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education is small, and the life one of doctor told us he had never seen so many intense labor and sordid saving. These rickety, ill-kept, and wretched-looking farms are not divided at the death of the children as in Germany. How can it be father, but pass, according to the custom otherwise ? The mothers are in the fields, of different districts, to the eldest or the and cannot be looking after their babies, youngest. When it is the first, the mother mending and making at home, where will call him, only half in jest, Mein Prinz. surely there is always enough to do for The eldest in a noble family is a prince one pair of hands. As we drove along, in the great Majorats.
the cripples sat by the roadside tending We looked down from the railroad car- cows and goats, which must never be riage into the heart of the most pictur- allowed to go alone, lest they should stray esque little town (Hornberg) that we beyond their owners' narrow frontiers. thought we had ever seen, huddled into Carts, with small wheels very far apart, the narrowest of gorges, with brown and most rudely put together, passed us driven timbered houses facing every way, on by women. both sides the stream, and crowned by a Hornberg proved a base imposition; castle.
the houses, once large and handsome, The hotel at Triberg is set on high, were now occupied by small proprietors, close to pine woods, with their great who could not keep them up – close, untrunks springing out of beds of lovely wholesome, tumbledown, and melancholy, moss, near a fine waterfall which comes they crowded round a stream, stinking in plunging down out of the heart of the spite of its rapid current, with the perforest just above the town. At night it pendicular hills too close behind them, was lighted up with red and blue fires in and the castle now turned into a brewery. honor of the birthday, and it was strange A monument to the only man in the disto see how little it took to turn the glori-trict who was killed in the Franco-Gerous nature into a very bad work of art. man war was the chief illustration of the It looked like a vile bit of scene-painting place. We were puzzled by rows of what in a low theatre. I was thankful when looked like round cakes drying in the the glare subsided and a starlight night sun. They were made of sawdust from took gentle possession once more of the the tanners' yards, and are used as burnbeautiful valley.
ing slowly in the stoves. With such There had been a Bauer marriage at a great abundance of wood, it showed both farm on the mountain-side, but we were the poverty and the amount of cold to too late for it, – the bride, in a high-invent such fuel. pointed black cap and streamers, presid- As we passed over the plain bigh up on ing over a series of feasts which lasted the top of the mountain next day, whole three days. At night the sky was lighted families, even to the smallest children, by tlie lurid glow of a fire, ten miles off, were out on the wet, undrained meadows at another farm, where a poor idiot was gathering in the hay. In summer they suffocated and three cows burnt. We often start thus at three in the morning thus touched on the two great events of with only a little bad coffee and bread, Bauer life. The beautiful thatched and sending back a little girl for a second shingled roofs are very apt to catch fire, supply in the day, and work till night on and no new ones are suffered to be built, this unsubstantial diet. A good deal of which is dismal for the picturesque. brandy, however, is drunk on these occa
The little town is tenanted by watch-sions. These upper regions look like a makers and carvers wood, and seems great sponge, and their waters feed the prosperous; the people own their own two great rivers of Europe, the Danube houses, and are not dependent on their and the Rhine, one part going to the land, but their handiwork.
