man of his kind whom recent ages have pro- I just completed; the king came backwards duced; but it is not the less true that none of land forwards from Versailles to the hotel of these great things were accomplished in his the ambassadors in the Rue de Tournon to be time without being previously discussed in near his mother. On the day of the great recprofound secrecy between Richelieu and the onciliation the king went on foot to his mothking. Who then can say, since no third per. er's apartment. She was alone at her toilette, son was present, what was the share of each of nobody being present but three women of the them in first conceiving and digesting these bedchamber, a servant or two, the king and measures, or in deciding on the manner in my father, whom he brought with him and which they were to be executed — which of the kept there. Madame de mbalet, afterwards two added, diminished, corrected ? If it may Duchesse d’Aiguillon, arrived, but her appearreadily be thought that Richelieu bore the ance seemed at once to freeze the queen. The larger part in them, and sometimes the whole, lady threw herself at her feet, with the most can it reasonably be contended that Louis had respectful and becoming language. She was not his part also ? And as they were not ex- clever, and I have heard my father say that on ecuted without his approbation, his will, his this occasion she showed it. But the icy coldassent as king and master, he must have under- ness of the queen was succeeded by a fit of stood them, and felt their merit, their feasi- temper, then by anger, then by rage, bitter bility, their operation, their conduct. I re- reproaches, a torrent of insults, and at last of peat, it has never been denied that he had such abuse as only fishwives use.

The king intelligence, valor, military capacity, and the tried at first to interpose, reminding the queen love of what is great; add then the modesty, of what she had promised and of what was due the humility, the contempt and renunciation of to himself and to her own station. Nothing self, an aversion to flattery so sincere that, could stop the torrent. The king from time abjuring it for himself, he saw with tranquil to time gave my father a look. My father serenity that it was lavished on his minister, stood motionless, hardly daring to look at the and it may be said that Louis cannot be king: When he related this prodigious scene, stripped of a large share in all that was planned he always added that never in his life did he and executed during his reign, although it was feel so ill at ease. At last the king, exasper. not possible that the whole meed of glory ated, stepped forward, for he was standing all should not thus have fallen to Richelieu and the time, took Madame de Combalet, who was remain ever since attached to him. The glory still kneeling, by the shoulders, and said to of Louis XIII. was to know that he deserved her angrily that she had heard enough and it and to despise it: what glory is more hero should withdraw. Bursting into tears, she met ical or more rare?

the cardinal, who was just entering the apart

ment; he was so alarmed by what he saw, that On his return from Italy in the spring he hesitated to proceed. He did, however, of 1630, Louis XIII. fell'ill and lay in enter the queen’s chamber, knelt before her, danger of his life at Lyons. The possi- and was at first tolerably received. But very bility of his death agitated the court with soon the tide began to rise, the storm broke continual intrigues. Gaston, his brother, out again; she called him ungrateful, treachwas heir to the crown; Richelieu was in erous, and a thousand pretty names, and ended power; the queen-mother was the rival of by driving the cardinal from her presence forboth in her own interest and in that of has often told me that Richelieu looked like a

ever. My father, still glancing at the king, Spain, and her open hostility to the cardi- convict, and as for himself he thought he nal broke forth at last in the catastrophe should sink through the floor. At last the of the journée des dupes (November 11, cardinal went away. The king shortly re1630), which has never been so graphi- buked his mother for her behavior, and then cally described as in these pages.

