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acquaintance with the subjects that are treated, a 'uniform tone of decency and candour, that is never interrupted by either farcafms or invectives against the enemies of religion, and a folidity of argument that feems to force conviction. The Author is a layman, nay, he represents himself as a sceptic, an imparcial obferver, who, having been for some time carried along with the torrent of the new philosophy, began to suspect the illusion, and therefore, going back to the principles of evidence, and the true source of knowledge, resolved to review his opinions, and to inquire seriously what notions we ought to entertain of our own existence, of that of the Deity, of the necefsity or advantages of a Divine Revelation, and of the celestial origin of the Chriftian religion.-In the execution of this important plan, the judicious Author divides his work into four parts.-The first contains inquiries concerning the origin and limits of human knowledge,--a defence of human liberty, and a refutation of the system of fatalism. The second and third treat of the Supreme Being, -of natural and moral evil, -of the contradiction that some have falsely supposed to exist between the divine attributes,-and of the immateriality and immortality of the human soal. In the fourth and last part, our Author treats of the probability of a divine revelation, and then confiders the proofs of Christianity, together with its doctrines, inftitutions, and moral precepts.

ART. XIX.
Eloges lus dans les Seances Publiques de l'Academie Franccile. &c.-

Eulogies, read at the Public Meetings of the French Academy,
By M. DALEMBERT, Perpetual Secietary of the said academy.
• !2mo. Paris. 1779. pp. 559.
THIS elegant work, in which the philosophical pen of M.

D'ALEMBERT facrifices to the Graces with rather too much earneftness and precision, forms an interesting continua. tion of the history of the French academy, begun by Mellicurs Pelisson and DOlivet: This volume, which will be followed by several more, contains the eulogies of Maillon, Boileau, the Abbé de St. Pierre, Bofuet, the Abbé De Dangeau, De Sacy, D: la Morte, Fenelon, Choisy, Deftouches, Flechier, Cribillon, and the President Rose. The varieties of character, genius, tate, and talent, that distinguish these eminent men, have furnished the learned and ingenious Panegyrist with an occasion of dirplaying all the powers of his pencil, and all the resources of his art, in giving to each object its proper attitude and aspect, and the colouring that more peculiarly suits it.- t is, however, to be wilhed, that this agreeable and instructive work were not here, and there chargeable with quaint thoughts, far-fetched comparisons, and obscure distinctions. i i .

ART,

her published, Vitality, in a hmatory

AR T.. XX.,

.. De Gorteriana Vitalitate Miferiis Homirum reluctante, &c.-Psycolo.'

gico-Medical Propositions concerning GORTER's Doctrine, with respect to that Power of the Vital Principle, which struggles with the Evils of humanity. By M. P. IGNATIL'S ZECCHINT, of the Institute of Bologna, and Professor of. Phyfic in the University of Ferrara. 4to, Ferrara, 1979.- . '

. T HIS ingenious Author published, about fix years ago, a

I treatise concerning the Laws of Vitality, in a healthy, and also in a disordered state, proceeding from an inflammatory principle. In the small work before us, be considers' the ani. mal nature in a state of pain, and divides his subject into three parts. The first treats of this indisposition considered in itself, and, on this occasion, of the mutual influence which foul and body have upon each other. In the second, our: Author exa mines the opinions of the ancients concerning the cause of pain and finds them much less satisfactory than those of the moderns, In the third, he mentions the most effectual methods which thei art of healing furnishes for preventing the effects of pain, and even retarding, if not removing entirely its cause. M. ZECI CHINI seems to have formed an idea of the animat æconomy which is truly philosophical. He has improved the syfteni of Gorter; his end is to deliver humanity from a multitude ofi evils, both physical and moral; and, the public, therefore, isy at least, obliged to him for his good intentions, su esa con ng

- AR T. XXI. ' .

