50. Maner_Of the Police

Of Pretenfione ceno

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. and Money-Of the Police-Of Treaties, and particularly those of Alliances and Guarantée-Of Pretenfion's, Grievances, Contests, and Mediation-Of doing ourselves Justice-Of Sei. zures and Reprisals-Of Wars, Allies, Auxiliaries, and Subsidies–Of Neutrality-Of Truces and Peace.-Such are the principal articles treated in this excellent work.

VII. Vom Blitze, &c. i.e. Concerning Thunder and Lightning, &c. By the Abbé Hen. REIMARUS, M. D. 8vo. Hamburgh. 1778. Here we have a solid, judicious, and useful work. It contains the most excellent directions to prevent the destructive effects of the electrical fiery Auid. "The Author seems perfectly acquainted with his subject : his realovings are clear and accurate, his principles folid, and their application easy. In treating this subjet, M. REIMARUS first points out, af. ter the most exact observations, the directions of lightning and its action in different bodies; secondly, he shews how it is affected in its course by those metallic substances which are employed to secure edifices against its pernicious effects, and how these metals may be the most effectually and safely used for this purpofe ; he explains, in the third place, the effects of lightning by the principles of electricity, and in a manner conformable to electrical experiments. The ingenious Author of this work is son to the celebrated Reimarus, who published several philosophical treatises, and a very curious one, among others, on the instincts of animals.

VIII. Briefe uber Rusland, &c. i.e. Letters concerning Russia. By M. J. H. C. MEYER, an Officer in the Hanoverian Regiment of Saxe-Gotha. 8vo. Gottingen. 1778. In these Letters the Author does not follow any regular plan, but treats of a great variety of interesting objects, among which we may place his accounts of the country of Kamschatka Of the Emigration of the KalmucS--Of the Commerce of the Black Sea Of the Settlement of Colonies. His extracts from the books that contain the laws of the Kalmucs are curious; and his description of the collection of natural history at Petersburg, of that flourishing city, of the Rulian manufactures, and of the state of taxes and population in that country, are instructive and interesting. There is, more elpecially, much information to be had from those Letters, in which our Author describes the present state of the city of Petersburgh, the military force of Russia, and the oppression which reigns in the re-. mote provinces under the despotism of their governors. According to l1. MEYER's estimate, the revenue of Russia amounts to 30 millions of rubles*, besides a million and a half, which the gold and silver mines yield. This estimation suppoíes either

electrical ples of electric place, u


* A ruble (as is well known) is four shillings and fix-pence.


that M. de Voltaire was very grossly mistaken, or that the im. perial income must have been more than doubled since the year 1735, or that our Author has valued it at, by far, too great a rate ; any of these three may have been the case. Voltaire says, that in 1735, reckoning the tribute paid by the Tartars, with all taxes and duties in money, the sum total amounted to 13 millions of robles, and that this income was sufficient, at that time, to pay 339,500, as well sea as land forces. Things indeed are great changed in Russia since that period. Our Author tells us that above 60 millions of rubles (i, e. about 12 millions sterling) circulate in Bank Bills in the Russian empire. Every kind of means has been employed to promote national improvement in Russia. The establishment of a seminary formed by the Empress for the education of the young Greeks costs annually 41,613 rubles. Our Author reckons at Petersburgh 80 manufactures of different forts, among which are 1] of woollen cloth : he reckons the same number at Moscow. Beside there, there are in the rest of the empire 53 woollen manufactures, which furnish coarse cloths to the annual amount of 500,000 rubies. It is a remarkable proof of the infancy of letters and science and Russia (if it be true), that in the whole empire there are but 16 printing-presses, of which 12 are at Petersburgh and Moscow : it is, however, to be observed, that Livonia and Esthonia are not comprehended in this account. The number of monafteries in Russia amounts to 458, and that of the churches to 19,435. The Author promises another volume of letters on the Russian empire, with an accurate chart of the Caspian Sea.

