restore the fortifications of their town, tion of the Paddenhoek, or Toads' Corwhich had been partially demolished after ner, saying one to another: “Come along the rout at Cassel in 1328. A heavy fine - let us hear what this man of wit has to was at the same time imposed upon the say!”* They found him whom they burghers of Ghent, who pleaded earnestly sought standing with his back to his own for pardon - their delegates falling on door. He listened to their complaints, their knees before the count, whose re- but reserved his reply for the following sentment was to be pacified neither by day, December 27, 1337, when he invited money nor by submission. Their misery all who cared to hear him to assemble at had become almost intolerable. The arti- the monastery of Biloke. This wise and sans were reduced to the utmost destitu- discreet citizen was named Jacob van tion. Some idea may be formed of the Arteveld, generally represented as a sediprivations they were compelled to un- tious fellow, of low extraction, ready to dergo by imagining what might have been sacrifice king, earl, and country, to enrich the condition of the Lancashire opera- and aggrandize himself. It is worth a tives during the civil war in North Amer- little trouble to trace this calumny to ica had there been no poor-law to afford its origin, and to restore the so-called relief, and no charitable fund to preserve “ Brewer of Ghent” to his true position the semblance of a home for necessitous in history as a far-seeing statesman and families. No such aid was forthcoming an enlightened, disinterested patriot. in Ghent. Not a few of the weaver class This article will have been written in vain emigrated to England, where they were if the reader does not rise from its pekindly received and enabled to commence rusal with the conviction that to Jacob life afresh in a foreign land, and where, van Arteveld is justly applicable the euMichelet assures us, they imparted solid-logy which Clarendon passed upon John ity to the English character, and devel. Hampden: “ He was, indeed, a very wise oped habits of patience, industry, and man and of great parts, and possessed perseverance. These fugitives settled with the most absolute spirit of popularity, themselves in the eastern counties, par- and the most absolute faculties to govern ticularly at Worstead in Norfolk, which, the people, of any man I ever knew.” indeed, became famous for a particular Gilles li Muisis, abbot of St. Martin's kind of yarn spun from combed wool. Monastery at Tournai, who died about Bands of starving men paraded the streets the middle of the fourteenth century, of Ghent, shouting Vriheden ende niee- says, under the date of 1345 — only eight ringhen !” — Liberty and work! — while years before his own death - that Arte. idle ruffians inspired the peaceful inhab- veld “regnavit per septem annos, et fuit itants with well-grounded aların, and com- gubernator et superior totius villæ Gantii pelled the white-hooded magistrates to ac totius patriæ Flandriæ, et ad ejus imexercise a ruthless severity.

perium et voluntatem obediebant, et nihil Happily, at that critical moment a ru- in dictâ patriâ fiebat sine eo.” He adds mor went abroad that a rich burgher, a that he was always accompanied by twenman of foresight and discretion, had been ty-five to thirty armed men “ fortissimis heard to say that he knew a remedy for et ad bella promptissimis. Et multa mala the existing evils, and that, if his advice evenerunt per eum et propter eum.” This were followed, plenty would soon take the small band of followers was increased to place of want. It was Christmas-time, sixty or eighty by the canon Jehan le but no season of rejoicing for those who Bel, who belonged to one of the noblest were clamoring for bread for their wives families of Liége, and died about the and little ones. As usually happens on year 1370. Describing the ill feeling that occasions of enforced idleness, crowds of existed between Louis de Nevers and the men out of employment gathered together Flemings, he proceeds to remark : at the corners of strects and in market. places, when suddenly, as by a common * "Alons, alons oyr le bon conseil du saige homme," impulse, they began to move in the direc- 1 is Froissart's dramatic expression.


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Il y avoit ung homme à Gand qui avait nom | rendering of the commonly accepted text Jacques d’Artevelle, et avoit esté brasseur de of the gossiping old chronicler : mies (miel). Celluy Jacques estoit entré en si grande fortune et grâce envers les Flamens que In this season (A.D. 1337) there was great c'estoit tout fait et bien fait quanques il vouloit dyscorde betwene the erle of Flaunders and deviser ou commander par toutes Flandres, de the Flemynges; for they wold nat obey him, l'ung costé jusques à l'aultre ; et n'y avoit cil, nor he durst nat abyde in Flaunders, but in combien grand qu'il fust, qui osast trespasser great parell. And in ye towne of Gaunt there son commandement.*

