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erary interest to the best of Milton's previous | Magistrates.”. He gives the royal procpamphlets. It is, however, a strong, thoroughly lamation for the seizing and burning “ by Miltonic performance, falling with hammer. the hand of the common hangman like force on the question discussed ; and it tain books by John Milton and John must have been welcomed by the founders of Goodwin, and points out that, while the the Commonwealth in their first hour of diffi.

Defensio" and the “Eikonoclastes * culty (vol. iv., p. 64).

are mentioned, no mention is made of May we not call Milton the prophet of the “Tenure” (vol. vi., p. 181).

" Had a the nation at this critical hour, as he had few passages from that book been read been when prelaty was under judgment, [in the Commons), or even only its full and was to be, though fruitlessly, on the title, with recollection of the date of pubeve of the Restoration? As from the lication, the end might have been that mouths of Hebrew prophets, so from Milton, as well as Peters, would have Milton's, some axioms of truth or deep been fung among the totally excepted moral principles break forth every now Regicides” (p. 178). and then in the midst of argument and The whole of Masson's narrative conrebuke. Among the opening words of cerning the doings of the committees and the “Tenure," he says finely, “Indeed, of both Houses in the matter of the In. none can love freedom heartily but good demnity Bill, including Prynne's malicious men; and, near its close, he turns upon efforts to effect Milton's destruction, has the Presbyterians and rebukes the As- quite a breathless interest. We can do sembly with the words, “Let them be no more than refer to it, and commend it sorry that, being called to assemble about to our readers as a narrative of a critical reforming the Church, they fell to prog- episode hitherto but imperfectly known ging and soliciting the Parliament, though in connection with Milton's personal his. they had renounced the name of priests, tory. Had Milton been only a regicide, for a new settling of their tithes and obla- he might have shared the fate of Peters tions." He saw wherein the failure of contempt and infamy – whether de. the ecclesiastical bigots and “forcers of servedly or not. Powerful interest in his conscience” lay, and he trusted in the favor was made, no doubt, and the poet, righteousness which, as he believed, in- fortunately for the glory of England and spired the leaders who had ventured to her literature, survived the pamphleteer. depose and put to death a tyrant or wicked The fourth and fifth volumes of Mas. king." We are not now entering on the son cover the history from the death of argument of the right or the policy of the Charles I. to the restoration of Charles deposition and execution of Charles. It II., and include Milton's principal public concerns us only to get, if possible, a writings - the “ Eikonoclastes” and the glimpse of Milton's part in it as the two “Defences,” with particulars of his courageous advocate of the most daring employments in the service of the State. political act in modern history. He placed the subject of the “ Eikon Basilike” has himself in the front on this occasion, and recently been ably discussed in this rewhat be did now in February, 1648-9, view,* and we shall therefore not refer to together with what he had yet to do in bis it here. Nor will space permit us to go

Eikonoclastes” and his twoDefences,”. into any of the details of the “Common. must be accepted as his especial work in wealth." We have seen Milton preparvindicating the act in question for his ing to take his part in the reforms of the own countrymen, to all Europe, for his Church and the State, and ultimately beown time, and for all after ages. With coming the voice of England in her relig. out Milton's utterances, the “good cause,” ious freedom and her republican governto be ever associated by all lovers of lib. ment. That the conflict between the erty with the Commonwealth of England, Parliament and the army resulted almost might not have been fully and honorably as a matter of necessity in a military recognized as it ever has been; and the tyranny which ultimately broke down, and daring act of January, 1648-9, might the Parliamentary element along with it, have been regarded only as the Royalists as soon as the controlling, power of the regarded it -as the final deed of a wicked, great Protector ceased with his death though great, rebellion. Mr. Masson, in we all know. In fact, there was no pohis sixth volume, gives some very interest- litical power able to withstand the reacing information about Milton's escape tion which set in under Richard Cronfrom being classed among the regicides in consequence of the committees having

* The authorship of the "Eikon Basilike." overlooked “The Tenure of Kings and lern Review, July, 1880. By W. Blake Odgers, LL.D.

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well's feeble protectorate; and the army, every side, yet not distressed, persecuted although filled with patriotic and God- but not forsaken, cast down but not defearing soldiers such as no other State stroyed,” Milton found the work to do for ever had the power to enlist in its service, which he had covenanted with the knowhad no choice but to hand over the coun- ing reader," and which he had ever retry to the restored monarch and the en- garded as his “ portion in this life." He thusiastic royalists who were to keep was always strong and vigorous, inspired down the honor of England and all her with a divine fulness of life. Even his liberties until the revival of the good blindness, if properly regarded, cannot cause in the Revolution of 1688.