IX. Teutsche Reichsgeschichte, &c. i.e. A History of the German Empire, in which the most effential Points of Teutonic Hijlory are more especially unfolded and illustrated. By M. PUTTER, Counsellor of Justice at Gottingen. Svo. 1778. The grand lines of the German History are perfectly exhibited in the work before us. The ancient state of that country, both with respect to its territory and its inhabitants, the character of the latter, and their division into different nations, are accurately described : the progress of civilization, and the almost imperceptible gradations of moral, civil, and political, improvement, are distinguished, with a peculiar fagacity and precision, from the earliest ages to the present time. The various effects of the peace of Westphalia, with respect to the princes and cities of the empire, to the imperial court, and to the state of religion, are pointed out by M. Putter, who brings down this political history to the entrance of the King of Prussia into Bohemia in 1778. The learned Writer confirms his relations and decisions by the very best authorities, and we make no doubt but his work will meet with the most favour


able reception. We must caution the Reader of foreign proa ductions not to confound this work with the Historical Manual of the Empire, or with the View of the Revolutions of Germany, for which the Public is indebted allo to M. Putter. The same ingenious man employed his pen in the late formidable contest in Germany, which has ended so happily for humanity, and his historical and literary Illustrations on the Succellion of Bavaria were highly esteemed.

X. fo. Gottlob Bochmii de Litteratura Lipsiensi. Opuscula Academica : i.e. Academical Differtations concerning the Literature of Leip/ic. By M. BoEHME, Counsellor, &c. 8vo. Leipsic. 1779. There is a great deal of erudition in this publication, and several things, quæe tollere velles.


For JULY, 1779.

MEDIC A J.. Art. 17. History of the Origin of Medicine : An Oration deli

vered as the anniversary Meeting of the Medical Society of London. Dy John Coakley Lettsom, M. D. F. R. S. &c. 410.

55. Phillips. 1778. FT EIS oration, printed at the request of the Medical Society, com

prehends the firit chapter of an history of the origin and progreis of medicine, and its profesors, which the Author appears to have planned on a very extensive scale, if we may judge froin this fpecimen. The firil chapter of the firit book, which treats of medicine in general, from the creation to the Trojan war (being the first of nise periods or æras into which the history is supposed to be divided), contains leven fccions, in which the Author treats, 1. Of the Practice of Physic; 2. O! Surgery; 3. Of Midwifery; 4. Of Anacomy; 5. Of Botany and Pharmacy; 6. Of Chemistry; and 7. Of Myfticidicine.

Curilerical crian, or Orator rather, has rendered his oration erua iy irfructive and amuang, by numerous anecdotes and quota. tions, in the form of nores; and by a ftill more numerous host of references, thich evince an ir mense share of multifarious reading, mell direcd and applied. Art. 18. Onfirmations on the Plan proposed for establishing A

Ditjeníary and Medical Society for the private and only imme. diate li of the scotcribers, their families, and Friends.” Svo. (; d. v. 179.

In the paculating and planning age in which we have the good cirune to live, it leens, Train the contenis of this pamphlet, that cevrain schemers, who doubt! is have the public intereit only at heart, and who wirksrat healih is purchased rco dear from the apothe. cary, hase proposed or opened a kind of zuhsinjale zvarehow/e; where, as they pre cnc, heaih .'y be had a fini prorth. In this inititu. linn, bc:dus auciic:9, 1.c fier gers, &c. we are told there are to be

Dioe officers under the title of managers - Doctors belike who are to receive 501. each for thirty-five visits.

It requires some little aritbmetic, but we have been at the pains to calculate the very fractional fre of these medical managers. Each of the managerial visits will precisely cost the patient one pound eight shillings and sixpence and chs of a penny:-' while the honest apothecary,' says the Author, ' in the common line of business, would pay cwice as many visits for half the money; and yet the authors of this new scheme modestly apply to these practitioners the epither of " greedy men,” and pretend to found their plan upon the preciple of economy. He calculates, too that by this æconomical scheme, adopted to the extent of the plan, the first year's expence would be co,cool, and that of every succeeding year 250,00l.; aid that the least of these sums is more than all the practitioners wthio che bills of mortality raise from the public annually.