was a man, a maker of honey,* called Jaques

Dartvell, he was entred into such fortune and From the canon of Liége we may pass grace of the people that all thynge was done at a bound to Sir John Froissart, the au. that he dydde; he might commaunde what he thority quoted, directly or indirectly, by wolde through all Flaunders, for there was nearly all subsequent historians. Sev- non though he were neuer so great yt durst eral editions of these famous chronicles disobey his commaundement. He had alwaves passed under the hands of their author, goying with hym up and downe in Gaunt LX and underwent material modifications in there were thre or foure that knewe ye secret

or fourskore varlettes armed, and amonge them the process. The manuscript of Amiens

nes of his mynde ; so that if he mette a parsone is the oldest and most complete : that of that he hated, or had hym in suspectyon, in. the Vatican includes only the first portion contynent he was slayne ; for he had comof the series. These manuscripts have maunded his secret varlettes, that whanneso. been most carefully collated by M. Simon euer he mette any persone and made such a Luce in the great edition of Froissart sygne to theym, that incontynent they shulde published by the Société de l'Histoire de slee hym, whatsoeuer he were, without any France, which far surpasses all its prede- wordes or resonynge; and by yt meanes he cessors and is a work of great merit. M. made many to be slayne, wherby he was so Kervyn de Lettenhove, however, relies on

doughted that none durst speke agaynst any the manuscript preserved in the Vatican thynge that he wolde haue done, so that every

man was gladde to make hym good chere. Library, in which it is written: “ Avoit And these varlettes whan thei had brought à Gand un bourgeois qui se nommoit hym home to his house, than they shulde go to Jaquemon Dartevelle, bauster homme, dyner where they lyst, and after dyner returne sage et soutil durement, et fist tant par agayne into the strete before his lodgyng, and sa poissance que toute la ville de Gand there abyde tyll he come out, and to wayt on fu encline à luy et à ses volontés.” It hym tyll souper tyme. These souldyours had is further said that Van Arteveld was eche of them foure grotes flemmyshe by the alarmed at the fate of Sohier de Courtrai, day, and were truely payd), wekely. Thus he and was seized with the apprehension

had in euery towne souldyers and seruauntes that he himself would be the next victim and to espy if there were any person that

at his wages, redy to do his commaundement, to the count's jealousy. He therefore wolde rebeli agaynste his mynde, and to enmade himself master of Ghent, and took fourme hym thereof; and as sone as he knewe. care to be always surrounded by a guard any suche he wolde neuer cease tyll they were of one hundred to one hundred and twenty banysshed or slayne, without respyte. All “ varlès tous armés." His next step was such great - men as knyghtes

, squires, or bur. to raise “une sexste de compagnons en gesses of good townes as he thought fauourable Gand que on non moit les Blans Cape-to therle in any manner, he banysshed them rons, et en fist à tous livrée et estoient out of Flaunders, and wolde leuey the moyte bien sys mille, et tous les jours moute halfe to their wyues and chyldren, such as were

of their landes to his owne vse, and thother plioient-il et portoient volontiers les blans banysshed ; of whome there were a great nomcaperons, car il avoient mieuls titre de bre abode at saynt Omers. † To speke propfaire mal que li aultre qui nuln'en avoient, erly, there was neuer in Flaunders, nor in none et n'en portoient nuls se il n'estoit tout other contrey, prince, duke, nor other that fin hors mauvais."

ruled a countrey so pesably, so long as Jaques Attention is particularly requested for Dartvell dyd rule Flaunders. He leueyed the the mention of these “ Blans Caperons,” rentes, wynages, and rights that pertained to as it furnishes an easy explanation of the therle throughout all Flaunders, and spended character of the guard which waited upon

all at his pleasure, without any accompt makVan Arteveld. That point will be dealt yng; and whan he wold say yt he lacked money,

they beleued hym, and so it behoued them to with sufficiently in its proper place, and in the mean while it may be convenient to

* Brasseur de miel; more correctly translated by extract Lord Berners' quaint and vigorous Colonel Johnes of Hafod as “a man that had formerly

been a brewer of metheglin" - mead.

† These refugees, according to Froissart, were called * Les Vrayes Chroniques de Messire Jehan le Bel, les avolez; according to Jehan le Bel, les avenids, or ch. xxvi. Bruxelles, 1863.

les oultre aveulds.

