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met, or was introduced to, he received grinnings and gigglings, snarlings and with a cannonade of questions, the one piteous moanings, his obscene remarks, following the other in rapid succession. weak puns, and small jibes, led those who As a test of military fitness, presence of knew him not to be Suwarrow to conclude mind, self-reliance, and force of character, that this grimacing and bejewelled object it was by no means an unsatisfactory one. was Catherine's court fool; and their asAll those whom he confused or einbar- tonishment may be easily conceived on rassed, he despised as fools. Suwarrow being told that they beheld a hero who had met his match in imperturbable coolness fought countless battles and never lost and impudence in M. de Lameth. “ To one of them; and who at the council table what country do you belong, sir?” said had proved himself a sagacious and clear. Suwarrow. · France," was the reply. headed reasoner, a crafty politician, and " What profession?” “ Military.” “What a brilliant epigrammatist. In his riper rank?" 6 Colonel.” “Your name?” years he was able to speak a little French * Alexandre de Lameth.” After submit- and German, which he had probably ting meekly to this examination, the picked up in his wars and wanderings. Frenchman' turned on Suwarrow and His friends aver that he was an adept in asked bim the same questions, imitating the dead languages, and that in his temhis threatening manner and suspicious porary seclusions he studied Hebrew. look; getting the same laconic answers; Several of his sayings have passed into after which both gentlemen burst out Russian proverbs, especially the sarcasm laughing. It was seidom indeed that Su. he uttered on the emperor Paul's military warrow's questions were so coherent. innovations, which were all of the decoWhat would a stranger think when saluted rative order : “Hair-powder is not gun. by a grim, snuffy old man, made up exte. powder; curls are not cannon; and tails riorly of dirt and jewels, with the demand are not bayonets; a bit of doggerel uttered in an imperious tone, “How which cost the rhymer his command. many stars are there in the skies? You The verse in which he announced to the don't know: what do you know? How empress the capture of Tutukay in Bulgamany trees are there in the forest, or ria is well known fishes in the lake?” And, on your con- Salva bogu!

Glory to God! fessing ignorance in a conciliatory man. Salva vam!

Glory to thee! ner, how would you like to have a scornful Tutukay vzala!

Tutukay is taken ! and filthy finger pointed at you, and be I ya tam!

Here are we ! baptized amid a grinning company with The following satiric episode is simply the name of Monsieur Know-nothing? delicious. His Majesty sent his favorite, Nothing lashed Suwarrow into such fury Count K—, to congratulate the maras the use of that handy conversational sbal on his recall from exile. “K-!” phrase, “I don't know." His officers, said Suwarrow, when the name was anwell aware of this infirmity, would hazard nounced. " There is no Russian family any reply rather than acknowledge igno- of that name; who can he be?” The rance on any subject on which it was his messenger is brought in. “ You are not whim to examine them. In his old age of Russian birth, I judge; from what he would often be seen running and frol-country are you?” “Of Turkey: I owe icking in the streets of St. Petersburg, my rank and title to his Majesty's favor." bawling at the top of his voice, “I am "Ah, I see: you have rendered imporSuwarrow, I am Suwarrow,” followed by tant services to the State; in what bata crowd of urchins among whom he threw talion are you? in what battles have you apples to be scrambled and fought for. fought?” “I have never served in the At court he persisted in kissing the por-army;". “Oh, you are in the civil service, trait of the empress Catherine, which then?” No, I have always been in perevery lady wore on her breast, to the dis- sonal attendance on his Majesty." "Inmay of the wearers, who shuddered when deed : in what capacity?" "Valet to his the snuffy nose, innocent of handker- Majesty.” Suwarrow thereupon turned chiefs, came near their rich silks and to his own servant and said: “Ivan, do white bosoms. Her Majesty herself had you see this nobleman? He once held one day to ask him to conduct himself ihe same menial office as you. What a more sanely and decently. In the palace glorious career you have before you! He his antics were of the most whimsical is a count now! so may you yet! Be a description : his facial nerves were never good lad and you will — who knows? at rest, and his jerky attitudinizings, his be decorated with all the orders of Rus. spasmodic movements, his meaningless | sia!"