make him an object of pity. He could During the reaction to which we have not but feel the loss of sight and deplore alluded, Milton lost no opportunity of it; but his complaints of that loss, for the attempting to recall his countrymen to most part expressed in the dramatic or the principles they were so soon to aban- poetic form, are not the wailings of misdon. In 1651, in his “ First Defence," ery, but the expression of his sense of he had, as Professor Masson finely says, the glory of sight, sometimes mingled addressed the Continental nations “as with abounding gratitude for the winner from the battlements of the British light” which was bestowed upon him in Island;” and in 1654 and 1655 his “Sec- such large measure. His outward cirond Defence" and his “Self-Defencecumstances were adequate to the purposes rang in the ears of all the learned men of of his life. If tried in temper, he was Europe. In 1659 and 1660 a few English not tried in spirit by the cares and annoypamphlets, ecclesiastical and political, ances inseparable from his condition. were the last of bis utterances on behalf He enjoyed the tender care of his wife, of his countrymen. If the animosity of Elizabeth Minshall, and he delighted in Prynne had been as powerful as it was the honor and reverence of many admirmalicious during the debates on the In- ing friends. He labored ever “as under demnity Bill, Milton's biography would his great Taskmaster's eye,” and devoted have ended with a grim paragraph of himself to his unceasing studies, or waited “hanging and quartering at Charing for the seasons of the influx of poetical Cross or Tyburn. The imagination shud inspiration, ever" content though blind." ders at the thought. But even if Milton's We have no intention of describing the greater glory had never been manifested, great poems which make the name of his name would not have altogether per- Milton immortal. The reformer and the ished. He had friends amongst the lovers liberator appear in them also. It is the of learning and poetry of all parties. spirit of liberty that has made “Paradise The exquisite tenderness of the elegist Lost,” “ Paradise Regained,” and “Samof King and Diodati would not have been son Agonistes ” dear to the English heart; forgotten, though the glory of the epic though their popularity has been subject poet had been quenched in blood. The to variations. Hallam remarked in his author of “The Nymph's Complaint for " Literary History

" "that the discovery her Fawn," and the “Drop of Dew” of Milton's Arianism in this rigid genwould have mourned the loss of his eration has already impaired the sale of friend in verses only less sweet than Mil. Paradise Lost.?” Shelley, in his “ Deton's own, instead of having the privilege fence of Poetry," urged such claims for a few years later of addressing " the poet the moral superiority of Milton's Satan blind yet bold on the subject of " Para- over God himself, as are more shocking dise Lost.”. Perhaps Marvell did more to ordinary readers than the discovery of than any other man to rescue his friend Arianism. The variations of popular from the fate of the regicides. There is acceptance are, however, but temporary: every reason to believe that he and other The time has come when the charge of “lovers of the Muses,” as well as some Arianism against Milton ceases to carry men high in favor with the new govern- the weight attributed to it by Hallam. ment, interposed successfully to open the Arianism and Socinianism are phases of way for Milton's return to the great ob- Christian opinion, unlikely to be revived ject and work of his life. How gratefully in any of their historical forms, though may all English-speaking peoples welcome the first, as a general term, may be emhis deliverance and his ascension to the ployed to represent a phase of transition realms of song!

from orthodoxy to free Christianity. And At the age of fifty-two, with fourteen this leads us to bring this essay to a close years of life yet before him, tried by ex. with a few words about Milton's final perience, purified by trial, troubled on theological position.




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We have seen how his opinions wid. | treatise shows that Milton's views of the ened with bis sympathies in favor of the nature of Christ were expressly and emIndependents and Sectaries. In 1673 be phatically those of high Arianism; and put forth his tract“Of true religion, her that he held opinions about adult baptism esy, schism, toleration,” etc. In it he which ally him with the General Baptists, says of Socinians and Arminians that and ideas of an inner light approaching to they may have some errors, but are no those of the Friends. But he held the heretics. And again : “The Arian and lawfulness of war, freedom of divorce, Socinian are charged to dispute against and the lawfulness of polygamy: Morethe Trinity; they affirm to believe the over, he was a strong anti-Sabbatarian. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost according He regarded with favor the gaieties and to the Scripture and the Apostolic creed: ornaments of life, and the innocent refineas for terms of Trinity, etc., they reject ments and elegancies of conversation. them as scholastic notions not to be found | And yet, to close these remarks with the in Scripture." These passages may pre- closing words of Professor Masson's pare us for the theology of “Paradise noble biography: “It would be a mistake Lost” and the “Treatise on Christian to say of Milton, on any of these acDoctrine.” It is, however, of the latter counts, that he did not belong to the great only that we have left ourselves room to Puritan body of his countrymen. speak, and this very briefly; or we should Only an unscholarly misconception of have been glad to transfer to these pages Puritanism, a total ignorance of the actual some portions of Professor Masson's facts of its history, will ever seek, now or analysis of the work as well as some part henceforward, to rob English Puritanism of the entertaining story of the fate of the of Milton, or Milton of his title to be remanuscript.

membered as the genius of Puritan EnThe “Treatise on Christian Doctrine" is a

gland” (vol. vi., p. 840).

