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traces and teaches "economic fish cul- | subsequently captured betrayed their

He shows there how the salmon identity with a certain hatch and draft remains a small fish for life unless he turned in, and so clenched his doctrine of reaches the sea, and that the “smolt” of the marvellously sudden development of the autumn swims back a “grilse ” of may, the smolt into the grilse. On the other be six pounds and upwards in the spring. hand, he had at South Kensington speciHe put a stop to the wasteful and un- mens of salmon that had been hatched for sportsmanlike slaughter of “smolts” and years, but which had never breathed salt "parr," and showed that the latter were water, and they remained little bigger than the young of the salmon, and as such herrings. Those were problems which he should be under national protection until never satisfactorily solved for himself, a visit to the sea promoted them to sal-laboriously though he worked at them. monhood. He was delighted when he He satisfied himself that the whitebait is solved a problem of this sort; be traced sui generis, but what it is he was not dethe growih of salmon by punching marks cided. He labored to discover a cure for in the back fins of “smolts” hatched from the strange fungoid excrescence of “salartificial culture; and as each draft of mon disease" of late years, but life was young fish so turned in was punched to a too short for him: he toiled to the last, different pattern, any of these fish when and died in harness.

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RUSSIA IN 1670. - When Ivan went through poor fellow, whose wife was momentarily exthe country he was in the habit of accepting pecting to become a joyful mother, opened his presents from the poor and the rich. There door and admitted the apparently exhausted happened one day to be in his route a good beggar. In the course of the night the child honest bask-shoemaker, who made shoes of was born, and the vagrant, getting himself bask for a copeck a pair, but when the em- gone, told the man he would bring him some peror came he was quite at a loss what to give. godfathers next day. Accordingly, the next His wife, a woman of ready wit and reserve, day the emperor and many of his nobles came suggests a pair of sopkyes, or bask shoes. and presented the poor fellow with a handsome That is no rarity,” quoth the man ; " but we largess, and set fire and burned up all the other have a huge great turnip in the garden — we'll houses in the village, playfully exhorting the give him that, and a pair of sopkyes too." inhabitants to charity and the entertainment Great was his success; the emperor was de- of strangers, and that it were good for them to lighted, and made all his followers buy sopkyes try how excellent it was to be out of doors on at five shillings a pair, and wore a pair him- a cold winter night. It was his custom to self. So began the wheel of good fortune to associate with thieves and robbers in disguise. turn for the Sopotskies, for he soon drove a Once he went so far as to recommend them to thriving trade and left a great estate behind rob the Imperial Exchequer, “for,” said he, him. And in memory of this gallant, it is the "I know the way to it.” . But upon this, in a custom for the Russians to throw all their old moment one of the fellows up with his fist and sopkyes into a tree which stood by his house. struck him a hearty good blow on the face, There was a gentleman, however, hard by, saying, “ Thou rogue ! Wilt thou offer to rob who, seeing the turnip so graciously accepted his Majesty, who is so good to us? Let us go and generously rewarded, bethought him of a and rob some rich Boyar who has cozened his like success, and offered the emperor a brave Majesty of vast sums.” Ivan was mightily horse. But the emperor, seeing through his pleased with this fellow, and at parting changed motives, gave him nothing in return but the caps with him, bidding him ineet him next aforesaid great and mighty turnip, for which morning in the Dravetz, a place in the court

seems not improbable — he was both where the emperor was accustomed to pass by, abashed and laughed at. Ivan, following the “And there,” said he, “will I bring thee a habits of so many Eastern despots, delighted good cap of aqua vitæ and bread.”. The next to go about in disguise, and test and witness morning the thief was there, and being dis. the feelings of the people towards strangers covered by his Majesty, was called up, adgenerally and the imperial person in particular. monished to steal no more, preferred to high One night, in disguise, he ght a lodging in dignity about the court, and appointed chief a village near the city of Moscow, but in vain, commissioner of the detective force. for no one would let him in; but at last one



Fifth Series, Volume XXXIII.


No. 1914. – February 19, 1881.


From Beginning,

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Edinburgh Review,
II. VISITED ON THE CHILDREN. Part IX., All The Year Round,

Gentleman's Magazine,
IV. DON JOHN. By Jean Ingelow. Part II., Day of Rest,



Hardwicke's Science Gossip, . VIII. THE STORM, 1881, .


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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

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Single Numbers of The Living AGE, 18 cents.