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It is characteristic of Eastern religions, them must have a presiding god whose pagan and Christian alike, to make piety special charge they were; and was it not consist in exterior rather than interior a prudential precaution to secure him as adornment, in gymnastic exercises rather an ally, when a little deference paid to than in loyalty to moral principle or pure his ministers was all the price that was affection; and the lower the nation or the asked ? Suwarrow was clearly a Broad individual in the scale of civilization, Churchman, seeing good in all sects and which is the power to live for and in parties. That he was an intentional hypoideas, the more pronounced is this ten- crite and impostor seems at any rate not dency to propitiate deity by ceremonies Lelievable. He was religious according and grimaces which are of the skin, and to his lights, even when there was little which have nothing do with the dis to be gained by pretences and profesposition and character. Suwarrow's re- sions; and that his ostentatious devo. ligion was as destitute of moral qualities tions, genuflexions, and comic pieties as his habits were of social refinement. secured him the goodwill of the people, He was a savage both in his inward and was probably as much due to accident as outward development. His God was a craft. On one occasion he risked the being to be reconciled and cajoled by a resentment of Catherine rather than neg. state bow, such as a man makes when he lect his duty to heaven. After the “pa. attends one of her Majesty's drawing- cification of Poland” – that is, after he rooms; a being who could be coaxed to had executed all likely to provoke displace his own invincible might at the dis. peace - the czarina conferred on him the posal of the man who surpassed all other rank of field-marshal; but Suwarrow, candidates for that favor in the amount faithful to his religious principles, would of physical deference he rendered. There not receive the dignity till he had asked never lived a general who insisted more the blessing of Holy Church. than Suwarrow on the personal piety (as It is needless to say that a man of he understood that word) of his soldiers Suwarrow's habits and temper was little and officers - not even Cromwell himself. fitted for the domesticities of life. There On Sundays, and the festivals of Holy is a story told of his comrade in arms, Church, he delivered sermons to the su- Marshal Romanzow, who was parted froin perior officers of his army, whom in their bis wife. One of his sons, having finturn he compelled to preach and pray in ished his studies, came to the army to the presence of their regiments, abusing ask a commission.

“Who are you?” in no measured terms those whose igno- said Romanzow. 6. Your son.” “Oh, rance of Russian disqualified them for indeed; you are grown up, I see.” The praying in the vernacular, and therefore interview finished, the young man asked for humoring the national God to whom, if there was any place where he could like the Jews of old, he ascribed his vic- take up his abode. “Why, surely,” said tories, and in whose protection and favor the father, “ you are acquainted with he had the blindest faith. The Warsaw some officer in the camp.” Suwarrow's Butcher never began a battle without domestic relations seem to have been on reverently and repeatedly making the sign no more cordial footing. He had a daugh. of the cross. He won the silent approval ter whom Catherine appointed one of her and encouragement of the superstitious maids-of-honor, and whom she afterwards people of Italy during his campaign in married to the brother of her husband that country, as much by his devoutness pro tem., Plato Zubof - the last of a long as by his success. Wherever on the list who filled the office; which led the march he saw a crucifix or saintly image witlings of St. Petersburg to say that he stopped to pray; wherever he met a Catherine had ended with Platonic love. monk he asked leave to kiss his hand, In this daughter Suwarrow's malforma. and solicited his benediction, invoking tion of mind, to which his eccentricities his curse on these French regicides and owe their being, took the form of imbe. atheists whom it was his mission to pun- cility. The old man, not having seen his ish. He begged relics of departed saints daughter since her childhood, expressed from the convents he visited; bathed a wish to meet her. " Ah, father,” cried again and again in holy water to make she, “ how big you have grown since I himself invulnerable; consumed cart. last saw you!" He quarrelled with his loads of consecrated wafers that he might wife soon after their marriage, and re. not hunger any more. Priests and pres- fused to live with her. On hearing that byters, Protestant and Papist to all the empress had made his son an officer alike he paid homage; each and all of in the Guards, be made the following