We withdrew on foot, angry. As they walked must somewhat abridge Saint-Simon's away he asked my father what he thought of narrative.

all he had seen and heard. My father shrugged

his shoulders and said nothing. The court The queen turned short on arriving in Paris. was thronged with people anxious to know She declared to the king that, inuch as she what had happened. The king broke through had to complain of the ingratitude of the car. them all, and withdrew with my father to his dinal, she had at last resolved to be reconciled closet, where he threw himself on a sofa, and to him. The king desired nothing better, the buttons of his pourpoint burst, so swelled since this relieved him from the odious neces

was he with rage. sity of choosing between his mother and his

The moment was come when a choice minister. An early day was fixed on which between the mother and the minister the cardinal and his niece, Madame de Com- must be made, and the elder Saint-Simon balet, of the queen, who had been dismissed by her Majesty, were to attend proceeded, being ordered by his master, her toilette, and be taken again into favor. to explain at length why it was not the The royal toilette was then attended by very minister who could be sacrificed. This few persons of high distinction. The queen interview lasted two hours, and ended in was living at the Luxembourg, which she had the resolution of the king to maintain the


cardinal in power. Upon this decision | Saint-Simon withdrew to Blaye; but the the king desired the Duke de Saint-Simon king remained in close correspondence to send word to the cardinal, as from him with his friend, who returned to court on self, that be should wait upon his Ma. the death of the cardinal, and remained jesty that evening at Versailles. In the there for the few remaining months of the anteroom was a gentleman of his own ser- king's own life. Perhaps his retreat was vice — the father of Marshal Trouville. dictated by a prudent observation of the Taking him aside, he whispered in his fate of the king's favorites whilst Richeear to go at once to the cardinal, and tell | lieu was alive. him that he was to proceed on the duke's Henry IV. had no relations, therefore

that evening to Versailles. no infidos agiians discordia fratres. His This done, he re-entered the cabinet, and domestic troubles were due chiefly to his remained another hour with the king. own lenity and to the intrigues of his

No sooner did this messenger arrive successive wives. The relations of Louis than the cardinal, hearing from whom he XIV. revered him and trembled before came, unlocked his doors, and embraced him as if he were a god; from the date of him on both cheeks. They were packing his majority no domestic cabal, no civil his Eminence's carriages in the courtyard. revolt, troubled the majestic autocracy of The tables were turned. The conspiracy seventy years. The Fronde was an exwas dissolved. The cardinal was restored piring effort of the factions of the preto favor, and so ended the Day of Dupes. ceding reign against Anne of Austria and Some efforts were made to allay the fury Mazarin. But the whole life of Louis of Mary of Medicis, but in vain, and in XIII, was a series of troubles, chiefly July, 1631, she fled from France forever. occasioned by the execrable ambition and

This story differs also in many particu- disloyalty of his nearest kinsman. Richelars from the version which bears the lieu is said to have struck down the great name of the cardinal himself, who asserts nobles of France, but the chief conspirathat he in a manner forced his way into tors against the crown and against him. the queen's apartment. He also avers self stood above his reach, for they were that the message of recall was sent to the queen-mother and Gaston, the king's him by the Cardinal de la Valette and by brother, of whom Saint-Simon draws the the king himself. The fact seems to be following picture : that La Valette was sitting with Riche. lieu when the message from Saint-Simon Louis XIII. was one of the most unhappy arrived. We give the preference to Saint- princes who ever lived in his family and his Sinion's account. His father was the domestic life. A mother as I have already only clisinterested person actually present,

depicted her, Italian, Spanish, with no knowl. It is admitted that the king asked and edge and no spark of light, harsh, malicious took his advice, and we have no reason to others, always abandoned to the interests and

in her own temper and by the influence of doubt that the scene is faithfully related the will of obscure and abject creatures who by his son.

for power and fortune poisoned her head and Nicolas Goulas in his memoirs omits heart, rendered her haughty, jealous, imperithe presence of Saint-Simon at this scene; ous, arrogant, inaccessible to reason and always he intimates that the cardinal found his diametrically opposed to her son and to the way into the closet by a side door through interests of the crown; fickle, moreover, and the chapel, which the queen had forgot to subject to the changing influences of those bar, and that he entered the presence with who ruled her; without the least discernment a "visage riant et ouvert,” saying, “ I will and caring, not at all for the troubles, civil

wars, and disorders of the State in comparison lay a wager your Majesties were talking with the wishes of the wretches who succesof me.” This detail seems doubtful. But sively exercised a supreme authority over her. Goulas admits that it was the influence of

