It was with some feelings of trepidation combined result in many an uproarious that I knocked at Fattori's door, and was scene. The Sunday before we left was ushered into a sitting-room to interview the festival of Santa Mustiola, celebrated his wife and sister, owing to the absence at a short distance from the town. After of the lord. I told my tale candidly. I the formalities of the mass and procession stated how charmed I was with all I had had been gone through, crowds of men seen except the inn, and that I craved for and women collected at a neighboring a more pleasing habitation. They re- house to drink and play games. By this ferred me to a neighboring house, and time I was well known to most of them, invited us next day to join their party in and each exhorted me to put my lips to witnessing the grand ceremony of the in- their brimming jugs of wine. They filled stallation of the incoming captains, on my pockets with walnuts. Sointent were which occasion, twice a year, the Samma- they on hospitality, that I was forced to rinesi shake off their lethargy and appear watch my opportunity to affect an escape right merry in holiday attire.

as fast as my legs would carry me, to avoid Charmingly primitive were our host and involuntary inebriation. hostess, whom I found inhabiting a little On the day of San Marino, their patron house near the principal gate of the city: saint, they hold grand festivities outside perhaps no two people could be more en the walls. The pièce de résistance for this tertaining in their domestic arrangements. day is a refined species of cruelty to aniThe lady of the house was portly and mals; a live cock is procured and hung by garrulous; she was, we remarked, most its legs from a tree; each competitor in noble in her bearing, and of noble re- turn endeavors by a leap to wring its neck. publican blood she proved to be. Hers Great excitement prevails amongst the was one of the oldest of San Marino's bystanders, and when success attends the noble families, for, owing to the incon attempt the victor is loudly cheered, he venience of having two illiterate captains, receives the bird by way of reward, and certain families are set apart as noble, the unsuccessful pay a small sum towards from amongst whom one of the rulers is the purchase of the cock. chosen. Here their privileges of nobility Winter at San Marino is terribly secease, but not their pride, for old Signora vere. For months they are snow and Casali, whose maiden name was Belluzzi, frost bound, and to amuse themselves was most proud of her pedigree. She the republicans have invented a species scoffed at the later elevations to the Sam- of tabogening, and down the main street of marinese peerage as nobilità di carta, the town they whirl themselves on a crazy mere paper upstarts, and for her own piece of wood with terrible velocity. Last parental house she claimed the honor of winter a lady Sammarinese gained for her. possessing the genuine nobility of blood. self an unpleasant notoriety at this game, She thoroughly despised her lame and for she slipped off her liscia or sledge, drunken husband, who was the imperson and performed the rest of the downward ation of a henpecked nonentity. Every descent on her own person, which became meal we ate under the shadow of their wofully conlused thereby. roof was attended by the talkative pair, The first of April is a day of general and many were the stories they told us of mirth and hilarity. Woe to tie Liliputheir quaint little country which served as tian sluggard who tarries in bed after a relish to many a frugal repast.

sunrise on this morning; he renders himThough poor, our accommodation was self liable to be dragged from his couch, cleanly, and though our food was brought and in his nocturnal attire placed on muleup from the Borgo and invariably arrived back with an umbrella in his hand, and, cold, yet the keen mountain air assisted shivering with cold, he is set up as an obus to dispose of most unpalatable dishes. ject of derision in the most exposed part Everything they sent us tasted the same of the town. This disaster one year befell

- be it turkey, beefsteak, or chicken, the our old host, who had been imbibing freely difference was hardly perceptible; but we the night before. His wife entered fully had come to study the Liliputians and into the fun of the thing, and assisted her not our own comforts, so we were con- husband's tormentors in laying their plans. tent.

However, lest her domestic arrangements How do the Liliputians amuse them- should be exposed to question, she took selves ? was one of our first questions, care that her spouse should retire to rest and we soon found them a right jovial with a clean nightgown, so that he might eight thousand. Religious festivals are appear before the world to the best advan. common, and so is wine, and the two | tage.


