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To conclude, we consider this as a most useful performance, and hope the author will be rewarded for the pains he has taken to promote the benefit of his native country. Art, V. ISAACI NEWTONI Opera Que Exflant Omnia. Com
mentariis illuftrabat Samuel Horley, LL. D. R. S. S. &c. 410.
5 l. 5 s. Subscription for the whole set. Nichols, Conant, &c. A Ś this publication is only the first volume of an intended A complete edition of Sir Isaac Newton's work, in five volumes, illustrated with a commentary by the Editor ;, we think it sufficient for the present to enumerate the contents of it, and to specify the order in which the Editor has thought proper to arrange the different pieces; which, notwithstanding their value and importance, had never yet been collected together. The work is, with propriety, dedicated tɔ the King,
The present volume is divided into two parts. According to the learned Editor's proposals, all the tracts of Newton which relate to pure Mathematics, were intended to be first given. In conformity to this plan, the Arithmetica Universalis forms the first part of this volunie. This tract is accompanied . with very few notes; for which circumstance the Editor accounts, by informing us that he had di ested his principal explanatory comments (comprehended in nineteen chapters, the titles of which are here given) into a separate article, which he originally intended to have added as an appendix to this tract: but the great bulk of the present volume not allowing of its insertion, it is omitted. The Editor hints, however, that it may appear hereafter, either in one of the subsequent volumes, or in a separate publication.
The second part comprehends those valuable tracts that relate to the higher geometry ; particularly to the doctrines of series, and Auxions. The first of these pieces is the section on Prime and Ultimate Ratios, which the Editor has thought fit to detach from the beginning of the Principia, as being a proper introduction to the doctrine of fluxions contained in the succeeding pieces. This is followed by the tract intitled, Di Analysi per Æquationes numero terminorum infinitas; which is succeeded by the Excerpta ex Epiftolis Newtoni, formerly published by Jones at the end of the last mentioned tract; but which are here placed in a somewhat different order. The picce De Quadratura Curvarum, and the Geometria Analytica, next succeed ; and are followed by the Methodus Differentialis, and the Enumeratio linearum tertii Ordinis, which is the last of Newton's tracts contained in this volume.
The manner in which our Editor and Commentator has fulfilled his task in these two capacities, with respect to these opuscula, will be most concisely exhibited by giving his own
general account of the undertaking, contained in the following passage. ' Nimirum tam gravis argumenti tractationem univerfam in ordinem redegimus ; etiam difcendi fubfidia ubique comparavimus; pretermissa exprimendo ; explicando ea quæ angulie ponebantur, & ubique commonendo leftorem, quo intuens, a verá Newtoni fententia minus aberret. - Eo dinique confilio omnia concinnavimus, ut in posierum nusquam aliás confugiant, qui sublimioris geometriæ elementa penitus complecti fecum ftatuerint.'
At the end of the volume Dr. Horsley has subjoined two pieces written by himself. The first is a short paper, under the title of Logistica Infinitorum, containing formula adapted to facilitate the computation, and particularly the multiplication and division, of series. The other, intitled De Geometria Fluxionum, is intended as an addition to Newton's Tract on prime and ultimate Ratios. Having thus paved the way for the Principia, the Editor proposes next to attend to that immortal work.
ART. VI. A Treatise on the Malignant Aegina, or putrid and ulcerous
Sore Throat; to which are added Jome Remarks on the Angina
1 lished five years ago at Edinburgh, as a Thesis ; and was favourably received. It exhibits a well digested historical and systematical, as well as practical, view of the disease of which it treats. In discussing the method of cure, the Author very juftly reprobates evacuations, and particularly bleeding, which had been much used by the ancients, and recommended by every writer on the subject, till the publication of Dr. Fothergill's ingenious treatise. He takes notice of Huxham's perni. cious concession in favour of this evacuation, as well as of Dr. Ruffel's approbation of this injurious practice; the evil tendency of which the Author had had particular occasion to obe serve ; having been born in a situation where, from the very great frequency of the disease, it was known in the neighbouring country, by the name of the Kidderminster fore-throat.
So long as the prepoffeffion in favour of bleeding prevailed there, it was one of the most fatal of diseases ; but since the lancet has been laid aside, and the antiseptic method only depended upon, it has proved one of the most certain and easy to be cured.'
The Author takes notice likewise of the bad effects resulting from the exhibition of Emetic tartar, and James's powder, in this disease; which some practitioners had been induced to adminifter, on account of the advantages derived from the use of
antimonials antimonials in other fevers. "The consequences,' he observes were generally very bad ; large evacuations by stool commonly followed their use, to the certain destruction of some, and the
to the certain acuations by stool" observes,
great injury of or
The bark is the remedy which is most to be depended upon in this as well as in other putrid and malignant diseases. Its efficacy in this disease,' says the Author, has surpassed the healing powers experienced from it in every other instance. Those who have tried it most in this complaint best know how absolutely it subdues the disease, which is more certainly cured by the early application of this remedy than any disease of equal consequence by any means whatever. This is the language of all those physicians who have, from long experience, had the best opportunities of learning the true nature of the disorder, and observing the good effects of the bark; a medicine upon which great dependance has for many years been placed in this country.' In Thort, the Author observes that, in his neighbourhood, where the malignity of the disease had indeed beeri much abated for some years past, the management of it was become so familiar in many places, that the good women them. selves cured it by means of the bark and antiseptic steams.
On the whole, this treatise contains a very judicious and well digested account of the disease; both as described by precoding writers, and as observed by the Author himself. The principal purpose of it, to use the Author's own words, 'is to record the disease as it has appeared in this country (Worcester), and to recommend to the public a method of treatment which has long been successful, and is now adopted by all the physicians in this city and county."