A brother, who, with some talent and the Saint-Simon (the father) which mainly de- gift of speech, allowed bimself to be governed cided the fate of the day in favor of the as easily as the queen his mother ; who had cardinal and against the queen; for this no sort of courage, with little sense or disservice be was rewarded by being made a crimination, but sudden outbursts easily ex: duke and peer of France, with the govern:

cited, and a weakness fearing al things and ment of Blaye, and he played his part so resisting nothing; ever ready to quarrel and well that he rafferinit le colosse ébranlé to repent, rolling in a continual circle of requi tomboit en ruine.” Richelieu was either supporting his part with spirit, or aban.

bellions, factions, and adjustments, without more jealous of Saint-Simon than grateful doning it with honor, even for himself, much to him, and, having failed in his efforts to less for his followers, since he sacrificed them save the life of the Duc de Montmorency, I as easily as he joined them, and slipped with equal facility through the hands of the king, d'Effiat, and a distant connection of the queen mother, and his own partisans. In Richelieu's family, had been introduced spite of these defects, calculated to deprive to the notice and favor of the king in him of any adherents, he always had as many 1639 by the cardinal himself. The king of them as he wished, from the long sterility was infatuated with his young favorite, of the marriage of Louis XIII. and the bad and loaded him with premature honors, health of that prince, which caused Gaston to be regarded for two-and-twenty vears as heir The office of grand écuyer was vacated presumptive to the crown; and after the king, in his favor by the Duc de Bellegarde, whose health grew more and more precarious, and thenceforth Cinq Mars, a lad barely had children, his brother was looked upon as twenty, was known at court, as he is in the future administrator of the kingdom at no the memoirs of the time, as Monsieur le distant period, under the queen his sister-in- Grand. law, with whom he had already been intimately connected by common hatreds and affections. The cardinal did not doubt that these ties Both of them had long been attached to the of birth, joined to such enormous personal queen-mother; nothing had ever interrupted obligations, would indissolubly attach this the close alliance of the two queens, from the young man to his service, and that, Cinq Mars date of the marriage of Louis XIII., riveted being the king's favorite, all the influence and by the Spanish passions which possessed them information of that position would strengthen both, and by the open hatred they bore to his own authority as prime minister.

He was ministers who thought as Frenchmen, and to mistaken, against all human reason. He found the persons whom Louis XIII. honored with in him ingratitude, ambition without limit and his friendship and confidence. On his mother, without judgment, in a word a most dangeron his brother, on his wife, the king therefore ous madman. The king's health became daily had to look with continual suspicion. This worse, the queen had given birth to a son the domestic grievance was extreme and incessant; year before, a regency was near at hand. The bis mildness, his patience, his virtue, his atten- rank of Gaston, and his relations to his sistertions had never mitigated it, and this misfor-in-law the queen, promised him a great author. tune had commenced without him and endured ity during the infancy of the future king, Louis throughout his life.

XIV. Both mortally hated Richelieu. Cinq

Mars did not hesitate to abandon himself to This dark picture of the character of them, the one and the other, at a time when Gaston is not overcharged. Profligate in he could serve them, with a view to his future his morals, treacherous to his brother, advantage. This policy was infamous; yet, treasonable to the State, perfidious to his if he had stopped there, it might have suited friends, whom he sacrificed without re- the purposes of a far-sighted scoundrel, capamorse to save himself from condign pun.

