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encouragement to patience to know that| fifth the sun came out, and we drove up they must wait ten years for their next to the very holy Madonna at Maria Plain, entertainment. The silence and reverent who performs miracles by the dozen on rapt attention of the enormous crowd the believing. Strings of men and wom(four thousand persons were present) was en pilgrims were going up the flights of very remarkable

with closed eyes it steps to the top of the hill and kneeling at seemned as if there were no one within two the shrines and chapels on the way to an hundred yards. Had it rained the case extremely tawdry church, dressed out with might have been different. We heard of blue and gold. The black silk handkerfights with umbrellas having occurred chief tied tightly, with long ends, at the among those who sat in front unsheltered. I back of the head, and the white sleeves, In the old unsophisticated days it is are all that remain of costume, but two recorded too that Pontius Pilate and the queer little babies in blue and white, with Virgin Mary sometimes appeared on the green wreaths on their flaxen plaits, scene holding umbrellas over their heads! " vouées à la Vierge,” toddled on as part

The railroad from Munich to Salzburg of the stream. The glorious view of fringes the beautiful lake country, and the mountains spread out before us as mist which veiled the mountains was fall- rose, beginning with the magnificent Uning as snow on their summits. We passed tersberg, in the caverns beneath which along a flat region, much of it bog, where sit the emperor Frederic Barbarossa and the fuel was being stacked (for use, even, bis knights, to return some day to earth on the railway engines); clover, blackened – the time is not quite specified. He is by the rain, lung on the little posts which waited upon by the dwarfs, the little bergare here six feet bigh; the undrained menschen, “gnomes,” as one of our inmeadows were soaked in wet, where the formants told us ; “but it isn't true," he women, ground down with hard work, said, so earnestly that it proved a large were doing more than the men, barefoot, substratum of belief. or with heavy wooden shoes and no stock- There is a still more celebrated and poings. Thes happy peasant” of Vaude tent Madonna about fifty miles off, where, ville and the new order of political econo- at a convent and church high above the mists, we pursue in vain; we certainly Danube, a hundred thousand pilgrims have not found him yet. The nearest ap- still attend every year upon her pleasure. proach to him that we hear of is the The next day was fine, and HTyrolese of the south Bavarian hills, where spent it in going up the valley to visit the the population is very sparse and there salt mines at Halein and Berchtesgaden. are many large properties and much wild The Salzkammergut is the private propland belonging to the king. Here the erty of the emperor, and the monopoly

happy hunting-grounds” may still be must bring in a large revenue. The de. found; the peasant is an “inveterate posit of salt is known to be fifteen hunpoacher, and out a great part of his time dred feet thick, and may be much deeper after game, four footed and winged, very where still unworked. The entrance at lustig, and very fond of music and danc- Halein is high up in the mountain, and the ing.” But this is hardly the ideal which descent is by a series of wooden slides, is expected to redress Ireland, or England one after the other, some even at an aneither.

gle of fifty-seven degrees, through the Splendid rose-colored clouds spread mine to an opening at the bottom. The over the whole western half of the sky as sightseers, male and female, clad in thick we came nearer to the solemn range which canvas jackets and trousers, sit astride, stood out, purple and black, against the each on a flap of leather, with a lamp in sky behind Salzburg. The city is set one hand and grasping a rope in the upon the edge of the flat plain out of other, in a string behind the guide, who which rise the great mountains, sheer, regulates the speed, with his hand prowith no intermediate hills, in a most striktected by an enormous glove, grasping the ing manner. The look-out, indeed, east stationary rope by the side. If he were and west, is called the most beautiful in- to lose his hold the whole cargo would be land view in Europe, the distant snowy precipitated to the bottom with a tremenpeaks, of great height, towards Gastein dous smash. Twenty-seven large and and the Tyrol, towering over the nearer small lakes are in the heart of the mine, ranges and seen from every height, how- some of which are lighted by lamps for the ever small. For four days the cloud veil pleasure of the visitors as they are ferried came down over the mountains and abso-across them; but there is no sparkling lutely nothing was to be seen, but on the white salt, all is dirty and dull.