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comment: “Ah, well, if her Majesty says | ever devout pilgrim kissed papal toe or that I have a son, be it so, but I know Caabah stone. Again and again he renothing about it.” There seems, how. sused her Majesty's gifts. On one occaever, to have been one little germ of sion when the empress was granting affection in that tough and twisted and favors to everybody, and when everybody gnarled nature: he was much attached to was pressing round her with eyes that his nephew, Gortschakoff, who was sec. said, “What am I to get?" she ordered ond in command of the ill-fated army of the mob to stand back till a figure in the Switzerland led by Korsakoff against the background came into the full view of French. Spiteful gossips say that this the court. It was Suwarrow. Address: nephew was a painted booby, who being him she said: “And you, general; daubed his cheeks as unblushingly as any do you want nothing?” “Only that you of the ladies of St. Petersburg who beld would order my lodgings to be paid, madtheir toilet-table as incomplete without a am.” The rent of his lodgings was three rouge-pot, and that he wore whalebone roubles a month. It is averred that he stays to keep his body slim and graceful. never shared in the plunder of the cities,

The empress Catherine, during whose which he gave over to his soldiers to be brilliant reign he rose to fame, knew Su. sacked. " At the fall of Ismail, he did warrow's worth, and with that instinctive not take even a horse.” acumen by which she attached to her Catherine was prodigal in her gifts to person and interest all those whose force her favorites and servants, and rewarded of character or genius made them dan- on a scale of right Russian magnificence. gerous as enemies and powerful as friends, But Suwarrow could never find it in his led the rough, uncultured, and perverse heart to refuse a gold toy; and his Stoic hero by a silken thread. Hard cash that indifference to wealth capitulated at once had to be deposited out of sight in the when the seductive light of a precious pockets - which could not be hung about stone bewildered and blinded his eyes. the person, and fashed and flaunted in How often did he vex the ears of his the eyes of the world — had no charm for officers with the oft-repeated history of Suwarrow. But Catherine knew how to each trinket? Again and again he assemreach and play upon the savage nature bled them to admire and eulogize the deep-seated in the man. She operated loveliness of his collection, till the faculty on him chiefly through his weakness for of admiration in them was exhausted, and gaudy trinkets, a weakness which, in com- the language of eulogy had ceased to be mon with all savages, he shared. If he fresh. He would stop his army while on loved and prized any possession in the the march, that he might open his chest world, it was the brilliant baubles and and gloat over his treasures. At dinner, toys which she gave him, and which the he would, in a rapid succession of shots, touch of her white, royal hand had in- fire the following questions at his neighvested with a double value and with bors: “Have you seen my jewels? Do something of a sacred character. Each you envy me them? What do you think new courier that arrived at her court with they are worth? Why did our mamma tidings of a victory, coincided with the give them to me?” A failure to answer despatch of a messenger bearing a bejew- these questions as promptly as the report elled gift, and a letter of thanks written follows the explosion, and the general lost by the czarina's own hand. In this way his temper, and a louder explosion folhe had accumulated a large collection of lowed, in which, amid the confusion of richly-carved gold snuff-boxes; imperial gutturals and growls, the only articulate portraits set in gold; swords whose hefts words that could be made out were, “ You sparkled with all the colors of a prism; blockhead!” “You fool!” while the poor rich robes bestarred with badges of the victim, too ignorant to answer rightly, or royal favor and friendship; and this mot. too honest to lie, or too prosaic to invent ley treasure he carried about with him in a fictitious history of the jewels on the all bis wars and wanderings, locked and spot, sat blushing and trembling: double-locked in a massive iron chest. But his treatment by Catherine's son He never touched one of these gifts on and successor, the emperor Paul — who, which Catherine's hand had rested, nay, hating his mother, hated every one she his glance never casually alighted on one prized, reversed all the schemes and ends of them, but, as in the presence of some she labored for and cherished — was thing holy, he made the sign of the cross, harsh and ingrate. After Catherine's and, falling on his knees, reverently death, he denuded the grim, sarcastic old kissed it, and with greater solemnity than | marshal — who had sneered at, and made some dokgerel rhymes about his military | obliged Paul to capitulate to his victim reforms --of all his commands, and or- and invite him again to lead the armies of dered him to retire to Moscow. Suwar- Russia. Suwarrow made his appearance row was with his beloved troops in south- at court in civilian costume, without sword ern Poland when he received the imperial or decorative orders. The emperor was mandate, ready to march against France. amazed at this daring breach of etiquette. He determined to break the news of his Suwarrow threw himself down on his disgrace to the army himself. Having breast and belly and began to crawl over drawn the troops up in line of battle he the floor, to the feet of the throne. appeared before them in the dress of a “What is this, marshal ? " said the emcommon soldier, but decorated with all peror; "come, my son, this will not do; his orders, and with the portraits of the are you mad ? get up.” “No, no, sire! late czarina and the emperor of Austria I wish to make my way too in this court, sparkling on his breast in the sunshine. and I know it is only by crawling that one The soldiers, on hearing the announce- can get into your Majesty's good graces.” ment of the czar's will, broke into cries of At last Suwarrow was to reap the joy indignation and sorrow which the general which he had often prayed Catherine to vainly tried to hush. He then stripped grant him — an army of fifty thousand himself of his military accoutrements and Cossacks with which to make the condeposited them on a pyramid of drums quest of France. For his series of briland cymbals, which had previously been liant victories over Macdonald, Moreau, raised in front of the embattled battalions. and Joubert, the grateful czar conferred “And now, comrades," said he, “there on him the title of prince with the surmay come a time when Suwarrow will be name of: Italisky; and issued a decree again your general; be will then resume ordaining that the same military honors these spoils which he leaves to you and should be paid to Suwarrow as himself, which he always wore in his victories." and that henceforward and forever he The “mad czar," indignant at the honor should be considered the greatest captain and deference paid to the exile by the of every age, of every nation and country pobles and populace of Moscow, resolved of the world. Paul was the first to disyet further to humiliate his mother's obey his own imperial ukase. He attribfavorite general. He banished him to an uted to Suwarrow the disasters of the insignificant village. To the officer of Helvetian campaign; and in reorganizing