Black Sea, the other to the German We drove back next day along the Ocean, from this not very losty waterlovely valley close to the stream in search shed. of Hornberg. The women were at work, Constanz is a quaint old place, standing even harder if possible than in the plain close to the boundaries of six countries below, making the second-crop hay, pick- which meet on the lake. The Inseln ing up the grass in their arms on the hotel was once a monastery, with a garsteep slopes and scattering it without den reaching down to the water, and many even a fork, dragging it along the road in guests were sitting under the trees. The small handcarts, sawing wood, etc., etc. dining-room is the old chapel with a double
The number of deformed, lame, hump- row of columns, sadly disfigured by paper backed people is very great. An English and hangings, however, and we slept in a
corridor where once had been the monks' reaching from the Tyrolese ranges in the cells. At night the hall filled with a great east, to the Jungfrau in the south-west. meeting of Roman Catholic deputies from One day, rowing in a boat on the brilall parts of Germany, Belgium, even Hol- liant blue-green water, the whole panoland. H— went down amongst them; rama of white, snowy points against the he was civilly asked if he were Catholic, pearly sky shone out, perfectly distinct, but, when he acknowledged himself not yet with a distinction quite untranslatable one of the faithful, he was still given a by paints and paper made by hands, in place of honor near the president where its ethereal hues and subtle gradations of he could hear. The principal topic, after color, and one felt deeply how utterly exhortations to unity and much mutual powerless art is before certain aspects of praise, consisted in rejoicing over the re- nature. A boat lay in front, with men laxation of the Falk Laws and hopes that drawing up their great nets, having toiled Bismarck would do more in the same all night and taken nothing of the splendirection. I looked on through an open- did Jake trout
the whole as it were ing high up in the eastern wall, through hung between transparent sea and sky: which probably the sick monks assisted As we looked across in the radiant, still at the service.
evening at a great blind asylum in an old The town is a well-to-do place, full of palace on the eastern shore, the gracious memories of past greatness and past inistress told of the Frauen Verein of struggles. You may stand on the stone the duchy, and how all the isolated efforts which marks the place where John Huss after good were by it gathered together was burned, and look out of the windows and assisted to work for common objects, of the ball where the great Council sat and to play into each other's hands. It which decided between the rival claims of must be a great help in the organization three popes : but the fires are dead which of wise charity, and the utilization in a burned so fiercely within its walls, and general plan of the desultory attempts of the worthy gentlemen in frock-coats col- obscure workers. The number of instilected in the Inseln hotel served to show tutions for education and for the wise more clearly how far we have drifted. assistance of every species of distress There is a curious old MS. in the library established by the present sovereigns of where the events of the fifteenth century the little realm is very remarkable. are depicted in long processions, and the The next day we were steaming down men-at-arms, the priests and cardinals, the lake to Lindau in a storm of wind and the women, the cooks, the prince, the rain, blotting out every vestige of the bishops, and the kaiser all appear “in mountains with the capriciousness of the their habits as they lived." There is hill weather. It was bright again, hownothing in the long series which has re-ever, for our journey upwards, the little mained the same. The knights in armor, railway to avoid tunnels twisting and the prince bishops, the ladies in tall | turning curiously, and showing the views pointed head-gear, even the Holy Roman to perfection. Mouse-colored cows, muEmpire itself, are all gone; only the little sical with bells, were followed everywhere crescents of bread which one of tbe by women and girls with red handkerbakers is holding out remain the same; chiefs on their heads, and whips in their the Hornchen have held their own amidst hands to keep them in the narrow paths all the change.
