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From The Pall Mall Gazette.

FRANCE.

frontier, which her armies have repeatedly some kind a history which has an intercrossed, and which is held by States ini- est, especially when spelled out on the perfectly under our control; and it prom- spot, among the monuinents of the spot. ises to occupy the grave attention of the Each city bad its bishops; most of them Indian government for some years to had counts or other lords. And the docome, — in fact, until a satisfactory set- ings of those bishops and counts are tlement, a modus vivendi, has been dis- pleasant to study, at all events under the covered between ourselves and the Chi- shadow of their own churches and castles.

This arrangement of the difficulty There were municipalities also, and there between Russia and China in favor of the is a certain satisfaction in an age of molatter appears, therefore, to be the intro- notonous prefects and mayors, when one duction of a more difficult and complicated finds for oneself, from some epitaph or controversy between England and China. other inscription, that the magistrates of

one town were consuls, those of another échevins, those of a third capitouls. A few days' examination of this kind will not of course put the traveller on a level

with the local antiquary in point of local ANTIQUARIAN TRAVELLING IN CENTRAL information. But such an examination

carried on in several places will perhaps To those whose tastes lead them that open to the inquirer in each place some way there is a certain special interest things which the local antiquary fails to in a ramble through_the smaller and see. He will actually know far less of less famous cities of France. There is each place than the man who has given doubtless an equal interest in doing the his life to the study of that place ; but he like through the cities of Germany or will be better able than the man who has Italy; but the interest differs somewhat studied one place only, to compare one in its nature in the three countries. We city with another, and to mark at a glance are speaking now in all three lands of the what is most truly characteristic of each. lesser cities, those which do not rank, We have specially in our eyes, on the and which never did rank, among the strength of a recent visit, a group of cities, great historic cities of Europe. Their chiefly but not all, coming within the disexamination carries with it something of trict known as the Morvan. This natural the pleasure of discovery. The traveller district does not seem exactly to coincide is not likely to take with him any very either with any old principality or with minute knowledge of the local history: any modern department. Part lies in He makes it out largely on the spot, with Yonne, part in Saône and Loire; along such help from books and men as he can with part of the undoubted duchy of find on the spot, in the presence of the Burgundy, it takes in some of the border existing, monuments which the course of counties of France, Burgundy, and Aquithe local history has left. He goes away, taine. In some parts, as about Autun, having as it were formed a new friendship. the scenery is bold and hilly — almost He has become possessed of a new inter mountainous. And of its hills one is est; he seems to have acquired a kind of crowned with the immemorial native fortproperty in the place; every mention of it ress of Bibracte; and another with its which he afterwards comes across speaks Roman successor at Augustodunum. The to him with a life and meaning which it inhabitants are spoken of as a hardy and had not before. No man could venture vigorous race a race which may be to assert this kind of personal claim in recommended to the study of economists, any of the great cities of Europe; in as something very like village communiRome old or new, in Athens or Venice or ties is said to have prevailed among Florence, in Cologne, hardly in Rheims them till quite modern times. But it is or Rouen. Such cities can belong to him with the cities that the historical inquirer only as they belong to countless others. has mainly to deal. And it is greatly to But a smaller city, known perhaps before his comfort that most of them lie out of by name and little more, when it has once beaten tracks. They keep their nationbeen examined in this way, becomes a ality; they have not become cosmopolitan. kind of possession. The central French The traveller is not lodged in buildings cities have special opportunities in this which are at once palaces and caravanseway. Every one has a history; few have, rais, where every place inside and out is what so many Italian cities have, a Euro- swarming with his own countrymen, and pean history; but all have a history of where he has hardly the chance, even if he tries, of speaking and hearing any | how a naked child appeared and said that, language but his own. The land is not if the king would clothe him, he would spoiled by tourists. The traveller must save him from the boar. The king prombe content to speak and hear only the ises; the child mounts the boar and guides language of the country, and to live in him by his tusks to die by the king's hands. many respects as the natives of the coun. The clothing is explained by the Bishop try live. "And in the chief cities at least, of Nevers to mean the complete rebuildthat is not a life to be despised. He willing of his church in which Saint Cyrus be very comfortably housed and fed in already had a small chapel. And if we hôtels which may claim to keep their his. take with us no very clear idea of the torical circumflex, as with them the word later countesses and duchesses of Nevers, is not the sign of modern English gran- we shall at least carry away an idea of one deur or affectation, but is simply the nat. of them when we read how she wrought ural French for the natural English inn. for the church of Nevers a piece of tapThere he will find himself, not an imper- estry representing the martyrdom of the sonal No. 497, but a human creature, two patron saints, and how, on receiving placed in a personal human relation to some offence from certain of the canons, the landlord or the landlady: A good she brought in their likenesses in the deal of this is common to all those lands persons of the heathen torturers of Cyrus which the traveller finds civilized enough and Julitta. A higher interest attaches and not too civilized; but it is certain to the process of tracing out the essential that no one anywhere else understands differences between the cities themselves. the art of keeping an inn as a French- Here, where every city is a Roman cheswoman does. It is in itself not unpleas. ter, it is instructive to mark the exact ant to spend several days in one of these amount of influence which the Roman cities, to go in and out, to con over its lines have had upon the modern town. monuments leisurely, and to have no deal. We see Sens — not in Morvan, but on ings with any one but those on the spot the road to it — still, as far as the city who may be able to give help.