HERBERT NEW. very important and very curious book. Had it been published while Milton was alive or shortly after his death, it would certainly have become notorious, and would probably have exerted very considerable influence on the course of English theological thought through

From The Day of Rest. the last two centuries as well as on the tradi.

DON JOHN. tional reputation of Milton himself. As it is, though it has been fifty years before the world, it seems to have found few real readers (vol.

BY JEAN INGELOW. vi., p. 817).

The treatise is based wholly upon Scrip- The time was a little past the middle ture, and its tone, like its introductory of the century; the “Great Exhibition" greeting to all everywhere on earth pro- had not long been over; the Metropolitan fessing the Christian Faith,” is apostoli- Railway had not yet begun to burrow cal. No doubt Milton regarded the work under London, encouraging the builders as a message to the Churches, setting to plant swarms of suburban villas far forth, but not imposing on others, his out into the fields ; Londoners paid turnfinal views of the Christian religion. We pikes then before they could drive out for cannot help speculating about the effect fresh air, and they commonly contented the treatise might have had on the En- themselves with a sojourn in the autumn glish Presbyterian and Arian communi- at the seaside, or in Scotland, instead of, ties – whether it might not have hastened as a rule, rushing over and dispersing and protracted the period of the preva- themselves about the Continent. lence of Arian doctrine in their Churches. But Donald Johnstone decided to take But the speculation is idle. The work his wife there that autumn, baby, nurse, that might have founded a sect is awak- and all. First he would establish the ened from its sleep of a hundred and fifty children at Dover; then he would propose years in the State Paper Office, to be to their mother that the little Lancytranslated by a bishop and regarded as a boy,” as he more frequently called himcuriosity of literature! The progress of self-should be sent to them, and have human thought with the march of time also the benefit of the change; then he depends as much upon the living as the would take her away and reproduce for dead, and what Milton's epistle was fated her their wedding-tour. not to do was yet done by the influence of This had been to Normandy and Brithis mind in other ways. In brief, the I tany, where they had seen quaint, sweet




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fashions, even then on the wane; beauti though they should decide not to take the ful clothes, which those who have not child first sent home to thein. already seen never will see; and peaked He was desirous, for his own sake as and pointed habitations, so strange and well as for theirs, that they should hear so picturesque, that nothing but a sojourn of no doubt; that would be cruelty to the in them can make one believe them to be one not chosen, causing him almost inas convenient as those of ugly make. evitable discontent and envy, while the

Estelle should see again the apple- one chosen might himself become the gathering, the great melons, and the pur- victim of doubt, and never be able to ple grapes drawn into market with homely enjoy the love of his parents, or any other pomp; the brown-faced girls gossiping be- of his advantages in peace. side their beautiful roofed wells, dressed “ We must be their earthly providence," in garments such as no lady in the finest he said to his wife, when he had unfolded drawing-room puts on at present; crea- this plan to her; "we must absolutely tures like countrified queens, stepping and irrevocably decide for them. We after their solitary cows, each one with must try fully to make up our minds, and the spindle in her hand. He would take then, whichever we eventually take, we her to Contances, and then on to Avran. must treat altogether as a son.” ches, and there he would unfold to her a “ And the other, Donald ? " certain plan.

66 The other? I think one's best chance She fretted much over the doubt, which of peace in any doubtful matter is not to at present no investigation availed to do the least we can, but the most; we solve. Time had not befriended her: the must give them both the same advantages more she thought, the more uncertain she in all respects, and so care for, and adbecame.

vance, and provide for, and love the other, Yet he hoped that time might bring - so completely adopt him, – that if we them enlightenment in the end. He would should ever have the misfortune to find take her to Avranches, where lived his that, after all, we have made a mistake, only sister, the widow of a general officer, we may still feel that there was but one who, from motives of economy, had settled thing more we could have given him, and there, and did not often come to England. that was our name.

In his opinion she was one of the most “ Then, even in that case, the choice sensible women to be met with anywhere having once been made, you would keep — just the kind of creature to be trusted to it?" with a secret a little too full of theories, “What do you think, my star?”. perhaps, almost oppressively intelligent, “ It would be a cruel thing on the one active in mind and body, but a very fast we had taken for our own to dispossess friend, and fond of his wife.

him." He felt that, if the two boys could be • Yes; but if we allowed things to parted from Estelle for three or four stand, the loss and pain would all be our years, and be under the charge of his own; they would be nothing to the other. sister, it would be more easy, at the end Some wrongs are done in spite of a great of that time, to decide which of them had longing after the right, and such I hold to really the best claim to be brought up be irrevocable.” with his name and with all the prospects “I see no promise of rest in any plan. of a son.

