combat and overturn some novel opinions which Mons, Houard (a celebrared Norman jurist) has lately attempted to maintain. Mr. Kelham proves beyond all cavil, that the early laws of this king, prior to the introduction of the feudal law, were moulded on the Saxon customs, which, according to the authority of our best writers, are the clements of the common law.
HUSBANDRY. Art. 61. A Treatise on the Culture of the Tobacco Plant; with the Manner in which it is usually cured. Adapred to Northern Climates, and designed for the Use of the Landholders of Great Britain. To which are prefixed two Places of the Plant and its Flowers. By Jonathan Carver, Esq; Author of Travels t through the interior Parts of North America. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Johnson. 1779.
Should the culture of tobacco ever form a part of Englih agri. culture, we doubt not but the planter will meet with fufficient information, in the present pamphler, to encourage him to attempt it with every reasonable prospect of success. The leaf is the valuable part of the plant. It is natural to suppose the humidity of our
+ An account of chole Travels is given in the Reviews for Fe. bruary and April ant.
climate climate will be favourable to its production. Posibly there may be some difficulry in the management of those plants which are intended for feed. But supposing this to be the case, seed would, we prefume, be easily imported at a very trifiing expence. We have, however, known the seed ripen to great perfection in our Englih gardens.
The rules which Mr. Carver lays down, though drawn only, as he informs us, from memory, seem to be both full and satisfactory as well for the cultivating as curing this important article of commerce. If Mr. Carver's representations be true, and there is no reason for suspecting they are otherwise, the cultivation of tobacco is attended with as few difficulties as that of the most common vegetable ; and the method of curing it also seems to be equally easy and fimple. Besides the usual purposes to which it is applied, it may be used also as a subilitute for Oak-bark in tanning leather. As an ornamental plant, it may be admitted into the pleasure-garden, being when ia flower both majestic and beautiful. There is a good print of it in Mr. Carver's book.
EAST-INDIE s. Art. 62. Confiderations on the East-India Bill now depending in
Parliament. 8vo. 6d. Elmily. 1779. Arraigns the juttice of the bill, as a breach of public faith to the company associated under a charter confirmed by subsequent acts of parliament, purchased for valuable considerations. But that bill having fince pailed into a law, the question is fo far decided, as to supersede any farther debate on it, except perhaps among the parties affeaed,
RELIGIO U s. Art. 63. Earnest Advice, particularly to Persons who live in an
babiival Neglest of our Lord's Supper; considered as a commemorative Sacrifice inseparable from Christianity, and as a Prelervative against superstitious Fears, and the immoral Practices, which deface the Glory of our Country, and darken our Prospects of a Life to come. In forty nine Letters., Ey jonas Hanway, Eig. 12mo. 2 s. Dodsley, &c. 1978. Mr. Hanway, we see, continues his benevolent labours to promote the virtue and happiness of his countrymen. He formerly publithed a small volume cailed the Commemorative Sacrifice; great part,' he says, of the matter of that work is brought into this, but newly arranged; some of the letters are freih com pontion, but compre. hending the sense of different writers - Mol of the lerters are thort, presuming that so many resting places will encourage those who read but little, or such as have bur little time for reading. On the whole, he adds, I have endeavoured to divelt myself of that mysterious awe which gives the major part of the people false impreffions of that unworthiness alluded to by St. Paul; and so far difpel the clouds of ignorance and carelefriels, which spread so deep a thadow over the land. Thus, I hope, my humble pen will bring fome to the table of our Lord, who might otherwise live and die totally negligent of this sacred inftitution.'.
In the dedication of this volume to the Counters Spencer, he observes, when speaking of the state of piety and virtue, 'pocalists,
as well as divines, in all ages, have complained: the present æra cannot be called wonderful, when we see the histories of mankind furnish such unnumbered initances of the same causes producing the same effects. Indeed we seem to be so far singular, that I will venture to say there never was so free, learned, and ingenious a people in the same degree negligent with regard to the prime article of the religion of their country; and from this cause I apprehend we may fairly date the greatest part of the calamisies which threaten us.
Impressed therefore by the truth and importance of chriftianity, and also by the obligation and usefulness of the peculiar inftitution which he here more profeffedly considers, he proceeds with earnest. ness, and under a variety of views, to persuade Christians to comply; in this instance, with the request and precept of their Lord. His book contains much useful initruction and perluasive piety; but had it been brought into a yet narrower compass, it might perhaps have been more beneficial. His frequent use of the words altar, facrifice, &c. tend, we think, to convey an idea of this ordinance fomewhat different from that which the plain and short account given of it in the New Testament suggests or warrants. However, though we do not regard the work as entirely free from objections, it is certainly calculated to promote the best purposes, and we heartily with the views of the worthy Author may be answered, by rendering his readers the better, and happier, for the perusal of his well-intended letters.