'"', "10 MUser Capitolini Antique Inscripriones, à Francisco. Eugenia

GUASCO, ejufdem Musei Curatore, nunc primum conjunciim Editæ, · Notifque itluftrata. Tom. I:I! The ancient Inscriptions in the

Vatican Collection, &c. Fol. Rome. 1778. ...3::
OTTE formerly gave an account of the two preceding

VV volumes * of this learned work, and the plan on which it has been composed. This third volume concludes the public cation; which may be justly considered as a complete course of Lapidarian science, by the vast number of inscriptions it contains, and the extensive erudition which the ingenious and noble Author has displayed in throwing new light upon them, and correcting the errors of preceding antiquaries. This, volume contains the seventh, and the succeeding chapters to ibe, twelfth inclusive. The seventh contains the infcriptions that relate to parents, children, 'brothers, and liters, and those that are relative' to patrons, friends, faves, freed-men, &c. In the ninth, we have the explication of 126 Figuleaninfcriptions, (Inscriptiones Figulinz) which are kept in two contiguous. chambers of the Mulæum Capitolinum. To this explication.

* See Review, vol. Ivi. p. 225, and vol. Ivii. p. 483.

the

the Author has prefixed a curious differtation concerning the origin of the art which the Latins called Ars Figulina, and the etymology of that term; which is derived from the name of a small town, in the Sabine territory, situated on the Via Nomen. tana (about twelve miles from Rome), whose ancient name was Figülea t, and whose inhabitants were chiefly employed in manufacturing earthen-ware. M. DE GUASCO, who, like the rest of the fraternity, is no where reprehensible for too much brevity, enlarges, very circumstantially, on the antiquity of this art, on its high reputé among the Romans, and on the infcriptions often found on brick's, &c. The tenth and eleventh chapters exhibit a collection of Grecian and Christian inscriptions; and the twelfth is' a kind of Supplement, which contains the omitted inscriptions that belong to the preceding volumes,' of such as did not come to the Author's knowledge till after the publica. tion of these volumes. In this last chapter, we find the famous fragment of the Lex Regia, by which the senate and the Ro. than people conferred the Imperial" Dignity upon Vefpafian. This fragment, engraven on brals, was discovered, under the pontificate of Clement VI. in the church of St. John de Lateran. This ancient monument was more or less négleted, until the reignt of Pope Gregory XIII. who had it placed in the Campidoglio, from whence Clément XII. ordered it to be transported to the Musæum Capitolinum. From that time, many learned men have employed much labour in the explication of it ; but our Author has succeeded here much better than all who have gone before him.:. :: It is now called St. Vasil, which is an eartbea-ware saint, and an evident translation of Figulea..

'ART. XXII. Scienti della Na?ilee, Esc.--The Science of Nature, general and

paritculat. By Father D. JOHN MARIA DE LA TORRE.. Part III. With Tables and Engravings. 480. Naples.' 1578. THIS, and the two preceding volumes, contain the most

1 complete course of natural history, and natural philosophy, thär is to be met with in Italian. It is a new edition of a work, published by this Author in 1749; but it appears with fach additions and improvements, drawn from the modern disi coveries in natural philosophy, that it may be justly confidered as a 'new'work. The idea of uniting natural history with naa. tärál philosophy, is certainly a happy one'; and our Author is. the first Italian who has treated natural science on this plan., This third part contains astronomy, optics,'air, found, and

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ART,

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ART. XXIII. Cæfaris de Florariis in Archygymafio Romano Philofophiæ Profefforis, de Mode Philosaphandi, Officioque i bilosopbi, Liber Singalaris.-A particulas Treatise concerning the. Method of carrying on Philofos. phical Investigation, and the Duty of a Philosopher. By the Abbé CESAR ORAZI, Professor of Philosophy in the Roman College,