of virtue — and very narrow these were There is a lovely little island in the when the subdivision was great. We saw lake, where, on the top of a high wooded four plouglis, with two horses each, on bank, stands a great Schloss, built round four adjacent strips about forty feet three sides of a square, which once be- across; the shares were wooden, with a longed to a now extinct order of knight-narrow sheath of iron, an inch or two hood, where a true home has been made, wide, to give them an edge. When we beautiful within and without, and a ter- reached the summit level, a lovely little raced garden won from the potato-fields. lake filled up the valley, with long, tranThe rooms all open on long galleries, full quil reflections of the flat, red roofs, laden of carved and inlaid armoires, pictures, with stones, of a village, crowned by a armor, porcelain, and plants. From the brown-red, bulbous-headed church tower windows the wooded promontories of the on a long stalk, and precipitous rocks lake are seen far below, backed by a crowding in upon it. In front the hay splendid view of the Alps, peak beyond was thrown over upright stakes about six peak, the long procession, when the shy feet high with three cross-bars at right mountains allow themselves to be seen, I angles, planted in rows, so that the fields
seemed studded with gigantic spindles. I is true, and two copies of the “Tribune” Here it was left till dry enough to stack. and the Louvre picture. It was impossiThe upland meadows were lilac with au- ble not to feel how entirely the form of tumnal crocuses, showing how wet they the face, the expression, the whole manlay, and any large scheme of drainage ner of feeling and thought had been was evidently impossible for want of co- borrowed by the greater pupil from his operation among the small owners. The master. He has made such admirable grass of Parnassus grew like daisies on use of his borrowed wealth that he has the rough places by the rail when we justified his use of it; but, in spite of the reached the forest ground above. This warning in “The Vicar of Wakefield,” I belongs to the State or to large proprie- felt inclined to "praise Pietro Perugino tors;, no peasant ever possesses any with all my might, as the originator of the woodland, as he cannot wait to realize, Madonna type. Only, to value Raphael and must have year by year returns aright, his frescoes, not his easel pictures indeed, month by month — in order to alone, must be always considered. live. In some places the narrow strips The old German masters in the smaller of grass, about three feet wide, dividing rooms are extremely fine, many of whose the sinall properties, were so many and names are hardly known in England so near together that they amounted to a the “ Master of the Lyversberchen Pasgood-sized field in a very few miles. sion,” Van der Weyden, Master Wilhelm,
The station at Munich was bright with etc. The faces are a little flatly painted, the electric light, " tramways ” (sic in En- without much shadow, but the extraorglish) were in the streets, and all the dinary amount and variety of expression, newest improvements. The new build the working out of detail, whether of feaings are very ugly, however, and with a ture or dress, with loving feeling and care, set determination about them to be æs- every stroke telling, the colors as brilliant thetic and didactic, which was a little as the day they were laid on four hundred aggravating and pedantic. The Alte years ago, are all most remarkable. In Pinacothek, nevertheless, is a charming “ The Marriage of the Virgin,” the faces collection, if with no picture of world-wide of the bystanders show every possible importance, unless it be the “Four Tem- shade of doubt and curiosity, reverence peraments” of Albert Durer, with a most and belief: you feel as if assisting at an truculent St. Paul grasping a sword as if act which really happened to real people, he meant to use it on us in earnest. The not before a set of academical models, portraits, to me, are always among the bones and flesh in a sort of “general most telling results of art; the men and way,” with clothes on. After this we women, so long dead, living to all time. went to the other buildings to look at the Rubens's wives in every variety of fine new pictures. It is a melancholy sight, clothing, which yet did not swamp the admirable rooms full of enormous works faces, a Frank Hals, many Vandykes, by the best men of the Munich school. particularly an Antwerp burgomaster and Good color was not to be expected, perhis wife, etc., which are magnificent. haps, but there was hope that drawing,
Rubens is here even more lavish of thought, and feeling might serve in its flesh and blood than usual in the “Last absence. The effect is one of absolute Judgment,” where a little soul, at least, despair as to the chances of modern art one would think, is required; but there is this all that the encouragement of a are some studies of his for this picture in whole kingdom for two generations can a room behind, which are glorious in their do? that the best of schools, of lectures, sway and rush of souls - the lines which of lessons on anatomy and color can the downward sweeps of the damned take, bring forth? The enormous canvases, who are here in great majority, are per- the acres of paint, are without a spark of fectly wonderful; the blessed do not seem genius. It seems to have been supposed to have been so much to his taste, and that the big is equivalent with the great, are far inferior. Two of the finest Peru- and “The Deluge,” some fifty feet wide ginos out of Italy are here. One of them and forty feet greets one at the enrepresents a visit paid by the Virgin to trance. The fear of being drowned is St. Bernard. It is not a vision - she is not a lofty sentiment, and when repeated walking in on her feet with attendant in seventy or eighty figures of entirely ladies, and his face, as he looks up and unknown people it is monotonously unreceives his charming visitor with a ten- pleasant; there is no perspective, and the der joy, is very touching. By it hung a men at the top of the hill, forty feet above picture of Raphael's, an indifferent one it the spectators, are as big as those in