SE R M O N S. 1. Christianity the true Foundation of Civil Liberty.- Preached at St. Mary's, Leicester, at the Allizes held there Aug. 12, 1778, by John Cole Galloway, A. M. Vicar of Hinckley in that County. Svo. is. H. Payne, &c.
Plain, serious, sensible, and well adapted to the occafion. II. Christian Fortitude particularly recommended in Times of Danger, at
the Chapel-Royal, of: James's, - July 4, 1779. By S. Glafie, D. D. F.R.S. 8voa od. Rivingtoná-..
Dr. Giase_Mall,s himself, review this pious and seasonable sermon.. • It is the deugn of this discourse to encourage reflections of the most falutary kind; to draw the line, as carefully as may be, betwixt a dangerous self confidence on the one hand, and a not less dangerous defpair on the other; each leading by different paths to the same end, viz. to a fatal inactivity.'.
C O R R E S P O N D E N C E.
A CARD. DHILODOMUS presents his respectful compliments to the
I Monthly Reviewers, begs that they will acquaint him when Organs were fisit introduced into the Chriitian Church, and by whom: which will much oblige him, and some others of their confant Readers.
Cumberland, 12th July, 1779. *** some of our Readers may, perhaps, be able to fatisfy the curiosity of this Correspondent. Poliibly the informaiion he leckis may be obtained by consulting Burney's. History of Mulis, or Sir John Hawkins; or Anderson's Hittory of Commerce,
Art. I. Johnson's Prefaces to the Works of the English Poets. Voc lume II. Vid. last Month's Review, Art. I.
M i L TO N. THE active part which Milton took in the public transacT tions of the times he lived in, will ever subject him to the misrepresentations of partiality or prejudice. In the biogra. phical part of the preface before us, we have observed some par : sages not totally free from the influence of one of these principles.
In the opening of the narrative, after mentioning some other particulars of his family, we are told that his father had two • sons, John the poet, and Christopher, who studied the law,
and adhered, as the law taught him, to the King's party. . • After the accession of King James, he was knighted, and 'made a judge ; but, his conftitution being too weak for busia
ness, he reiired before any disreputable compliances became
necessary. Fenton says, "" by too easy a compliance with " the doctrines of the court, both religious and civil, he at“ tained to the dignity of being made a judge of the Common “ Pleas, of which he died divested not long after the Revolu" tion.” As he is said to have adhered to what the law taught him, we will hope, though there doth not seem much reason to believe, that he retired before any disreputable compliances became necessary. Yet, when the disposition of the times is confidered, it is far from probable that he should have been advanced from the obfcurity of chamber practice, which he fol. lowed, to fit as a judge in the court of Common Pleas, unless his readiness of compliance had been previously known. But, perhaps, as he adhered, as the law taught him, to King Charles's party, the biographer thought him entitled to some little indula gence. . . VOL. LXi..
Milton was first educated under a domestic tutor, and afterward sent to St. Paul's school; from whence, in the beginning of his fixteenth year, he was removed to Cambridge. We are told, there is reason to suspect that he was regarded in his college with no great fondness. That he obtained no fellowship is certain ; but the unkindness with which he was treated was not merely negative. I am ashamed,' continues the biographer,
to relate what I fear is true, that Milton was the last student in either university, that suffered the public indignity of corporal correction.
It was, in the violence of controversial hoftility, objected to him, that he was expelled: this he steadily denies, and it was apparently not true; but it seems plain from his own verses to Diodati, that he had incurred Ruflication; a temporary dismillion into the country, with perhaps the loss of a term :
Jam nec arundiferum mihi cura revisere Camum,
Nec dudum vetici me laris angit amor;
Ceteraque ingenio r.on subeunda meo. • I cannot find any meaning but this, which even kindness and reverence can give to the term, vetiti laris, “ a habitation from which he is excluded ;'' or how exile can be otherwise interpreted. lie declares yet more, that he is weary of enduring the threats of a rigorous master, and something else, which a temper like his cannot unairgo. What was more than threat was evidently punishment.
If the evidence of Milton's suffering the public indignity of corporal correction rest only on the above quoted lines, there is certainly a construction put upon them which the sense by no means requires. By rendering cæteraque in the fingular number, the application which in the original is general, in the translation is made particular. There are many insults and indigni. ties which ac.dern cal subordination might make him liable to, beside corporal correction, or the threats of rustication or ex. pullion, which a temper like Wilton's might find a difficulty in submitting to. But fuppoing the conjecture to be true, shame would surely never suffer him even to allude to what he could not but think of with the utmoit indignation, nor is it probable he would ever with to revilit scenes where he had suffered such public indignity.
When the biographer comes to that part of Milton's life when he returned from abrond, he tells (!s, that hearing of the differences between the King and parliament, he thought it proper to haften home, rather than pass his life in foreign amusements while his countrymen were contending for their rights. At his return he hired a lodging at the house of one Rustil a taylor, in St. Bride's Church-yard, and undertook the education of John and Edward Philips, his after's sons. Find.. ing his rooms too liccle, he took a house and garden in Alders