. police who was deputed to carry out the his shattered armies he left no command imperial will, and who had informed Su. for the brave, grey-haired warrior, who warrow that four hours would be allowed retired to St. Petersburg, bowed with him to prepare for his journey, he replied, sorrow, broken-hearted and neglected. “Four hours ! too much kindness! one On his arrival there he went to the house hour is enough for Suwarrow.” The of his nephew Prince Gortschakoff; and officer conducted him to the coach which lay down never to rise.

to bear him to his destination. Suwarrow, sprung from a family of no “A coach !” he said, “ Suwarrow in a social position and held in no respect, coach ! he will go to exile in the equipage began in 1742 the career which he ended he used when travelling to the court of as generalissimo of the Russian forces, Catherine or leading the army to victory; as a private soldier in the Fusilier Guards go and get a cart.”

of the empress Elizabeth. He won every In course of time the exile's friends step in his rapid promotion by his prowess succeeded in softening Paul's enmity; and daring on the field of battle. In five they even cajcled the monarch into writ- years he attained to the rank of corporal; ing him a letter intimating his re-installa- in 1749 he received further promotion; tion into the favor and protection of his and in 1754 he quitted the Guards with a Majesty. The letter was addressed to lieutenant's commission. His first camField-Marshal Suwarrow. “ This letter paign was made in the course of the Seven is not for me," said the stern, uncom- Years War with Prussia, when Frederick promising exile to the royal messenger: the Great was “like to be overwhelmed ” • if Suwarrow were field-marshal he would by his enemies; and he was present at not be banished and guarded in a village; the capture of Berlin by Toddleben in he would be seen at the head of the ar- 1760. For his valor in this war Catherine mies;

and the courier had actually to presented him, in 1762, with a colonel's bear the letter back to his Majestyun commission written by her own hand. opened.