ble of sacrificing all to the preservation and ishment, had he been a man of less than augmentation of his fortune. Ciny Mars had the highest rank, his ever-recurring crimes in haste to fly with his own wings. Richelieu,

neither age nor experience to be wise ; he was would infallibly have sent him to the scaf. who perceived it, endeavored to check him, fold. The “ Memoirs of Nicolas Goulas”

failed, grew angry, treated him ill, and Ciną recently published by the Société de l'His- Mars became his personal enemy. He did toire de France (to which we have already the cardinal all the mischief he could, which referred), though written by a devoted recommended him to the queen and Gaston, member of his own household, are a speak with whom at last he completely engaged himing record of his baseness and his iniqui- self in close alliance; with Montrésor and the fate he deserved. It was he who sent de Thou, of whom something must be said. ties, and one only regrets that he escaped Fontrailles * he also courted the friendship of

the Duc de Bouillon through François-Auguste Chalais to the block, after having impli

This gentleman was the eldest son of Moncated him in a plot for the murder of the sieur de Thou, président à mortier in the Parcardinal. It was he who broke out into liament of Paris, who died in 1617 at sixtyopen rebellion in 1632, which cost the three, illustrious for many important offices gallant and noble Duc de Montınorency and the integrity of his life, and celebrated for his life, while Gaston made his peace with his admirable history of France, from 1545 to the king without an effort to save his vic- 1607. He married a daughter of Gaspar de la tims. Lastly, it was he who was the soul Chastre, Comte de Nancy, by whom he had of the great conspiracy of 1641, with the François-Auguste de Thou, the subject of this Duc de Bouillon and the court of Spain, notice. The son succeeded his father as grand which had Cinq Mars and De Thou for

* M. de Montrésor was a first cousin of De Thou its instruments and its prey. The ac

and very intimate with him. Louis d'Astarac, Vicomte count given by Saint-Simon of this last de Fontrailles, Marquis de Marestang, Sénéchal d'Artransaction is so minute and so interest- magnac, was one of the most active members of the ing that we shall cite it at some length.

conspiracy, and the most eager to put Richelieu to

death ; but he effected his escape when the plot was M. de Cinq Mars, son of Marshal | discovered, and lived on till the year 1677.

master of the king's library, an office he de Cinq Mars with an extreme desire to gain the served for his erudition, and which connected friendship of the Duc de Bouillon in order to him with the most learned men of the time. restore his confidence and alliance to Gaston. He was also a master of requests and a coun- Whilst from Sédan Bouillon was treating with cillor of state, a title then readily granted. the king, who was at Mézières, De Thou, who Books had not affected the grace of his man had followed the court, made several journeys ners, and had increased the charm of his con- to Sédan, and at the request of Cinq Mars versation, which obtained for him many friends offered his friendship to Bouillon and solicited amongst men of letters, men of law, and at his in return. Nothing could be more welcourt, where the connections of his mother come to so factious a person than a union with and the reputation of his father and grand- the favorite who promised him through De father gave him a ready access. All found Thou to leave him in ignorance of nothing him amiable, trustworthy, and faithful to his which might come to his knowledge. The friends. This agreeable social position gave matter having reached this point, and the him a taste for the great world and diverted treaty being concluded, Bouillon went twice him from his profession; he aimed at the to Mézières, where on both occasions he saw highest and the greatest ; his friends were Cinq Mars alone or with De Thou. The men of the utmost consideration, for the union became more and more close; and friendship of a man so much in fashion was a Bouillon promised to receive Gaston at Sédan merit; his wit, his probity, his capacity, his if he were obliged to withdraw from France. discretion, gained him that of the great, whilst Somewhat later Bouillon engaged to come to his manners, his politeness, his learning, his Paris after the departure of the king for Rousaccomplishments, caused him to be adored by sillon; he was as good as his word. He saw all the most cultivated persons of his time. Cinq Mars twice at St. Germain in his room; That time was ever full of factions and of he saw him twice at Paris by night in the troubles; and though he appeared, and be. Place Royale, no one else being present but lieved himself, to be without ambition, he De Thou, who managed these rendezvous. feasted on all the manifold intrigues into From the Place Royale they went once to the which his friends of the highest rank continu- stables of Gaston where that prince met them.* ally plunged him. Friendship and mutual It was there that the draft of the treaty with confidence gradually entangled him in relations Spain was read by Cinq Mars; and there it with the queen, with Gaston, with the Ven- was resolved to send Fontrailles to Madrid. dômes, with the Maréchale de Bouillon, and Bouillon, who had just accepted the command the Duc de Bouillon, her son, and many oth of the army in Italy, engaged to act there in

