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theories.'-See the preface to the third edition of his Treatise on the Scurvy. .
We cannot avoid stopping to express our surprize at such an observation as the foregoing, proceeding from so intelligent a practitioner. An attachment indeed to delusive theories is certainly not to be defended : But how is the art of physic to be improved, or new methods of curing diseases to be discovered ? Surely not by merely exhibiting untijed substances at Fandom; or without some preconceived hypothesis ; or, in other words, without reasoning on the sensible and more obvious qualities of bodies, or those other properties discoverable by the aid of chemistry, and applying that knowledge to the economy of the human system,
With respect to Dr. Macbride's application of the doctrine. of fixed air to the cure of the sea scurvy, Dr. Lind's observation is still further particularly exceptionable: as the efficacy of the wort in the cure, or in the mitigation of the symptoms, of that disease was not then a subject of mere speculation ; but had been rendered very probable by the results of the trials that had even then been made of it. In fact, the practical tanner might with equal justice authoritatively pronounce on the improbability of improving the tanning art' from a preconceived hypothesis,' or by speculative men in the closet;' and yet, as we lately had an opportunity to thew *, Dr. Macbride has in, yented not merely a speculative but a practical improvement in a branch of that art, in consequence of speculations of a similar kind to the present.
In a matter of such great importance to the Public, we have thought proper to bear our testimony against this unedifying and disheartening observation of Dr. Lind's; which tends, as far as mere authority can go, to discourage all designed improvements in the art of medicine, though founded on the justest reasonings, or deduced from the most plausible analogy: and which would induce us to rest with our arms folded, and our eyes inut, content with our present inadequate resources; till Dame Fortune, in one of her liberal moods, shall condescend, in her own good time, to throw a remedy unexpectedly at our feet. · Soon after we had written the foregoing remarks, a paper contained in the volume of the Philosophical Transactions juft published, fell under our observation : and though the speaking of it in this place may seem premature, the contents of it are fo yery apposite to the present subject, what we cannot avoid anticipating, in part, our Review of that Article, by giving one quotation from it peculiarly applicable to the present question. Dr. Lind will there see that the “ speculative men in the clo
See our Review for June lait, p. 419..
set,” who have Aattered themselves with the hopes of their having discovered a remedy for the scurvy, have now the satisfac.. tion-we lament that Dr. Macbride is not in a situation to
Din Mac bride is not in ae fituar partake of it-of finding that a whole nation have anticipated them in the discovery; and that Nature has dictated to the natives of Russia the use of that very antiseptic regimen againit this disease, to which our modern philosophers have been led, in consequence of their speculations on fixed air.
Dr. Guthrie of Petersburg, the Author of the Article abovementioned, after enumerating the many pre-difponent causes which tend to produce the scurvy, and other putrid diseases, in Ruffia, observes that the natives are nevertheless strangers to disorders of that kind; evidently in consequence of the antiseptic diēt used among them. He thinks that it will be doing service to mankind to describe this falutary and preservative regimen minutely; and introduces his description of it with the following reflections :
" It will probably give pleasure to thofe gentlemen, who have prescribed the new regimen to the British navy with so much success, to have the evidence of some millions to prove that they have actually hit upon the very secret by which Nature defends her creatures, in those countries where it is necessary, from the very disease which has been the scourge of the nobleft naval establishinent that ever the world saw. Nay, one would think that the diet these people use had been dictated by modern philosophy; or rather that your President,” [Sir John Pringle, we suppose] “ your Macbrides, &c. had studied at this school; for almost every thing they use seems to be of that kind which the fortunate attention to the antiseptic qualities of fixed air has recommended for medical use. Here the experimental philosopher may be indulged in a triumph; and I really think your Lords of the Admiralty ought, in gratitude, to erect ftatues to che industrious and successful prosecutors of that noble and useful study."
After giving some experiments on the effects of fixed air on the putrefactive process, and on the putrid effluvium; the Author treats of its use in cachexies and phagedenic ulcers. In confirmed cancers, he has not observed any lensible ben fit produced by it, except a mitigation of the pain ; but in old, spreading, ill conditioned ulcers, it has, in many instances, relieved the pain, brought on a more favourable digestion, and much improved the appearance of the ulcers ; and in some it has effected a complete cure. He relates four cases likewise of its having removed fome diseases of the stomach, when given in the form of effervefcing draughts,
Treating next of the fedative and solvent powers of fixed air in cales of the stone, the Author obferves, that " they are so
far ascertained, as to give it a claim to the particular attention of the faculty. Further experience can alone determine, whether by the steady and long continued use of this medicine, a cure may not, in some instances, be happily effected : and it is no inconsiderable recommendation, that the medicine is pleasant, safe, and even friendly to the conititution; and that it will relieve the painful symptoms, though it should not produce a complete solution of the calculus.—The following method of administering it he apprehends to be the most easy and powerful:
• Let the patient take three times a day an ounce of the aqua mephitica alkalina, containing one scruple of alcaline salt, saturated with fixed air according to the directions of Mr. Bewly *, and sweetened with a little honey: let him wash this down with half an ounce or a large spoonful of lemon-juice, made into lemonade. The patient thus takes not only the common proportion of fixed air contained in the alcaline salt, but likewise that which has been superadded to saturate or neutralize it. The common drink of the patient should be mephitic water, wort sweetened with honey, provided it fits easy and agrees with the stomach, mead, or sound malt liquor. Calk ale, I think, is preferable to that which is kept in bottles, on this account, that the fixed air is in a more quiescent ftate, is not lost in eructations from the primæ viæ, and is consequently conveyed in a larger proportion to the kidneys and bladder. Honey may be eaten at pleasure, as perfectly coinciding with the intentions of the medicine ; and where it suits the constitution, may be used to the quantity of a pound, or a pound and a quarter every week, as recommended by Sir John Pringle.