And although they might work blindly,

Yet their aims were good and kindly; I Am pleased you see the traces

In their quiet neighborhood In these sweet “Sir Joshua ” faces,

Not a child but knew and loved them, Of my features, and my eyes ;

Old and middle-aged approved them,
Fair they are, that girl and brother,

And took pattern as they could.
With their young and smiling mother,
Beautiful beyond disguise.

So they lived, my ancestresses,

Simple, unperplexed by guesses For observe their dress how simple,

Ai God's secrets veiled for aye : Muslin with embroidered wimple,

Books were fewer, knowledge rarer ; Yet I think the effect is good;

But none nobler, sweeter, fairer, Scant perchance, yet freely flowing ;

Grace the England of to-day. Nothing to impede the growing

Chambers' Journal.

M. L. Into graceful womanhood.

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Across the Firth I saw the coast of Fife,

With here a cliff and there a nestling town; And here and there the hillsides showed the

And they had their Christmas dances,
Summer junketings and fancies,

And the daintiest, cheeriest teas;
Sometimes too a little scandal ;
But a strain from Boyce or Handel

Cleared the air like summer breeze.

strife Of April green contesting winter brown; And eastward far the horizon's edge was rife With clean white sails that rose and sank adown.

Blackwood's Magazine.



From The Edinburgh Review. The numerous works placed at the head JACOB VAN ARTEVELD, THE BREWER OF of this article sufficiently indicate the inter

est which attaches to the family of ArteThe oldest, and perhaps the strongest, veld, and we are indebted to them and to link which binds England to the conti- some researches of our own for the story nent of Europe is the relation of this coun

we are about to lay before our readers. try to Flanders. There, on the eastern

Casting about for allies to aid him in shore of the German Ocean, where Char-enforcing his claim to the crown of lemagne planted a Saxon colony a thou- France, Edward III. was counselled by sand years ago on the littus Saxonicum, his father-in-law, the count of Hainault

, still lives a people singularly congenial to to secure the support of the Flemish Comourselves. The same eager pursuit of

munes. The chief manufacturing towns trade, the same skill in manufactures, of Flanders had been alienated from their the same attachment to municipal govern- own count, Louis de Nevers ment and political freedom, and during times called Louis de Crécy — by reason many centuries a common fear of France, of his grievous exactions and entire subunited the people of England to the peo- mission to his overlord, the king of ple of Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp. In

France. It was at the instigation of times of trouble and persecution many an

Philip of Valois that, in the autumn of English fugitive found a refuge in the 1336, the count, without either provocaScheldt; and from the counts of Flanders tion or warning, threw into prison every to the dukes of Burgundy, and even to Englishman found within his territories. their Spanish descendants and heirs, the rulers of the Low Countries almost inva. There was nothing he more desired than

Philip's object was plainly manifest. riably looked to the alliance and support to bring about a rupture between England of the English crown. To this day the and Flanders, for he had observed with independence of Belgium is an object of

much anxiety the excellent relations, paramount interest to England. The his- based on mutual interests, that had sprung tory of the Commons of Flanders is there

up between the wool-producers of the one fore one of peculiar interest to ourselves, country and the manufacturers of the and we shall make no apology for present- other. As it chanced, he overshot the ing to our readers an episode taken from

mark. Edward indeed shortly afterwards these Flemish annals. A great English retaliated by arresting the Flemings withpoet has already given to the name of

in his own dominions, and prohibiting Philip van Arteveld a lasting place in En

the exportation of wool. Deprived of the glish literature. Our present subject concerns the father of that eminent person, ish looms were thrown out of work, and

raw material of their industry, the Flemwhose character and fate were not less the weavers were reduced to destitution. heroic and tragical than those of his son.

They were sufficiently logical, however,

to trace their sufferings to their true * 1. Jacques d'Artevelde.

source, and to regard as their real enemy 2. Recherche des Antiquitez et Noblesse de Flan- not the English monarch, but their own dres. Par PHILIPPE DE L'ESPINOY, Vicomte de Thé

sovereign. Edward, moreover, took some rouenne. Douay: 1632.

3. Annales de Flandres de P. d'Oudegherst. Par trouble to exculpate himself, and assured M. LESBROUSSART. Gand: 1789.

both the count of Flanders and the mag4. Korte Levensschets van Jacob van Arteveld. istrates of the chief towns that he much Door Lieven EvErwyn. Gent: 1845.

5. Mémoires sur la ville de Gand. Par le Chevalier desired to revive the old friendship which CHARLES-Louis Diericx. Gand: 1814.

had proved so pleasant and advantageous 6. Cronijcke van den Lande ende Graefscepe van alike to them and to his own subjects. Gemaect door Jor. Nicolaes DESPARS.