Some observations are added on the putrid or malignant Angina Trachealis, as distinguished from the infiammatory and spasmodic kinds. Here too he has collected into one view the accounts given of this disease by preceding writers, under the different titles of the Croup, Acute Asthma, Hives, &c.; and briefly lays down the method of cure.
Art. VII. Guardian of Health. Vol. I. In Three Parts. 1. A
Description of the Human Body, Anatomical and Phyfiological. 2. Of the Animal @conomy, &c. 3. Of Regimen, Diet, and Rules of preserving Health. By N. D. Falck, M. Đ. izmo. 3 s. bound. Law. *778. T HIS Writer has pretty frequently fallen under our obT servation, on a variety of topics. Ar present, we know not whether we might not content ourselves with fuffering him to be his oron Reviewer, by transcribing the last paragraph of his preface, and leaving the reader to forin his own judgment.-Ex pede Herculan.
It is not my place to set forth the merit of this little work; the benefit which it promises to society must be determined by the philanthropic, the judicious, the true sons of Æsculapius To them I appeal; they will, I know, view it with an eye of candour, and amend iis defects with kindness-I plead my best endeavours to fulfil the important duties of my life.'
If we may be allowed to assume these flattering titles and attributes to ourselves, we fear that, with all our philanthropy, judgment, medical knowledge, candour, and even kindness, we cannot, with any degree of justice, fulfil the important duties of cur critical office, by recommending these sheets to the public, as well adapted to answer the Author's avowed design in this publication. This is nothing less than the preventing those 'unspeakable mischiefs in the community,' which arise, according to him, from mankind's remaining unacquainted with the wonderful fabric of the human structure, and continuing ignorant of the rationale on which depend the principles of preservation of health :-in short, 5 the awakening mankind from this lethargy, and the inviting their attention to a subject so immediately concerning their welfare.'
In a work written to inform the rational mind' on this undoubtedly interesting subject, plainness, and perspicuity of diction, are essential requisites. But what information, to give only one example, can a common reader, or indeed any reader, receive from the Author's chapter on constitutions ? -The cho. Jeric temperament for instance:
- The choleric exceeds the sanguineous temperament in irritability and sensibility; to which is added a tenseness and rigidity of the solids : and hence the blood lessens, and becomes rich to excess. The circulation is full, hard, and quick; and the arteries upon an equilibrium with the veins: bence che fyftem hot, the perceptions and pallions strong, quick, and constant; a love of pleasure prevails, but with a proneness to vice, satire, and the irascible passions.
We take no pleasure in pointing out • defects;' and we hope we fufficiently conform to the Author's intimation to us, above quoted, to amend them with kindness,' when we content ourselves with quoting, and only lightly animadverting on the new advices with which he furnithes his physiological Catechumen, on the subject of Vifon.
Speaking of the eye, he tells him— It is the general received opinion, from the do&trine of Sir Ijaac Newton, that objects are inverted in the representation on the retina of the eye: this is, I presume, an error which, I hope, in another work, to prove in a full and fatistactory manner.'
Dr. Falck has, however, been anticipated in this curious spinion by a former luckless inquirer on this subject, whom ous
of tenderness we shall not name; as we hope we have long ago convinced him of his error.–With respcet indeed to medical opinions and fashions—" Nous avons changé tout cela” (as the Doctor in Moliere says) may pass very well for a reason : but the rays of light, we apprehend, have kept a constant courte ever since light was created, and are not readily to be joftied out of it by Dr. Falck. Out of pure philanthropy,' therefore, we advise him to allow what he is pleased to call the doctrine of Sir Isaac Newton' to remain undisturbed; and to suffer the rays of light to follow their long accustomed habits of turning the species of objects topsy turvy, in passing through the eye, and other dense media terminated by convex surfaces. This is the second time that Dr. Falck has thus threatened to subvert the first and plainest principles of optics. We expoftulated with him before on this very subject (Vol li. August 1774, page 160.); but, as it now appears, without effect.
ART. VIII. Materialism philosophically examined, or the Immateriality
of the Soul aliriid and proved on philosophical Principles; in Answer to Dr. Priejiley's Disquisitions on Matter and Spirit. By John White, head, Author of an Essay on Liberty and Neceflity. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Boards. Phillips. 1778. THOUGH Mr. Whitehead was, we believe, one of the
I first among those who undertook to refute the doctrines contained in Priestley's Disquisitions, particularly with respect to the nature of matter, and of the sentient principle in man; his performance has, through accident, remained hitherto unnoticed by us. He not only considers that work as containing doctrines • subversive of our common faith, and destructive of future happiness;' but he plainly enough, we know not on what grounds, infinuates that the Author was not altogecher unapprised of the destructive and fatal consequences that result, or may be drawn from them. He charges him too with 'indirectly bespattering the sacred penmen with dirt ;' intimates a suspicion that he owes them no very good will;' and declares that he should not wonder to hear this learned Gentleman, armed cap-a-pee with logic and philosophy, represent his Lord and Saviour as a greater deceiver than Mahomet.
These and other similar passages, as well as some gross mistakes of Dr. Priestley's meaning, have been very properly noticed by him, in a letter addressed to the present Author, and printed in the volume containing Dr. Priestley's Correspondence with Dr. Price.- Verily these charges and infinuations are by no means agreeable to the genius of that religion which this Examinant undertakes to defend; or with the meek spirit of that particular religious community to which, from the style used in his dedication, he appears to belong.- Into his argumentation we shall not undertake to enter, for various reasons.