front. There is more pathos in the small streaming along the road from the Murdark six inches of the Marc Antonio etch- nau station, all full. It is a purely pasing, than in the whole field. Next comes toral district, with little corn, but hay“The Destruction of Jerusalem,” by Kaul- fields running in and out of the forest on bach, which is quite as large. Above in the sides of the valley, which seems to the sky is a great rush of angels flying be closed by the great Zugspite, ten about without any earthly or heavenly thousand feet high, at the end. The vil. 1 motive visible; the earth below is not a lage is built utterly regardless of any place at all, odds and ends of temples and sort of order; the houses up and down, courts and houses lying about "all no- to and fro and across, with only cartways how.” They could only be seen from a in any direction — unmade tracks here standpoint in the air, but, buildings are and there among the cottages. The material things, and must have had some place was full of strangers standing about connection, some perspective. A man is looking at the arrivals. Nearly seven killing himself in front, like a bad actor, thousand people slept that night in the and heaps of people are lying about dying dwellings intended for thirteen hundred, “permiscuous," not from the swords of half at least on straw, - but it was a dry the Roman soldiers, for they have not yet night with a bright moon. The village taken the town, and certainly not from was endimanché to receive its guests, the hunger, for the lumps of arms and legs older men with silver buttons as large as are much too fat and comfortable. It is crown-pieces on their redingotes and a farrago of absurdities. Then comes an waistcoats, high boots, and pointed felt “Ascension.” How any man should dare hats with a feather and flower in them. to try and re-say what has been said by One beautiful girl wore a flat black hat, such great masters in their greatest works, a dark.green gown over a red and black without having a single new idea of any striped petticoat, red stockings, a green kind to add to the stock, is almost impos- velvet bodice and silver ornaments : sible to conceive.
strong, well-made, modest, she was There are many portraits, gigantic in pretty sight. But even here costume is size, wooden, affected, heavy, dismal dolls, dying out fast. “striking an attitude,” in elaborate gowns H— found his way to Joseph Maier's and coats. That the immediate neighbor- cottage, a timbered house with overhanghood of the wonders of the old masters ing roof. He is a woodcarver, as should have had so little influence is his predecessor in the Christus part, and astonishing. The landscapes are raw, the crucifixes which he produces have, hard, and conventional, with the same perhaps, assisted his conception of the curious absence of reality and truth, done character. He said the fatigue of the apparently after a recipe, like an apothe last scene was extremely trying. He is cary's mixture, with no relation whatever a remarkable - looking man even in his to the rendering of natural effects before peasant's dress, and was much occupied the eyes of the painter. Wandering from with preparing for the next day's repreroom to room dismally after something to sentation.* He is sometimes so plagued admire, the only things in the least inter- by visits from admirers that his wife said esting were some small pictures of old she had to lock him up in the kitchen German streets and buildings, which were to defend him. H- then climbed up given with a great detail of honest care — a rough, boggy, dirty hill, where the peasthe color quietly good, like that of a Dutch ants were kneeling and praying round a picture. When they touch plain brick great marble “ Crucifixion,” given by the and mortar, with no temptation to angels, king of Bavaria. The village was full and poetry, and saints, or lakes, or moun- of shrines at every turn — the Virgin and tains, the painters seem to recover some many saints, and in one place Christ and of the patient reference to what is, which the Père éternel, side by side, only to be all painting must submit to render, to distinguished by the globe in the Father's make the imaginative part of
hands. Meantime H— had gone to Ammer- The play, as is well known, is a surgau, to see the last representation but one vival of the mysteries and miracle.plays of the Passion-play which will take place which were performed all over Europe in for ten years.