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The great fortress of the archbishop stars, the whole wonderfully, strangely (who was primus in Germany) rises six striking, while the windows looked three hundred feet or more above the subject ways, embracing all the glorious views city, and can only be approached by flights we had seen from the tower. It was the of steps and steep inclines. I went up most remarkable dwelling-place we had in a sedan-chair, but H- walked gal. ever entered. And then we returned lantly the whole way. Up, up, higher through great vaulted chambers, in which still and higher, with bastions, rock-hewn the young soldiers were swarming, back ditches, portcullis, and outlying towers, to the lower world where the darkness where it is impossible to make out what had now settled down; the lamps were is rock and what building, what natural lighted and the angelus was pealing from and what artificial, the priest's stronghold the many churches, one with a most melomounts into the sky. Nothing on wheels dious carillon, very sweet in the evening can get up, only sledges drawn by oxen, air, which rang at six A.M., at noon, and so that the supply of the regiments who at twilight. Here, after the Schleswigare quartered there must be difficult in- Holstein war, five hundred Danish prisdeed. Troops of men in uniform were oners were lodged in the fortress, and the running down, off duty, all very young, Protestant pastor of Salzburg offered to and many Tyrolese Jägers, with their give them a Sunday service, to which the green feathers, looking active, well-built, commandant assented gladly. The Protbut very small men. My bearers climbed estants, however, were just building a like cats, even up the staircase of the church, and, meantime, were making use tower which ended the ascent. Here was of the old Rathhaus, the floor of which a view quite unsurpassed of the lines of was declared by the authorities to be too mountains towering up into the sky on rickety to stand such an additional weight one side, and the city, with its many of worshippers. The commandant was churches, and the river winding througli appealed to again, who immediately ofthe plain to join the Danube far away in fered them the archbishop's council chamthe distance, on the other. It was a beau- ber up in the skies, to the great delight of tiful evening, and the valleys were dis- the pastor and his flock. Accordingly; tinctly seen up into the heart of the land. every Sunday the whole body collected Above even this we climbed, up two there, each inging his stool, or air, or winding stairs, where, high in the air, bit of wood, as there was nothing to sit Archbishop Leon had made himself a on. He found that most of the prisoners perch, in 1499. It was not like the dwell- had their hyinn-books in their knapsacks, ing of a human being, but of a savage and that they all knew Luther's.Eine bird of prey, some Geier, or eagle, ready feste Burg,” the great Protestant anthem. to swoop down on the passengers to and There was, however, no instrument to fro, while far beneath lie horrible dun- lead them, and again he turned to the kind geons and torture-chambers, where the commandant, who directly granted them rack is still shown to those who love such the regimental band of forty men. It was sights, and oubliettes where prisoners were very hot weather and the windows were thrown down to die. We passed a "pris- all open, and Sunday after Sunday, out of on of little ease,” where the poor wretch the archbishop's sanctum, rang out old Luconfined in it could neither stand, sit, nor ther's great paan, thundered by forty inlie at length, a more dreadful punishment struments and nearly six hundred voices, than even the rack – and many were the to the great scandal of the Catholic city, Protestants who had suffered in the fort with all its churches and churchgoers, ress, under Leon's successors. Up in below. “But I hope the ghosts of the this eyrie was the archbishop's bedroom, Protestants murdered in the dungeons a dining room with a great porcelain stove, underneath, heard it and were satisfied ! ” each tile with a story or coat of arms, and ended our friend grimly. the whole set on eight pottery lions (the I asked our driver, as we waited in the only attempt at warming in that coldest of dusk for the pastor, about the Kaiser beperches), and finally a hall of audience neath the Untersberg. “Yes," he said, with twisted porphyry columns, the doors "he was there, and the little hillmen with great hinges picked out with ver- waited on him.” “ How big are they?' milion and gold, very barbaric and fine. I inquired. He measured with his hand The walls and ceilings are lined with about two feet. “ But I have never seen elaborate woodwork ornamented with very them myself. There are plenty of Mär. peculiar gilt studs, which shone out like chen about them, however."