. By this method, the urine will be well impregnated with a constant and copious supply of fixed air ; more so indeed than by immediately injecting the mephitic water into the bladder. Before the patient begins his course, it is a good precaution to examine the stony sediment of the urine, or any calculous frage ments which are passed, by putting them to the test of fixed air. This will determine, as Dr. Ambrose Dawson judiciously observes, whether the calculus is of such a nature, as to be los luble in the medicine which is proposed.' The Author adds that, as some calculi abound so much with mucus, as to elude the action of fixed air, their solution may be facilitated by ex. hibiting the caustic alcali and fixed air alternately, as recome mended by Dr. Saunders,
Towards the end of the work, the Author gives a camparative view of the disposition to generate the stone, in several parts of this kingdom. His eftimate is formed on the answers received by him to his inquiries, with respect to the number of
• Priestley on the Air, vol. ii, p. 346.
patients patients who had been cut for the stone, in the various hospitals to which he applied on this occafion; compared with the whole number of in and out patients that had been received at each hospital : regard being likewise had to peculiarities in the food, drink, or situation of the inhabitants of the respective. districts. But for the particular results of this inquiry we must refer to the work itself; which we recommend to the attention of practitioners, as containing a plain narrative of philosophical and medical facts, related with candour, and without prepole feffion.
ART. IV. The Antiquarian Repertory. 2 Vols. 4to. Concluded. IN the former Articles concerning this work (vid. Reviews
for April and fuly) we mentioned two descriptions of Enga land given by Frenchmen, who wrote near the times of Queen Mary and Charles the First; we are now presented with another description of later date; it is a translation of the travels of Monsieur Jorevin de Rocheford, or at least that part of his work which treats of England and Ireland. His observations were made in the reign of Charles the Second, and his book, which was printed at Paris in 1672, (in three vols. 12mo.) is said to be now extremely scarce. Had it utterly perilhed, some readers perhaps will think there would have been no great cause to lament the loss. The performance, however, is curious, as the journal of a foreigner who traversed our country upwards of a century ago, but who had not so far conquered his national prejudices as to be able to make just observations on our cus. toms and manners. The translator rightly observes that his abstract of our national history is false and ridiculous; but that his descriptions of places, buildings, &c. feem to have been accurate, as they still retain striking likenesses of the respective subjects, notwithstanding the alterations which must necessarily have happened in the space of above an hundred years.-On the whole, this narrative, with all its faults, is not unentertaining. It consists of several numbers, inserted in different parts of the volume.
An extract from a curious and authentic manuscript, a copy of which is in the posseffion of Thomas Astle, Esq; furnishes an instance of the rude manners of our country in ancient times.
This manuscript contains, among other things, the private expences of King Edward the Second, wherein it appears that cross and pile, or coffing up heads and tails (as it is now called) was a royal diversion. The following translation from the old French may afford some amusement : '. Item, paid to the King himself to play at cross and pile by the hands of Richard de Mereworth the receiver of the treafury, 12 pence,
. • Item,
Item, paid there to Henry the King's barber for money which he lent to the King to playo at cross and pile, 5s.
• Item, paid there to Peres Barnard ulher of the King's chamber money which he lent to the King, and which he lost at cross and pile to Monsieur Robert Wattewylle, eight pence.
• Item, paid to the King himself to play at cross and pile by Peres Barnard two shillings, which the said Peres won of him. Item, paid to Sir William de Kyngeston, for cabbage which he bought to make pottage in the boat.
Item, paid at the lodge at Wolmer when the King was ftaghunting there, to Morris Ken of the kitchen, because he rode there before the King, and often fell from his horse, at which the King laughed exceedingly; a gift by command, 20s.'
A dillertation concerning an ancient manuscript, in the Cornish language, will, no doubt, prove acceptable to moft antiquaries. The manuscript itself appears to be of great antiquity, and the observations on it seem to be made by a person well acquainted with his subject. The manuscript treats of our Saviour's passion. As to the language of it,' remarks this Writer, it is such as the common speakers of the Cornih now uled here do not understand, nor any but such as will be at the pains to study it, no more than the common speakers of the vulgar Greek do at this day Homer's Iliad. . So the Lord's Prayer, in the year 700, was thus in English : Vren fader thic arth, &c. In goo, Thu ure fader the eart on heofenum.
As to the antiquity thereof, we observe the name of our Saviour is all along written iH, after the old form used in crucifixes, and then also the name written Chreft, not Chrift. So we find it written in Tacitus, Suetonius, and in some other Roman authors. So Chriftians were called Chrestians, as Ter. tuliian observes, Apol. c. 3. and so the vulgar in Cornilh speak it Chrest, and nit Chrift.
• In this old piece are no words anciently intermixt of the Saxon tongue or Angles, which shews, in all probability, that it was written before their time at least, if not much farther off ; whereas the common speech of it now carries much of those latter figures, to the disfiguring of the face thereof.'
We are informed by a note at the end of this dissertation, that it was written by — Scawen, Esq; Vice-warden of the Stannaries, and was communicated by Mr. Thomas Aftle; but we are not toid how long it is fince it was first composed.
The true lovers of antiquity cannot see or hear of the demoJition of very ancient monuments and buildings without some segret; to tuch perfons no doubt it yields a kind of pleasure, as we acknowledge it dues to us, that Alnwick Castle, the great Baronial seat of the Earls of Northumberland, which was fallen to decay, has been within these twenty years moft nobly ie,