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do, for none durst say agaynst hym; whan he trusted for dates, it is hard to


whether wold borowe any thynge of any burgesse there or not Meyer * was justified in raising was none durst say hym nay.

Van Arteveld to pre-eminence over his The portrait stands out clear and pal- fellow-citizens so far back as 1335, though pable, but that it is not the true present it is not improbable, as he was evidently ment of Jacob van Arteveld will presently a personage of considerable note and inbe shown. Moreover, the hands may be fluence when Edward's envoys arrived in the hands of Froissart, but the voice is Ghent. In any case this is what is said the voice of Jehan le Bel. The former of him: has amplified and exaggerated the narrative of his predecessor, just as Hume has without the sanction of the count, to promise

The men of Ghent were the first, though improved upon the romance of the latter. assistance to the English, and chose for themA contemporary writer, Jan de Klerk, of selves a tribune and leacler in James Arteveld, Antwerp, whose rhymed chronicle has a brave man and especially distinguished for been rendered into modern French by his eloquence, of gentle rather than of noble the late M. Octave Delapierre, appears blood, who had resided at the court of the to liave expressed himself far more mod. king of the French, and on returning to his

own house had taken to wife a woman of some erately:

opulence, a maker of mead, and was elected At Ghent there arose all at once a man who president of the operatives. was neither rich nor noble, but who acquired such an influence that very soon the whole Further on, indeed, he is spoken of as country obeyed him. He spoke well, was very a low-born, factious citizen, who gave to courageous, and was named Jacques d'Arta. the fames the town and country houses velde. Assisted by numerous partisans, he op: of those who had fled with the count. posed the Count of Flanders, and was minded His civic position will be explained hereto take measures to resist him, as well as Philip after, but under the date of 1337 he of Valois, both of whom hated him mortally. He succeeded in forming an alliance between appears as the duly elected and, so to Edward, King of England, Flanders, Brabant, speak, constitutional president of the and the Count of Holland.

three great towns, Ghent, Bruges, and

Ypres. Stiil more favorable is the evidence of the * Cronique de Flandres,” edited by Denis The royal power, however, was held in check Sauvage. He is there described as “un by three towns of Flanders, who claimed for homme de la ville de Gand de moult cler themselves in all things the supreme military engin, qu'on appeloit Jacques de Hartu- and civil authority, having appointed Arteveld elde. Cestui avoit esté avec le Comte de to Flanders as a senate or a dictator, and the

their president and captain. That triad was Valois outre les mons et en l'Isle de whole of Flanders was compelled to obey their Rhodes, et puis fut varlet de la fruiterie decrees and statutes. A few of the nobles de Messire Loys de France (Louis X.). also were arrested by Arteveld, whom he kept En après s'en ala à Gand, dont il fut né, as hostages, in order to render the nobility less et y prit à femme une brasseresse de actively hostile to himself. miel.

Van Arteveld was, in fact, the captain of In the first continuation of the Chroni- the civic militia, raised by the chief men cle of Guillaume de Nangis, Jacob van of the “three good towns” to defend Arteveld is mentioned as the leader of their liberties alike against foreign and the Flemish insurgents, but it is acknowl- internal foes. Like Sohier de Courtrai, edged that their object was not to re. he belonged to the “milites burgenses, nounce their allegiance to the French who were constantly coming into collision king, or even to their own count, but with the territorial nobles, whose symparather to compel the latter to refrain from thies were all with the count and king, his evil ways, and to govern them with and in whose eyes the burgher community justice and equity. It is true that, when was composed of a turbulent, seditious, Van Arteveld was encamped with Edward insolent rabble. It will have been reunder the walls of Tournai, he is spoken marked that he is classed by Van Meyer of as the captain “sectæ Flammingorum with those of gentle rather than of noble pessimæ.” Similarly, in the second con- blood, while his imprisonment, as hostinuation, after an acknowledgment of his

tages, of a few members of the baronial eloquence, he is pointed at as “iste Jaco-order illustrates the difference of politibus, and is accused of attempting to cal views which separated the military murder a priest, "sed Deus, qui suorum est custos obedientium, non permisit.” * Commentarii sive Annales rerum Flandricarum, As few of the old historians can be quite | autore Jacobo Meyero, Baliolano. Antwerp, 1561.