As we congder law as a greater evil, and a more costly commodity tan even physic; and as every man that has property is liable to the visitation of a law-fuit, as well as to that of a fever; we should <<< wonder if some other schemers were to take in subscribers, and

are among them a fund for maintaining suits in law or equity, in tebalf of fach of the adventurers as might happen to be saddled with tem. But we leave this hint to be improved upon, and extended, by the adepts in the art of raising money by voluntary taxation. Art. 19. The Medical Register for the Year 1779. 8vo. 4S.

fewed. Murray. The plan of this work is to give lists of all the members of every Bedical body in the kingdom ; of physicians and surgeons to the royal family, to the fleet and army, and to hospitals ; of medical professors; and even of all the medical practitioners of every class throughout Great Britain, with their places of residence, and a ca:alogue of the works of such among them as are authors. Likesile, lifts of the principal of the faculty in Ireland; of professors and eminent men in foreign countries; accounts of medical books, Erg'ith and foreign; articles of medical news, &c. It is proposed to make the publication annual ; and the faculty are invited to cootribute their respective shares of information to so useful a celign. That many of the articles comprised in the above lifts are objects of a just and laudable curiosity to the profession, will be univerfa.y acknowledged ; and so far the plan will probably be thought warthy of encouragement; but we apprehend, that part of it which pretends to register every practitioner, however obscure, in the whole kingdom, will be conceived by many equally impracticable and nogatory. In effect, who can possibly be interested to know that the village of Gotham is served in medical matters by Messrs.

sep and Forceps i unless it be the druggist's rider, who may be tempted to deviate from his regular track, in order to inspect their * beggarly account of empty boxes.

From our own knowledge, we can pronounce several of these country lists to be both defective and erroneous. The other parts of the plan appear to be executed with sufficient accuracy and jedyneas.


Art. 20. Obfervations on Baron Dimsdale's Remarks on Dr. Lett.

fom's Letter to Sir Robert Barker and George Stacpoole, Esq; refpect. 'ing General Inoculation. By John Coakley Lettlom, M. D. F.RS. and S. A. 8vo. 15. Dilly, &c. 1779.

We have with much concern observed this dispute relative to general inoculation be coming more and more personal in each fucceffive publication. Now that it is become entirely so, we shall excuse ourselves from entering into particulars which can be of no consequence to our Readers. Art. 21. Advice to lying-in Women, on the Custom of drawing the

Breafis. By C. Cruttwell, Surgeon, a: Barb. Second Edition. 4to. 1S. Ba:h' printed, for Dilly, &c. London. 1779.

The purpose of this pamphlet is to shew that drawing the breasts in all cases, whether the child be to be suckled or not, is an undecessary and mischievous practice. He affirms, that when the breafts are hardened and obstructed by too great a flow of milk, a state of irritability is induced, which renders the strong suction of a grown person extremely painful, and liable to produce inflammation; and that such suction will rather invite a greater quantity of fluid to the gland than unload it : on the contrary, he asserts, that if they be let alone, a re-absorption of the milk will take place, the breast will return to its usual state, and no sort of inconvenience will happen. The proof of this point he chiefly derives from experience in his own practice, which he represents as uniformly successful in prevent. ing the common disorders of the breatts. Whether he does not carry the matter too far in forbidding drawing the breasts in all cases, we shall not determine ; but, on the whole, what he says appears well to merit the attention of those concerned. Art. 22. A Treatise on the Teeth: Wherein an accurate Idea of

their Structure is given, the Cause of their Decay pointed out, and their various Diseases enumerated. To which is added, the most effectual Method of treating the Disorders of the Teeth and Gums, established by a long and successful Practice. By Barth. Ruspini, Surgeon-Dentilt. A new Edition, with an Appendix of new Cases. 12mo. Fielding and Walker. 1779.

An account of the first edition of this work is contained in the Monthly Review, Vol. xxxix. p. 157. The cases now first published in the Appendix are five in number. The first is of a collection of marter in the antrum maxillare, consequent on the unskilful extraction of one of the upper grinders, which was cured by perforation. The second and third are of excrescences in the mouth ariling from the irritation of broken points of the teeth. These were successfully removed by the knife. The fourth we shall print entire for the benefit of our fair Readers.

• A lady of distinction, about twenty-two years of age, in the month of July 1777, sent for me in consequence of a very alarming complaint in her mouth. Her gums appeared greatly swelled, looked very florid, and were exceedingly painful; The complained of a braly taste, and had some difficulty of swallowing any kind of folid food.

• An

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