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body seen them?” “Yes, the Jägers the stable opening without a door. We sometimes, and they are heard in the are intimately acquainted with the cotDom Kirche once a year, on Midsummer tage life of three English counties, and Eve, for then they come and sing.”.." Oh, more generally with those of many more, then, they are good and not evil, if they and never saw a place or a woman in the come to church?” “Oh, good ; they are most pauperized district, and in the worst not evil at all; they do nothing but good hovel (run up on the waste by a small to people,” he said, with a look over his shopkeeper in order to let !), which looked shoulder lest the kleine Leute, the dwarfs, in more squalid poverty, or in such rags should do him an evil turn. They sing, and discomfort, as this owner of a house, and dance, and have good wine, unit a cow, two goats, a pig, and an acre and essen sehr wohl !he went on; and then a half of land. came an account of their clothes, of ver- We then tried a more imposing-looking schiedene colors, which was beyond my home, much larger and smartened up German to follow. “ But the Kaiser is with green jalousies. Here, too, half the dead,” he said with a sceptical laugh, in-house was let. The kitchen was so small tended to impress me with his advanced that the woman could hardly turn in it, state of mind. I inquired about a queer the “parlor” was no bigger, and a bed feather in his hat. It came from under on one side and a chest of drawers on the wing of the geier, the mountain vul- the other, with a great crucifix, filled up ture from the Königsee, and the brown the space. The owner took us through bit was the beard of the Gemschs (cha- the kitchen door into the cowhouse admois), which gave a good deal of local joining, where lay six cows.

A little haycolor to the man's gaunt, handsome face : loft opened into it and a place for the ox, he came from the mountains himself. which was out cultivating part of his eight

The wages of a laborer, H-heard, acres of land. He sent his milk into the near Berchtesgaden, were about 35. 6d. a town. There was a sort of rack close to week, with food, and a garment of some the cows, where the Knecht slept: if it is kind was added in the year. A servant a girl, both here and in north Germany, girl got £9 a year, which was high in pro- she sleeps thus in the manger of the portion. No one in the mountain regions wretched stables, open to the smells, the eats meat not even the rich Bauers with draughts, the mud, and the public. twenty or thirty cows

except at Easter

Then we went to a still larger owner, and Christmas.

who gloried in eleven cows; here there We went into several of the smaller was a large, low sitting-room with a bench proprietors' houses not far from the town. all round, besides the kitchen; but the One was a picturesque timbered cottage master was away and we could not ascerwith a wooden balcony, in an orchard; no tain the acreage. The women were dig. fence to the road, no path you just ging potatoes, dragging bay, spreading crossed the mud as you could. It was a manure, etc., as everywhere, and in the beautiful day, after a week of fine weather, mountains their task is even harder than but every approach was soaked. One-half in the plains, owing to the inclement of the rooms was let; but the wife of the weather. owner, barefoot, bare-legged, with a single The line to Linz, although the mounragged petticoat, dirty and unkempt, took tains are gradually dying down, is very us into her narrow, tiny kitchen, with lovely. The first view of the Danube at scarcely anything but a great stove in it Linz is extremely fine — such a volume and a deaf old mother, no furniture, and of water thus far from the sea, such a everything as filthy as she was herself. rapid flow and glorious rush.

It was so Within was a sort of light pantry, with cold and grey, however, that we gave up out a single shelf; four little pans of the steamer, which takes ten lours in milk stood on the floor among the pota- following the river windings to and fro, toes, and some sweet chestnuts. Then, and came humbly on by the railway, which with some pride, she opened a door in passes through great sweeps of fíat, alluthe heart of the house, where lay a small vial soil, cut up into very small portions. cow on wet straw on one side, and a pig The ploughing season had just begun, and two goats on the other; beyond was the crops having been gathered in, and an opening to a little croft of about an we counted once nineteen ploughs, with acre, which belonged to them, with a bis- two horses or bullocks each, all at work chen, she said, about half as large farther in the space of a moderate English farm, off.' A great manure mud-puddle blocked where eight or ten horses might be em