These relations became intimate ; he did conformity with the treaty. This document not perceive the danger of them, and lost him- being drawn up and signed, Fontrailles was self in the glow of these luminous exhalations. ordered to take it to Madrid, and to bring it

Cinq Mars, such as he was, could not fail back promptly concluded. De Thou exceedpassionately to desire his friendship, and De ingly disapproved this treaty, but he kept the Thou was not a man not to be enchanted to secret of his friends. Bouillon started for share, and that intimately, the friendship of so Italy, the king for Roussillon. The queen redazzling a favorite. The most complete and mained at St. Germain, Monsieur le Prince total confidence soon sprang up between them. (Condé) at Paris where he commanded, as. Till then De Thou had been, or at least ap- sisted by the Chancellor Séguier for the transpeared to be, only the friend and confidant of action of business. Gaston begged off the personages of the highest rank, and the first journey, and remained at Blois. Aubigoux importance, without taking an active part in and Fontrailles insisted that Richelieu inust anything. This last intimacy was fatal to him. be made away with; for this purpose they folCinq Mars, enraged at the ill-treatment of lowed the court to Lyons, where Cinq Mars, Richelieu, the more so as he deserved it, had in order to be in strength, had assembled a already conceived a design to ruin the cardinal multitude of the nobles of Auvergne on the at any cost, and threw himself, for that pur arrival of the king. pose, into all the schemes of the queen and It was at Lyons that the blow was to be Gaston. The prince did not dare to take a struck; but at the last moment their courage final resolution without having secured a place failed them. Fontrailles had concluded the of safety on the frontier. Sedan was the only treaty in Spain with the Count.Duke of Oli. place into which he could throw himself in vares, and brought it back with incredible case of need, to treat with Spain and await diligence, signed. The queen knew these her support. He had just before deceived the facts, and spoke of the treaty at St. Germain late Comte de Soissons and the Duc de Bouil. to De Thou. lon at Sédan, with whom he had treated, and * According to Goulas, who had the particulars from whom he had even excited to revolt. The Gaston himself, this meeting was held at the Hôtel de object was to win back Bouillon, whose treaty of the prince were then lodged. Gaston proposed that

Venise in the Rue Gilles au Marais, where the stables with the king, whose protestations and oaths De Thou should not be present at the conference with were still quite recent, and who had not for: Bouillon and Cinq Mars, as he said too many persons gotten the inactivity of the Spaniards, and were in the secret; but he was overruled, and it was that he had only been rescued by the troops of life. He declared on his trial "qu'il n'était coupable

De Thou's presence on this occasion that cost him his the emperor. This it was which animated I que parce qu'il avait des oreilles."