8vo. Rome.' 1778. . ?. TTERE we have a new, ingenious, but not un-whimsical

1 philosopher, who undertakes to put us upon a' fingular (cent for the investigation of truth, and the fixing out ideas with respect to metaphysical, physical, and moral certitude. According to this Author, the criterion of truth, which the philosophers have been so long difputing about, resides neither in the rules of logic, nor in the clearners of our perceptions ; nork does evidence itself. de serve that appellation: where then? In or der to answer this question, the Author' tells us, that we must distinguish the objects of an internal and intimate fente, or cona sciousness, from those of reason' or argumentation, and, being allured, that we have real perceptions, certain in their nature, and independent on all reasoning, we must theri deduce from this internal lense' of our exiftence, and of the modihcations of our ideas, all our reasonings concerning objects different from that existence and these ideas; and therefore cônsider the four itself as the universal criterion of all human certitude, a direct and immediate criterion with respect to those truths that belong to the internal sense, and an indirect one for others that are deducible from it. We do not really think that there is any thing new in this system of investigation, but the uncouth and clumsy mannet in which it is expressed: Is it not always taught to every stripling in philosophy, chat the logical analysis carries us up to simple propositions, which are the objects of inimediate intuition? If this be not our Author's nieaning, what is it?' and if it be, why' render old truths obscure by an intricate phraseology ?-What he says of axioms is excepcionăbie, ön acă? count either of its obscurity or its falsehood. He atrás, that their truth is not, properly speaking, immediate (ice, as we fup's pofe he means, diftinguilhed by the intuitive-evidence of first principles), but that it is ascertained by reasonings; and that, analytically, there reasonings are not reducible to general prin ciples, but to particular decisions of the intimate or internal Tense. If the effees we have-for the acuteness of this Author did not prevent our treating him haríhly, we'Thould be tempted to allege, that the common sense of Dr. Oswald has got into his imagination, and now and then engendered there non-fenfe. Yes there are several things in this book quæ follere velies.

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Art. XXIV: Rudimenta Lingue Copta fove Egyptiacæ, ad Ujum Coliegii Uibari de

propaganda Fide.- Rudiments of the Coptic or Egyptian Language,

for the Use of the Society de Propaganda, &c. 410. Paris. THE antiquity of the Coptic, which succeeded the symbolic

and hieroglyphical language in Egypt, is abundantly ascer. tained, though it is not easy to point out the particular time of iss origin and introduction among the inhabitants of that country. The resemblance of its letters to those of the Greeks, gives a certain degree of probability to the opinion of those learned men, who suppose that it was introduced into Egypt by Grecian colonies : its syntaxis, however, is of a quite particular kind, and has nothing at all in common with that of the other European 'or Oriental languages. The ancient versions of the holy scriptures, and the liturgies of the primitive church, render the ftudy of this language peculiarly useful and interesting. The Coptic version of the Old and New Testament, is certainly aná terior to Theodoret, who makes mention of it, and must, consequently, have been composed before the fifth century. It is, however, wanting in all the Polyglott Bibles; and we know it only by the Pentateuch, and the New Testament, which have been published at Oxford", by Dr. Wilkins. The existence of this version, alone, is sufficient to render the study of the Coptic language interesting; and therefore the lovers of oriental learning received with pleasure the Dictionary and Grammar of that language, that have been lately published at Oxford, and which have not, and, indeed, could not well escape the notice of the illustrious Ecclesiastic (RAPH'ÀĘL Tuki), to whom the public is indebted for the Coptic Grammar we here announce. This Grammar was publihed in the Both year of the Author's age : we find at the end of it, 'some short' remarks on the Memphitic and Thebaidić dialects, into which the Egyptian language is divided, of which the former was spoken in the lower, and the latter in the higher Egypt. The whole is published in two languages; in Latin for the use of the Europeans, and in Arabic for that of the Egyptians, among whom the Coptic is fallen into disuse, since the invasion of the Saracens. The examples employed in this Grammar are taken from the versions of the Old and New Testament in the two dialects, and they are generally followed by the corresponding passages in the Arabic, Latiñ, and Greek versions. ;*

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