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ployed. Here were thirty-six draw-cattle, I long be seen in that very seigneurial nineteen men (they guide the horses with | home, they are to be moved to one of the their voices and do not have a boy in museums, and will greatly gain, for the front), and a great number of women and light is so bad in their present abode that children, doing the work of eight at most; many of them are almost invisible. The the waste of labor was tremendous. A cleaning has been frightful; there is little farther on twenty-two were in sight hardly a picture that has not been flayed on a rather larger space, then came a alive. One of the great Titians had been rough bit of hill, which hid our view of set on an easel in the window to be copied, more than one or two “equipages,” then and the Virgin's face, grand in outline and ten more together on one side and nine color, was literally bared to the first tints, on the other, then ten again. The next almost the canvas. The damage is irrepweek we returned and found places where arable, and many of them show signs of the ploughing had been finished in this retouching. piecemeal way, with the furrows running The destruction which has been thus at right angles every thirty yards or so; wrought on masterpieces which can never while scattered here and there lay a few be reproduced by copy, print, or photobits, looking like pocket handkerchiefs in graph, made me think sadly of Napolesize, where the proprietors had not been on's contemptuous words. Denon one able yet to do their work. It must have day used the phrase "immortal works,” been almost more trouble in these cases in talking of Raphael. “How much long. to turn the horses or oxen in so small a er do you believe his pictures will last?' space than it would have been to ploughi said the emperor. “ They have lived now this additional scrap. But every man did three hundred years, and I hope for at his own bit at his own time; the idea of least three hundred more," was the ancommon work was out of the case.

Par-swer. "Belle immortalité !exclaimed ticularismus could, indeed, no further go. Napoleon, shrugging his Corsican shoul

Near by, a majestic Benedictine mon- ders. It is, alas ! quite true that many astery, on a rock overhanging the Dan- pictures will have before long, at the presube, with sixty windows in a row, includ.ent rate of devastation, to be taken on ing the library, surmounted by the great trust by our descendants. It will be like doine and two towers of the church, cer. reading Shakespeare or Dante in a transtainly represented the sentiment of com- lation, guessing at beauties of expression, mon action in the other extreme, both for believing humbly in traditions of splengood and evil.

dors of which only a pale reflection is left. It was quite dark when we entered I am glad we have lived early enough in Vienna, and the feeling of being driven the history of art to see these glorious through the unknown atmosphere of a works for ourselves. great city for the first time is always very The pearl of the whole collection is the interesting

Santa Justina, by Moretto of Brescia, a To those who knew Vienna twenty-five lovely full-length of the saint, in very years ago, the change is wonderful. The gorgeous Venetian brocade, looking tenold picturesque city, with its narrow derly at a knight kneeling beside her. streets grouped round St. Stephen's, re- Strange that his name has not been made mains at the core untouched, but great out, for the dress is very marked in its “rings” of boulevards and squares, two age. Six pictures, by Velasquez, of Philip museums, several churches, the Univer- IV. and his children, have the curious sity, the Rathhaus, and two Houses of property, so striking in those of the NaParliament, have now risen on the site of tional Gallery, that what seein close at the old fortification and glacis. The land land a mere mass of splotches grow in has proved so extremely valuable, that it distinctness as you go farther and farther is said the government have hitherto been away from them. able to construct all their own buildings, There is a curious rise and fall in the without cost to the city, out of the money estimate made of particular masters, when received from the sale of land for houses so large a number of their works pass beand shops.

fore one's eyes as in the combined art The Belvedere is a charming palace, treasures of Munich and the two Vienwith a suite of splendid rooms, very un- collections. Vandyke rises imcomfortable, almost impossible to inhabit, mensely in the scale.