As brigadier-general, hé marched against i The

exigencies of State, however, the confederates of Poland in 1768; ob


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taining the full rank of major-general two | uniform, covering his breast with his years later. When finally he was made numerous decorations and orders and marshal of the empire, he performed in trinkets. He danced and skipped like a the presence of the army some of the lunatic, and posed and pirouetted in his most wonderful antics recorded in the new costume. Before enrobing himself, chronicles of the great. Catherine never he hugged and kissed it, and made again granted promotion on grounds of senior- and again the sign of the cross; and the ity, either of merit or of favoritism mild, innocent vanity of the man showed merit in the recipients' relation to the itself not only in the way he strutted State, or favoritism in their domestic and about, inflated with a sense of his selfpersonal relations to the throne. There importance, but in the remark he made is an anecdote to the effect that she dis- on little Nicholas Soltikoff, who thought missed General Kamenskoi from her ser-himself specially slighted by Suwarrow's vice for having taken command of an army, promotion over his head: “I don't wonon the march, consequent on the death of der that they did not give such a dress as his superior, Prince Potemkin; a respon- this to little Nick; it would be too heavy sibility which he could not well evade. for him.” He sent a report to her Majesty, in which His laurels as a general were won in the introductory sentence ran as follows: that Russo-Turkish war which has raged “Having taken the command in conse through many generations since the de. quence of my seniority,” on the perusal scent of the Saracen on Europe. In 1788 of which audacious sentence, Catherine, Suwarrow commanded the fortress of in her own hand, wrote the marginal com- Kinburn, besieged by the Turks. He ment,“ Who gave you orders ?" He then suffered the enemy to disembark without proceeded to criticise the disorganized opposition; he even encouraged them to state of the troops -- an indirect reflection proceed by sending out a small force with on the capacity of the deceased general, instructions to retreat, after exchanging a who, having originally been Catherine's few shots, as though they were frightened. domestic companion, had become her The device succeeded; and while the trustiest adviser; retaining as a states- Turkish boats had gone back to Otchakow man the influence he had acquired over for reinforcements, Suwarrow marched her through the tender passion. On out at the head of two battalions with reading these strictures, Catherine wrote, fixed bayonets, and slaughtered the enemy “ He dared not say a word while the to a man. In these Turkish campaigns, prince was alive;” and though Kamens- he heaped deeds of prowess upon each koi was a man of much military capacity, other. At Fokschan, when thirty thouthe answer to his elaborate critique was a sand Austrians fled from the battle-field, command to quit the army. The alle. leaving the Turkish army of one hundred gorical buffooneries Suwarrow performed thousand men victors, Suwarrow put himon the occasion of his elevation to the self at the head of eight thousand Rusmarshalate, were of the most grotesque sians and changed the fortunes of the character. Of the half-superstitious, half-day. “ Brothers !” cried he; “never look religious temper of the Russian boor, he to the eyes of your enemies! Fix your saw the hand of Providence in his success view on their breasts and thrust your in life. He resolved that he would pub- bayonets there." licly thank the deity for it, which he did The sack of Ismail was his crowning in the cathedral church of Warsaw. He triumph in this war. Potemkin, not very packed the nave and aisle of the cathedral anxious for a conclusion of hostilities, with soldiers to witness the following had leisurely and playfully besieged the religio - comic entertainment. Having city for seven months; when Madame de placed in a line as many chairs as there Witt, to tempt him into activity, divining were officers senior to himself and hold by the cards, predicted its downfall within ing military rank between that he had three weeks. The prince replied that he been promoted from and that he had been had a method of divination more prompt promoted to, he entered the building in and sure than that; and ordered Suwarhis shirt-sleeves, and in the leapfrog style row to take it within three days. On the vaulted over each chair, thereby typifying third day the hero drew up his soldiers, how he had vaulted over his rivals. There and addressing them

s Brothers! no after, in the presence of the grinning yet quarter, provisions are dear!” – delivered admiring soldiery, who loved yet laughed the assault. His forces, twice repulsed, at their erratic, brilliant, and vainglorious at last scaled the walls ; and then fol. chief, he dressed himself in his marshal's | lowed a scene of rapine, and murder, and

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