Who can say what will the Middle Ages, and which came to an then be the state of Europe? The last end when a greater feeling of refinement performance was interrupted by the Franco-German war. He found from been published, by which it appears that Maier's share
* The accounts of the Ammergau receipts have just fifty to sixty carriages and peasant carts was £ 50 for thirty-nine representations - small enough.
in the world took offence at the buffoon- | Joseph Maier is an admirable personifi. eries and indecencies with which they cation of dignified calmness and unmoved were defaced. Even now a Passion-play suffering, tall and perfectly proportioned, is enacted at Easter in the streets of Se- his long hair (which was saved by special ville by the same actors who play at the orders from the king when he served as a theatre, wherein, to relieve the too great soldier in the Franco-German war) hangsolemnity of the drama, an intrigue being down on his shoulders. Every movetween Pontius Pilate and Mary Magda- ment as he walked was perfectly graceful, lene is introduced, and Judas is made to and there was a holy dignity about his pinch the little children, to pull their hair, whole bearing which was intensely touchand play tricks to make the people laugh. ing, especially in the parting with his At Ammergau, in the old days, the devils mother, when Mary's agonized entreaties appeared to carry off the traitor, dancing to him not to encounter the risk of going round him and tearing him in pieces, up to Jerusalem, and his declaration that when a quantity of sausages tumbled out, he must do the work for.which he came to the great delight of the audience. into the world, drew tears from many
The play has been saved at Ammergau eyes. The acting of Judas was excellent, from the general fate by the accident especially so when in his despair be flung partly that its performance was restricted down the money at the feet of Caiaphas to every ten years, in pursuance of a vow - it would have been thought fine on made after a terrible sickness in 1590 - any stage. The scene, too, with Mary which has removed the familiarity which Magdalene after the resurrection, was has bred contempt in other places - but beautiful, but it would artistically have chiefly by the efforts of the geistlicher been better to have ended with the cliRath for thirty-five years, now an old man max of the crucifixion, though perhaps of eighty-two. He has pruned and added, the moral teaching required the latter and taken great pains in instructing the scenes. About half the audience were actors. The tableaux vivants of types, peasants, sitting on the unsheltered principally from the Old Testament, are benches; the rest comprised strangers sometimes far-fetched, but beautiful in from all countries and of all ranks, the their picturesque arrangement, in which queen of Wirtemberg, the grand duchess he has be assisted by artist friends fror of Baden, a grand duke of Russia, who Munich. The chorus and the musical reci- were there on that day. tations and hymns are also his additions. Many of very opposite shades of faith One of the scenes of the gathering of the were there, who had come cloubtful of the manna in the desert, with a number of advisability of the representation, yet who children in front, who keep marvellously all agreed after secing it that it was a still, was extremely pretty.
great help in realizing the life of the SavThe actors are selected by a committee iour as a whole, and in putting reality into of village householders, at a solemn meet- the Bible narrations of scenes from which ing in church on the last week of the year the meaning has sometimes been almost before the play. The principal parts are trodden out by continual repetition. easily settled, as there are few equal to The crucifixion is a most difficult ordeal them; but there are hundreds of minor to go through. Maier is supported by characters — everybody wishes to act, and nails between the fingers — there is a the selection is a troublesome affair. slight shelf on which the feet rest, and the The fiat of the little parliament is, how- tricol round his body is fixed to the cross, ever, never resisted.
The women and but nothing of this is visible. He rechildren are accustomed to take part mains uplifted for at least twenty minutes, in the ceremonies of the Church, and during the scenes with his mother, St. the chief actors are trained. But with John, the thieves, and the soldiers. all explanations the vivid presentation The taking down from the cross is of such scenes by poor Tyrolese peas- copied exactly from Rubens's great picture ants, who for ten years have gained at Antwerp, but the cloth fell aside a little, their living by wood-carving, and will do and H- saw the feet of the dead man so again for the next decade, is most moving to help him down the ladder, remarkable. The reverence, the delicacy which was a pity, as otherwise the illusion of treatment, make it truly the religious was perfect. The play was too long – it exercise which it is evident that they con- lasted three and a half hours in the mornsider it. None but those of good charac- ing and four in the afternoon — but no ter are allowed to join, and the effect on one seemed weary; the peasants are not the morals of the village is excellent. so blasé as civilized folk, and it is an