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itself goes, bounded by its Roman enThese mid-French cities again, for the closure. We see Auxerre and Nevers, pleasures of discovery at least, have some where the Roman enclosure is lost in the advantages over places both to the north greater extent of the mediæval and mod. and to the south of them. It is in some ern city. We see Autun, once the vast sort a gain that they have less to do with Augustodunum, which has shrunk up, like the general history of later times, that in Rome itself, and which has girded itself some cases their main historical interest with a later wall far within the limits of belongs to the days of Cæsar. There is the ancient one, leaving the great monu. more to find out; we are brought among ments of Roman times to be looked for newer things and persons, and this proc- among straggling suburbs. We have the ess has its interest also as well as the hill cities, the river cities, the cities which process which we may call that of recog- hold a kind of intermediate place between nizing old friends. At some points again the two. The field is a wide and an attracwe find ourselves distinctly in a border tive one. district; we see how men did and spoke and built in lands which were not exactly French and not exactly Aquitanian, but which show signs of influence from both sides. We light on unfamiliar names and stories. We ask for instance why the cathedral of Nevers should be dedicated

WHEN in his graceful little “ Ballades to Saint Cyrus, and why Saint Cyrus in Blue China” Mr. Lang makes his should appear in the sculptures of the church and in the arms of its chapter, as however humble and however dingy, in

book-hunter” search every bookstall, a naked child riding on a pig: An effort quest of “ Aldines, Bodonis, Elzevirs," of memory may or may not call up the be can hardly be thinking of a wary book. remembrance of the infant martyr Cyrus hunter of to-day. It is not that or Cyricus and his mother Julitta. But it will at least be news to hear how a King

the fabled treasure flees; Charles whether Charles the Great or

Grown rarer with the fleeting years, Charles the Bold seems uncertain

In rich men's shelves they take their ease –

Aldines, Bodonis, Elzevirs, dreamed that he was in hunting, that he was in grievous danger from a wild boar, but that they are not esteemed the treas.