To these overtures Louis de Nevers Te Brugge: 1839.

7. Memorie Boek der Stadt Ghent, 1301-1737. turned a deaf ear, for the privations of his Ghent: 1839.

8. Le Siècle des Artevelde. Par LEON VANDER- people were, in his eyes, of much less KINDERE, Professeur à l'Université de Bruxelles. importance than the favor of the prince at Bruxelles: 1879.

whose court he habitually resided.



Gand: 1863



In the following year the States of Flan. | Tronchiennes, the grandfather of the ders, Brabant, and Hainault, entered into brewer, if we follow M. Auguste Voisin an offensive and defensive alliance, by - or his father-in-law, if we adopt the which they agreed to refer all future dis- guidance of Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove. putes between themselves to arbiters In either case, he is described by Meyer chosen from among their most eminent as “eques Flandrus nobilissimus," as a townsmen, and to reopen commercial rela- citizen of Ghent, and “baro præcipuus tions with England. These resolutions Flandriæ.” Jehan le Bel, too, has a good having been communicated to Edward, he word to say for him, as " ung vaillant chelost no time in deputing the Bishop of valier ancyen qui démeuroit à Gand, et y Lincoln and the Earls of Huntingdon and estoit moult fort aimé. L'appeloit-on, Salisbury to negotiate personally with the he continues, “Messire Courtesin, et great men and great cities of Flanders. estoit chevalier banneret; et le tenoit-on His envoys were instructed to express the pour le plus preu chevalier de Flandre, king's readiness to re-establish the wool. et pour le plus vaillant homme, et qui le staple in that province whence it had been plus vassaument avoit toudis servi les removed to Dordrecht, and to betroth his seigneurs.” These services were now daughter Joan to the count's son, Louis forgotten, as well as the prowess which de Mâle so called from a château near bad won the honor of knighthood on the Bruges in which he was born, and which field of battle. Like the Van Artevelds, is still inhabited. The Flemings naturally Sohier de Courtrai * belonged to the comattached immense importance to having a mercial nobility, and was, consequently, depot or emporium of wool in one of their rather popular with the citizens than acown cities, because, as we read in the ceptable to the count. It is certain that “Cronique de Flandres :"*“Toute Flan- his hospitable reception of Edward's endres estoit fondée sur draperie, et sans voys gave sore umbrage to Louis de Ne. laine on ne pouvoit draper.” The English vers, who invited him to Bruges to attend envoys appear to have visited “the three a general assembly of deputies from the good towns” of Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres, Flemish Communes. The invitation was but it was in Ghent they made their long- accepted, but on his arrival the aged est stay, and, according to Froissart, knight was treacherously arrested and “spent such sums that gold and silver conveyed to the Château de Rupelmonde seemed to fly out of their hands.” With on the Scheldt. In vain did the towns of all their patriotism the worthy Flemings Flanders implore the count to release his had a keen eye to their personal interests; venerable prisoner, nor was the Duke of and Walsingham sarcastically remarks, Brabant's intercession a whit more effica. “ Plus saccos quam Anglos venerabantur.” cious. The count also attempted to inThere is reason to believe that Jacob van tercept the English envoy's, but they, Arteveld played a conspicuous part in the being timely warned, returned home by negotiations which ensued, and Sismondi way of Holland. is scandalized that a prelate so eminent as Irritated by the failure of his conciliathe Bishop of Lincoln should have con- tory measures, Edward despatched an descended to hold any sort of intercourse expedition against Cadzand, a small island with a dealer in hydromel.f A genial lying at the entrance of Sluys harbor, and hospitality was at the same time exercised a favorite station of the French cruisers towards the English nobles by Zegher or employed in intercepting English vessels Sohier de Courtrai, lord of Dronghen or laden with wool. After a stout resistance

Cronique de Flandres, anciennement composée by the men of Bruges, the count's brother par auteur incertain, et nouvellement mise en luinière was taken prisoner, five hundred Flemings par Denis Sauvage de Fontenailles en Brie, Histori- were put to the sword, and the place given ographe du Très Chrétien Roy Henry, second de ce nom. Lyon, 1572.

up to plunder. The loyalty of the Bruges † “ L'évêque de Lincoln ne dédaigna point de traiter citizens was rewarded by permission to avec ce bourgeois, qui levoit contre son souverain l'éiendard de la révolte." – Hist. des Français, tome * Translated by Carte “ Lord of Courtesy," vol. ii., X. Paris, 1828.

bk, x.

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