This treaty, signed at Madrid on March 13, a declaration of the king registered in Parlia1642, by Olivares, declared in its honest pre- ment on December 5, 1642, the day after the amble that the principal object of the urion death of Cardinal de Richelieu, Gaston was was peace between the two crowns, without declared incapable of government for six redoing anything against the king of France or lapses into treason (which are enumerated by his interests (an enormous imposture, as will Saint-Simon). These facts, heaped upon each shortly be seen), or against the interests of the other and augmented by a thousand more of queen (which meant that in case of the death less importance but of similar intention, speak of the king her right to the regency should be for themselves, and demonstrate what Gaston maintained); and provided that Spain should was in relation to the State and the king his furnish twelve or fifteen thousand veterans; brother, whose patience and goodness towards that, as soon as Gaston should be at Sédan, him were inexhaustible. Spain would give him four hundred thousand De Thou, on the point of going to the scafécus to raise troops and a pension of twelve fold, entrusted two letters to the Jesuit Mamthousand écus a year, to Bouillon forty thou- brun, his confessor, the one for the learned sand ducats a year, the same to Cinq Mars, Du Puy, his kinsman and friend, the other for and one hundred thousand livres for the de-a lady without any address. He exacted from fences of Sédan, and twenty-five thousand the Jesuit under the seal of confession a promlivres a month for the garrison; that Spain ise that this letter should be delivered to the and Gaston should not treat one without the queen consort, and that its existence should other; that the fortresses taken since the rup not be disclosed to any one at all. The letter tare of the two crowns should be restored was to reassure the queen and inform her that bona fide, whether bought or occupied, as her secret had been faithfully kept by himself Pignerol, Brissac, etc. (so the emperor was not as well as by Cinq Mars and Bouillon. forgotten by Spain); that Gaston and his party should declare themselves hostile to the This is the best account we have met Swedes, the United Provinces, the Catalans, with of this celebrated conspiracy which and all the enemies of Spain; in case of the led to such fatal results. We are surdeath of Gaston the same pension was to be prised to find that M. Guizot, relying on continued to the two lords (Cinq Mars and the memoirs of Madame de Motteville, Bouillon), and even to one of them.

A glance at this treaty demonstrates the im- seems to think that the king was privy to pudence of its preamble. It was signed whilst the designs of Cinq Mars against RicheRoussillon and Catalonia in revolt had given lieu, and had been cajoled by M. le Grand themselves to Louis XIII., and whilst this at Perpignan. But he certainly was not prince, ill as he was, flew to their rescue with privy to the treaty with Spain, and Riche. Marshal de Brezé to hold Barcelona as vice lieu opened his eyes to the enormity of roy of Catalonia, Marshal de la Melleraye to the plot by sending him a copy of it. besiege Collioure, and Marshal la Mothe to Richelieu discovered the conspiracy on command the army in Roussillon under the June 9. Suspecting that Gaston was at king, who took Perpignan.

De Thou, detesting the treaty in itself for the bottom of it, he sent that prince, on France and thinking it mad and dangerous for June 13, an order to assume the command his friends, resolved to retire to Rome, so as of the king's armies in Champagne. This not to witness its success (which was to evade effectually deceived him, but he soon the result of his own conduct), and passing learned that on the very same day Cinq through Piedmont to tell the Duc de Bouillon Mars had been arrested at Narbonne. what he thought of it. A quinsy in the throat This fact, which reached him on June 25, prevented him from giving effect to this reso- threw Gaston into a state of indescribable lution. All was discovered. Bouillon was terror; he instantly resolved to disclose arrested at the head of his army, Cinq Mars and De Thou at the saine time. The rest is everything and to betray his accomplices,

and he addressed five letters on the same well known.

All these things were confessed by Bouillon. day to the king, to Richelieu, and three Cinq Mars and De Thou were interrogated other ministers, couched in terms of the and confronted at Lyons, where they were most abject submission. These letters committed to Pierre-en-cise, by the Chancellor are still in existence in the National Séguier and several commissioners. Gaston, Library at Paris. The answer he received sent for, and arriving near Lyons, acknowl. was that his own fate depended on the edged everything, and showed a copy of the completeness of his disclosures, to enable treaty with Spain, as he had burned the origi- the other prisoners to be convicted. The nal, affirming it to be exact and faithful. He evidence of Gaston astonished Bouillon, too was interrogated by Séguier in presence of and led him to speak too; the answers of the commissioners, and entreated for pardon Bouillon irritated Cinq Mars, and led him and mercy. He was stripped of his government of Auvergne, of his pensions, and re- to implicate De Thou. This evidence duced to live on his appanage far from the was taken at Dombes, whence the prince court with a suite of prescribed numbers. By was sent to Annecy, and he was to have

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