66

ure that once they were. Fashion in of language about him which is delightbooks, like fashion in everything else, is ful; he certainly had aspiring hopes of always changing, and to-day it is running doing the world good; he expresses himon French books with illustrations by self about his labors adjuvante Jesu Eisen, Moreau, and Gravelot. For a long Christo; and he is a specimen of mental time past the inarket for Aldines has been freedom glorious to the republic which dull indeed, and, though one or two of the nurtured him.”. This collection of Mr. very rarest will always command a price, Toovey's seems to want the editio printhe ordinary Aldine has been sadly neg. ceps of Aristotle, and probably some othlected. And yet there are some signs that ers, but it is wonderfully complete, and Aldines may once again rise in favor and among other treasures it contains the rare in value, and the catalogue which Mr. Lascaris, the first book that Aldus ever Toovey of Piccadilly lately gave to the printed, in 1494-5. And from the date of world is, in its way, remarkable enough. this Lascaris, the great firm went on and It is a catalogue of “an extensive and ex- fourished for over a hundred years, when traordinary assemblage of the productions Alde le Jeune (as Renouard, the historian of the Aldine Press." The collection is of the Aldi, calls him) died at Rome in said to be in the finest condition — large 1597. paper and original bindings — and con- Nothing is better remembered about tains many Aldines that are believed to be this Venetian family of printers than their unique. The entire collection is valued celebrated device, the anchor and the dolat the modest sum of £4,000.

phin, which appears in all, or nearly all, Certainly a collection of Aldines, for their books. It is said that a medal of which £4,000 is asked, seems to bring Vespasian's with an anchor round which a one back to the good old times; and, in dolphin has entwined was once given to spite of what fashion may think or say, the old Aldus, and that he took the idea what a fascination there is about many of from this as expressive at once of swiftthe Aldines! The text of the editions of ness and solidity. Nothing could have the old classics is often good, but this is been more appropriate, nor anything of the least merit in the book-collector's the sort more graceful. Years after, it eyes. He can get good texts elsewhere; became well known and popular, and imi. but the type is so delightful, and, above tators fraudulently made use of the Aldine all, there is the feeling that in many mark; but the dolphin's tail was turned cases it is an editio princeps, the first the wrong side, or some other slight error printed edition of one of the great classics, would betray the deceit. I have myself that lies before you. Henceforth the la. three other Aldines. One is the Catullus, borious copying of the monks may cease. Tibullus, and Propertius of 1515 — a Aldus has printed and sent out broadcast charming little duodecimo in red morocco. into the world Aristotle, Demosthenes, It has the autograph “ Falkland” on the Herodotus, Euripides, Plato, Thucydides, title-page, but the date is unluckily and many more. This copy of Plato – 1737;” if only it had been a hundred the editió princeps - which lies before me years earlier ! Another is a Plautus, 4to ; was once in the British Museum, and was this is not so valuable as many other Alsold out as a duplicate in 1804. It is a dines, but the original old binding and its folio of 15!3, bound in old red morocco, gold embossed edges make it externally with gilt edges. It has once belonged to the most interesting of any I possess. Charles II., and his crown and double Lastly - and anything less inviting in its cypher is stamped at every corner. It is old parchment binding it is difficult to full of contractions, and is therefore so conceive — I have a copy of the Ovid of difficult to read that it is not very wonder- 1516; or rather of two volumes of it bound ful that it should be in good preservation. in one, but the volume of the Amores." In any case one may doubt whether is wanting. A perfect copy of this Ovid Charles II. ever studied it very deeply. is one of the much-prized Aldines; but I

And there is a further interest in the console myself by believing that my inprefaces to these first editions. As is perfect copy has still its special interest, well known, Mr. Beriah Botfield printed for it once belonged to Cardinal Bembo, them some years ago, and, in a paper and that respected lover of Lucretia Borwhich he contributed to the first volume gia (perhaps she got possession of the of the Miscellanies of the Philobiblon So- missing volume) has filled up all the marciety, he writes: “Old Aldus's dedications gins with his inanuscript notes and emenare worth all the rest; there is a high, dations. noble feeling, a self-respect and simplicity If Aldines are not at present held in the

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From The Pall Mall Gazette.