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from the commercial aristocracy. It may | man, Sire Jacques d’Arteveide, who governed be observed in this place that Meyer is Flanders with much success for seven years corroborated by D'Oudegherst* in as

seven months and as many days, and who at signing Van Arteveld's elevation to the the outset of his government, with a view to

recommend himself the more to the said town year 1335.

of Ghent, said that when he began to build Or estoit en ce temps capitaine et grand grand mansions and to marry his children to doyen de ceux de Gand un homme faict et nay Knights and noblemen with golden spurs, it à toutes séditions, appellé Jacques d'Artwelde, would then be time to distrust him, and to

lequel, par ses malicieuses practiques, place no more confidence in him. usurpoit journellement et de plus en plus sur les droictz, préeminences, et authoritez du If we turn now to Mézeray's “ History prince, dont le dict Comte Louys se plaindoit of France," * we shall find it recorded grandement, et signamment de ceux de Gand, how, in 1336, the Flemings entre lesquels et luy yssirent au moyen de ce plusieurs questions et debatz.

governed themselves by the counsels of a cer

tain Jaquemard Arteville, a brewer of beer in Pierre d'Oudegherst was a native of the town of Ghent, a man of great strength of Lille, a doctor of laws, esteemed for his mind and body, daring, and ready to commit general familiarity with public affairs, and all sorts of crimes, dreaded by the good be. much consulted by reason of his special cause of his cruelties, and followed by miscreknowledge of jurisprudence. Naturally ants for the sake of the impunity and the larenough, a man of his training and peculiar gesses with which he gratified the populace, reading, who flourished in the latter half whom he was forever exciting against the no.

bility. of the sixteenth century, would be unfavorably biassed in treating of a move. According to this writer, Van Arteveld ment which he could only regard as a never ventured abroad without a guard of revolt against the divine right of kings fifty to sixty armed men. French histoand princes. It is much to be regretted rians of later times are content to quote that the majority of the old chroniclers Froissart as an unquestionable authority, and historians, being for the most part and tread in one another's steps without church men connected with noble families, the slightest attempt to exercise their were inevitably warped by their early critical faculties. Rapin calls Van Arte. reading and habitual associations, and veld “a brewer,” and evidently regards filled with ineradicable prejudices against him as a mere firebrand. “ The credit of ail popular movements, and whatever that burgher," he remarks, was so great might seem to imperil the existing order in Flanders that he had caused the princior things. It must be confessed, how- pal cities to revolt against the earl.” It ever, that Professor Lesbroussart's foot. was excusable in Rapin de Thoyras that he notes are not less bitter than the text could not enter into the broad, statesmanthey profess to elucidate, and it may be like policy sketched by “that burgher," that the agitated condition of the neigh- but Sismondi might surely have been boring kingdom of France in 1789 may expected to institute a searching examihave disturbed the serenity of the learneil nation into the proofs adduced by his commentator. Be that as it may, a still predecessors for the statements they had earlier date than is given by Meyer and so glibly propounded. The only liberty, D’Oudegherst is set forth by a writer who however, he permits himself is to amplify has been a good deal quoted within the the texts which made a common brew. Jast thirty years by local vindicators of er” of Van Arteveld, and to enlarge his Van Arteveld's memory. M. de l’Espi- business to a scale worthy of a fourteenth noy † asserts that it was in 1333 that the century Bass or Allsopp. Let us hear Flemings elected as their “Rewaert, what he has to say: – Gouverneur, et Capitaine, un homme très

Among the most ardent champions of the valeureux, sage, et subtil, nommé Jacques public liberties there appeared at Ghent a man d'Artevelde." In 1337 he confers upon endowed with rare talents and, above all, with him this high distinction for the second a great force of character, who succeeded in time.

organizing the popular party, in placing himThere was elected as Captain and Rewaert, ence over the two other towns of Bruges and

self at their head, and in extending his indluor Governor, of Flanders that valiant and wise Ypres. He was named Jacquemart or Jacob

d'Artevelde. He was the proprietor of a con* Annales de Flandre de Pierre d'Oudegherst, par M. Lesbroussart. Gand, 1789.

+ Recherche des Antiquitez et Noblesse de Flandres, * Histoire de France depuis Faramond jusqu'au par Philippe de l'Espinoy, Viscomte de Therouenne. règne de Louis le Juste, par le Sieur F. de Mézeray. Douay, 1632.

Paris, 1685, 2nd edition.