It was quite probable that, in Perhaps my best chance will be to leave the course of three or four years, such a it altogether to you. You often talk of likeness might appear in one of the boys casting our cares upon God. I have tried, to some member of his family as would but it does not seem to relieve me of the all but set the matter at rest.

burden. I can — I often do cast them Nothing could be done if they remained upon you, only I hope in London, brought up among his own “What, Estelle ? friends, and known by name and person “I hope your sister will not say, as to every servant about him. But if he your mother did when our little Irene left them at Avranches with his sister, died, that it was one of those troubles among French servants, who knew noth- which was ordained to work for my good.” ing about them - each known by his pet “She was only quoting Scripture.” name, and not addressed by any surname “When she used to come and pray with

- and if they themselves knew nothing me, and read with me, I felt at last able about their parentage, there could be no to submit; and I found, as she had said, injustice to either in the choice the that submission could take the worst sting parents might eventually make, even of that anguish out of my heart. But no

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one must talk so to me now. I have not | sive communications that passed between fallen into the hands of God, but into other eyes. those of a wicked woman. This is dif. This' defect makes many people more ferent."

intellectual than they otherwise would be, “Is it, my wife?"

and less intelligent, throwing them more Your sister may say it is a rebuke to on thought and less on observation. But me for having loved this present life, and in her case it was only a question of'wear. my husband, and my children too much, ing or not wearing her spectacles. When or she may say it is a warning to me that she had them on, “all the world was these blessings can - oh, how easily! - print to her;" when they were off, her be withdrawn. I will try to bear it as a remarks were frequently more sensible in discipline, as a punishment; let her teach themselves than suitable to the occasion. me, if she can, to submit; but I cannot Politics, church parties, family affairs, bear to hear about blessings in disguise. the newest books, the last scientific My own little son, he was the pride of theories — nothing came amiss to her, my heart; and now, when I hold him in every scrap of information was welcome. my arms, and see the other playing at my Mrs. Johnstone looked on rather listfeet, I wonder which has the best right lessly, and soon it was evident that her to me. I know that nothing can make up husband could not make an opening for to me for the doubt. I shall never be so the matter that was in their thoughts. He happy any more!"

was letting himself be amused and interSo she thought; but she was utterly ested while waiting for a more convenient devoid of morbid feelings, and quite will season. ing to let time do all for her that it could. When they had retired, she said, She had a sincere desire to be well and "I shall be so much

more easy, happy. A woman, with any insight into Donald, when you have managed to tell man's nature, generally knows better than her our story.' to believe that, in the long run, delicacy “ But what was I to do?” he answered. can be interesting, and low spirits and “I could not suddenly dash into her sen. sorrow attractive.

tence with a by-the-bye,' as she does She did not aggravate herself with herself. “By-the-bye, Charlotte, we don't anger against the nurse. She knew she know whether one of our children is, in was to part with both the boys for years, fact,.ours or not !"" while a doubtful experiment was tried. " That would at least astonish her into Yet she let herself be refreshed by the silence for a time.” sweet weather, the rural signs of peace The next morning just the same diffiand homely abundance; and when she culty! They were in the midst of a disdrove up to the quaint abode her sister-cussion before they knew that it had be. in-law had made a home of, she could be gun. amused with its oddness; the tiled floors, The baby was taken out after breakfast, numerous clocks, clumsy furniture, thick by her nurse, into the apple orchard. crockery; the charming kitchen, full of “ You have no servants who speak En. bright pots and pans, so much lighter and glish, have you, Charlotte ?" asked Mr. more roomy than the drawing-room; the Johnstone, thinking to open the matter. laundry in the roof; its orchard that stood “No," she answered ; "and I prefer it instead of a flower garden, almost every the French as servants, on the whole, to tree hoary with lichen, and feathery with the English. But I like that


Irish mistletoe'; its little fish-pond and fountain, woman, Estelle, that you have brought with a pipe like a quill, and its wooden with your baby. There is something arbors, with all their great creaking sweet about her that one does not meet weathercocks.

with here. Do you know, I have long And there was one little child, a girl, in noticed that, of all modern people, the the house - a small, dimpled thing, about Irish suffer least, and the French most, six months younger than the two boys. from the misery of envy?”

That first evening passed off, and both “Do you think so ? " said her brother, husband and wife shrank from entering only half listening. on the subject of their thoughts. Mrs. “Yes, and hence the Irish chivalry O'Grady, Charlotte by. Christian name, towards the women of the quality,' and was full of talk and interest about all the total absence of any such feeling in a manner of things. She had the disadvan- Frenchman. He, frugal and accumula. tage of being very short-sighted, and so tive, thinks, “I am down because you are missed the flashing messages, and expres- | up. The poor Frenchman would rather



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