same high honor as of old, yet once a year | vate the fruits of the earth and to provide at least in England the great printer's her children with common food. Had the memory is recalled. It is at the annual Peruvians devoted only a quarter of the dinner of the most celebrated' of English money they spent in making the Lima book-clubs — the Roxburghe. The din. and Oroya Railway to saving the water of ner, which takes place in the July of every the Piura and directing its course, they year, is almost as eminent as the club; need not have come to the dreadful pass and there, after honor has been duly done in which they now find themselves. to the “immortal memory of John, Duke The recent battles of Lurin, Chorillos, of Roxburghe,” and to“ Valdarfer, printer and Miraflores supply the most convinc. of the . Decameron' of 1471,” to Gutem- ing proof that Peru has met with the berg, and to Fust, and to the great En- precise punishment her incapacity and glish printers, then follows the toast of dishonesty deserved. She pitched her “The Aldine family at Venice.”

own battle-field, and not even Balaklava A BOOK-COLLECTOR. exceeded it in the opportunities it afforded

for all the purposes of a decisive struggle. Mounds and ditches, stretching plains, escarpment of sheltering hills, even sturdy groves of wild olive, and vast ruins of an. cient days were in her favor and ready to

her hand; but her principal force was THE FALL OF LIMA.

made up of a people whom she had de. Few people have ever doubted the graded to a truly brutal level. That the issue of the prolonged conflict which is storm of battle, so far as we gather, was now probably brought to an end. There not permitted to break over the densely is no doubt that the government of Peru peopled city of Lima makes the task of for some time past has been in the hands the invading enemy somewhat light and of incompetent, dissolute men, under easy. It is to be hoped that there will be whose guidance the whole country has no sack of the Peruvian capital. All the been gradually falling to pieces. "Peru, rich English merchants who made coloslike Chili, bad abundance of wealth at sal fortunes out of guano have long ago her command: copper is plentifully dis- retired, carrying their gains with them. tributed along her seacoast, she has There

monkeries, with abundance of gold and silver; but she hoarded bullion to plunder; and it is has never acquired any knowledge to doubtful whether the churches contain enable her to make the most of these much available treasure. natural gifts. In agriculture she could This is the second time within a period have rivalled the world, and yet she was of little more than half a century that the content to be fed by her neighbors. She Chilians have been masters of Lima. has the finest of wool-producing animals The first was to deliver it from the corin the alpaca and vicuna, but has al- rupt sway of the mother country; this ways been dependent upon foreigners may put an end to an equally corrupt for her blankets. Her fields of perennial régime of indigenous growth ; for Peru is cotton of the longest and best staple are a land that only needs the establishment unlimited, but she has never turned it to of the common means for keeping order any practical use. So foolish, ignorant, to ensure its being fruitful and happy: and arrogant has she been, that she has How far this conquest on the part of Chili delighted her heart in building costly rail- may have the effect of making her equal ways that are not of the slightest practi- to still greater conquests remains to be cal utility, and war-ships that she could seen, and her movements will be watched neither man nor sail, while she has neg. with an interest that has never been exlected with contempt such lowly but cited by any recent campaign on the necessary duties as storing water to culti- western coast of South America.

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Fifth Series, Volame XXXIII.

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No. 1916.- March 5, 1881.

From Beginning,
Vol. OXLVIII.

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CONTENTS. I. THE UNITY OF NATURE. By the Duke of Argyll. Part VI.,

Contemporary Review, . II. Don John. Part IV.,

By Jean Ingelow, III. VILLAGE LIFE OF GEORGE ELIOT,

Fraser's Magazine, IV. NOTES ON • ENDYMION.” By Lord Houghton,

Fortnightly Review, V. THE FRERES. By Mrs. Alexander, author of "The Woning O't.” Part III.,

Temple Bar, VI. MR. FRANK BUCKLAND,

Macmillan's Magazine, VII. CURLING,

Pall Mall Gazette,

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POETRY. ET TU IN ARCADIA VIxisti,

578, “At DAWN HE MARKS THE SMOKE “The Cow Low'd Sadly O'ER THE

AMONG THE TREES,”
DISTANT GATE..

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