There are porlooking down on the towers and spires of traits of his in the Belvedere, and still the stately city. The pictures will not more in the Lichtenstein, with a power

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LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXXIII,

and vigor of expression and color, far ! passions and expressions, intead of wearsuperior to the courtly graces to which ing the conventionally generalized, vacant we are accustomed, and worthy of Rem- faces of our modern religious pictures. brandt or Titian. The Wallenstein, and There is a Pilate, a comfortable, rather a certain Maria Louisa von Tassis, are fat man, with an expression of perplexity quite magnificent; indeed, the last is and confusion not indifference, but called the finest female portrait of the bore - at having to decide on the fate of seventeenth century. Rubens, on the the Christ before him, which is a perfect contrary, stands still. The facility with marvel to have compressed into the halfwhich he flings luis masses of beautifully-inch of paper which contains his face. painted bodies, with nothing inside their Albert Durer must have known bim. A ornamental exteriors, grows tiresome splendid portrait of Erasmus is extremely when they cover whole rooms in each of like Dean Stanley: We drove to the the palaces. The pretty picture of his two Prater that afternoon, which is a strangely boys is here. Titian cannot be judged over-praised place. It is a dead flat, much rightly away from the great Venetian pic- overgrown with shabby trees. The ý sau: tures any more than Raphael away from sage” alley for the people was amusing, Rome, but the Viennese specimens are with wooden houses for beer and coffee, extremely fine, and there are two un and a quantity of shows, such as flourish doubted Giorgiones (rare as the master's at fairs, — dancing dogs, monkeys, monworks are), with faces that look through strosities of all kinds, one a horrid picone, in the Belvedere. The collection of ture of tortures, impaling and such-like, the Flemish painters is as fine as even ten feet high. (Query, were they, too, those in their own lands. It is distressing being performed within the booth ?) The to feel how much, however, all pictures world had not yet returned to Vienna, lose by being hung close together in a and there was no "ring,” though plenty gallery. Each of them was painted for of private carriages, the servants with the some particular altar and chapel, to be hideous oilskin round their hats which seen with its own associations by its distigures Austrian equipages. When is kneeling worshippers, and in a particular the occasion grand enough for the hats light. Now you have a dozen Madonnas, to emerge, one cannot help wondering? three or four St. Sebastians or St. Cath- The Danube hardly skirts the Prater, erines, almost touching each other, and and is so far from the city that it is diffiyou cannot but compare their differences cult to follow Sobieski's dashing relief of critically, instead of reverently admiring the city in the face of great odds, crossThen the portraits dug out of private ing the river lower down, with much diffihouses all over Europe, stuck side by side, culty, opposite the Turkish camp, while often with their histories and even their the grand vizier had thrown a bridge of names forgotten — seven men with hands boats across the stream nearer to Vienna. on their swords, nine ladies with feather .The town could not have held out five fans - is an ordeal which they were not days longer, and the governor in his last intended to undergo, and to which it is extremity used to go up the spire of the most unjust to subject them. Yet, with cathedral, whence at last he saw the dust even these disadvantages, it is wonderful of the army of his deliverers advancing how seldom the Rembrandts, or even the from afar. Now the watchers for fire sit Vandykes, repeat themselves.

in his place, which is shown to climbers There is a very fine collection of etch- aloft, and telegraph the different direcings, woodcuts, drawings, and prints of tions in which the engines are to drive in the old masters to be seen in a narrow the streets below. gallery at the Albertina, where one may The pierced stone of the spire is almost turn them over at one's pleasure. Look- like lace-work, and a little too suggestive ing through a great folio of Albert Durer's of iron. On a smaller scale it might even was like making an intimate acquaintance seem weak, but nothing can spoil such a with a whole new society, such is their giant in size. It comes near to Cologne vivid force of reality. The holy scenes in height. The church, with its great are very small; but each actor is a living dark pillars rising into apparently illimit. individual being, not a man in the ab- able space, with statues in shrines hangstract, and, as there is a good deal of ing almost in the air, the heavy low human nature in the world, the Jews and arches, from which the spire springs, have Romans of our Saviour's days were prob- la most grand and mysterious effect. The ably exceedingly like ourselves in their stonework is extremely dark, and restor

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