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siderable brewery of mead, and his riches, as | Biographie,in which he is acknowledged well as the number of workmen whom he to have been connected with the noblest employed, furnished him with the means of families of west Flanders. Very little, it making himself feared and obeyed.

is added, is authentically known of his The body-guard of armed ruffians is ac- youth and early manhood, and that is also cepted without hesitation, though, subse- the opinion expressed by M. Lenz, proquent to Edward's naval victory at Sluys, who published in 1837 a thoughtful and

fessor of history at the Ghent Athénée, it is admitted that

well-considered essay on the situation of this great citizen, in fact, showed himself Flanders at the time of Van Arteveld's superior to the nobles and kings with whom accession to power. Of foreign histori. he was called upon to negotiate. However ans none has been so bitter as Villani,* remarkable were the popular eloquence hc who allows himself to write in the followdisplayed in rousing the people, and the firm: ing strain (lib. xi., cap. Ixxxiii.): – ness with which he controlled them, equally great was the breadth of political views he At last there arose in Ghent a man of hum. manifested in the councils of two kings, and ble family and low occupation, who made and the valor and military talent he exhibited in sold mead - that is, beer made with honey the field.

whose name was Giacomo Dartivello, and he

brought himself to be master of the commune The conventional lineaments of the of Ghent. This was in the year 1337 ; and by burgher-statesman may be encountered in his fine speech and frank manners he rose in a the “ Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique” short time to such a position and influence of Messrs. Chaudon and Delandine : through the favor of the common people of “ Artevelle, ou Artavel, Flamand, bras- Ghent, that he expelled from Ghent the count seur de bière, factieux, éloquent et poli- and all his followers; and as from Ghent so

likewise from Bruges, Ypres, and the other tique, causa beaucoup de solicitude au

towns of Flanders, they drove out the count Comte de Flandre - so much so, indeed, and imprisoned whosoever offered resistance. that the count fled for safety to the court of his overlord. Michelet is another fol. Here again the body-guard of truculent lower of Froissart, for Jehan le Bel is assassins comes into play, and all the seldom, if ever, quoted, and he apparently hearsay traditions of the old chroniclers fancies himself justified in hazarding the are reproduced as history. Far more assertion that “ Jacquemart Artavelde,” a moderate and reasonable is the estimate brewer of Ghent, organized "une vigou- of Van Arteveld's character and position reuse tyrannie. He is not, however, far which is given in De Larrey's Histoire astray where he remarks that“ avec toute d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse et d'Irlandesa popularité ce roi de Flandre n'était au (Rotterdam, 1707). fond que le chef des grosses villes, le

Another ally, less considerable by birth, but défenseur de leur monopole.” It is more not so by intiuence, was the famous Jacques surprising that M. Dewez, himself a Bel. Artevelde, a brewer of beer, who acquired gian, should describe Van Arteveld in such power over the Flemings that their count his “ Histoire Particulière des Provinces was nothing more than a phantom, all the great Belges,” not only as a brewer, but as an towns obeying Artevelde, whose word was ab. unscrupulous intriguer, subtle and auda-solute. Edward raised no difficulty about cious, gifted, indeed, with eloquence, of negotiating with a man who had made himself which he made such use that he raised arbiter of peace and war in his own country, himself to a bad pre-eminence, comporting him by withdrawing to the court of France.

which its lawful sovereign had abandoned to himself as a tyrant and oppressor, and displaying a vulgar, insolent luxury.' It is The preceding statement is not pertrue that, in his "Cours il' Histoire de la fectly accurate, as the count had not abanBelgique,” he explains how Van Arteveld doned Flanders at the time when the Encame to be attended by armed men when glish monarch began to negotiate with the he went abroad. In his capacity of doyen citizens of Ghent; neither is it at all cerdes-métiers, or president of the guilds, he tain that Van Arteveld was then actually was entitled to a guard of zweerd-drne invested with the guidance of the State. ghers or sword-bearers, while, as captain of We may now pass, however, to the English the city, he would naturally be followed chroniclers and historians, who, with the by a detachment of soldiers. This was no honorable exception of the late Mr. Wilnew thing, but a custom which existed liam Longman,' have followed Froissart both before and after his time. A juster as a flock of sheep follows a bell-wether, view of the great citizen is taken by the compilers of the “ Allgemeine Deutsche # Cronica di Giovanni Villani. Firenze, 1845.

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