It is the case at San Marino, as it is in I felt myself lucky when one day our other primitive societies, that the marriage host informed me that an arringo would ceremony is attended with unusual merri-be held on the morrow, and that he would ment; the bappy pair trip along the street have much pleasure in conducting me attended by all their friends at an early thither. My thoughts involuntarily wanbour in the day, to be united under the dered back to the days when Rome's peoroof of their country's god; or, if the dis- ple were summoned to the Comitia to tance be great, the bride rides with her decide on peace and war, but I was not lady friends astride a mule. On the re- privileged to liear an eager, unanimous deturn to the parental homestead the bride cision on the necessity of crushing Carand bridegroom are placed aloft on a daïs thage, or of resisting to the death the to be the cynosure of neighboring eyes for invaders from Gaul. No, it was a real the remainder of the day, whilst wild blow to my dreams of the past when some dancing and festivities take place around forty or fifty republicans assembled to them. It is a keenly contested point discuss the advisability of opening teleamong the assembled matrons, who shall graphic communication with the neighborhave the honor of assisting the bride on ing town of Rimini, and thus did the retiring to rest; but it is the oldest and degenerate offspring of the Roman Curia most venerated of the Liliputian mothers on that day recognize its existence in the who is appointed to the almost sacred nineteenth century, and acted accordoffice of presenting the nouveaux mariés ingly, with a mess of pottage at sunrise.

This existence of telegraphy I look They dearly love the Italian game of upon as one of the first symptoms of depalla on this mountain-top; they are in- cay in our veteran State. The simpleveterate theatre-goers, possessing two mindedness with which they assembled within their territory; an excuse for a daily around the postman in the Borgo at masquerade they seize with avidity, and the sound of his bell, and awaited the talk incessantly of their success in decep- distribution of his small handful of lettion on such occasions. Our landlady told ters, will rapidly disappear. They reus how her mother, when eighty years of sisted to the death a tempting proposition age, had gone

to a masked ball dressed as for a railroad, an hotel, and a gamblinga girl of seventeen, and, thanks to her house, from some energetic company; good figure and activity, she was enabled but will they resist the more insidious to carry off the palm of being belle of the innovations which will follow in the wake evening.

of the electric wires, and in the train of Let us now say a word about the consti- the feverish excitement incident on havtution of this curious little State. Init weing a separate room in the Street of Nasee the lineal descendant of ancient tions at a Paris Exbibition ? No, if I Rome, tracing its pedigree through the could have that day recorded a vote in vicissitudes of mediæval Italy and her San Marino's assembly, I should have municipal organizations, each of which opposed the introduction of the telegraph. reproduced a miniature example of the I should have opposed entering into conmighty Roman fabric. Here, in the days tact with the outer world, and have been of constitutional governments and deeply content to boast of the greatest claim to elaborated schemes of legislation, we find notoriety San Marino has, namely, that two old Roman consuls ruling a speck of of being a living fossil of bygone ages. Italy. They now call themselves cap. Let no one who can so arrange fail to tains, but one is still patrician and one is visit San Marino on April 1 or October still plebeian, as in the earlier days of the 1; perhaps, if he be not an early riser, Roman republic; they owe their election for above-mentioned reasons the latter to the Senate, which at San Marino as in date had best be chosen; for on these Rome still wields the chief executive days the captains are elected for the enpower, but now it is termed the Council of suing six months, and the visitor will Sixty. There is yet another power in the derive much amusement, if not profit, State, namely, the general arringo, or from being present at the ceremony. gathering of the people, to decide on mo- Their dress is rich; they are resplendent mentous questions of the day. Each male with the cordon of San Marino's military republican can here make his voice heard; order around their necks, and moreover a but it is now but seldom convened, and eulogistic address is delivered to the byoccupies much the same position that standers, entering deeply into San MariRome's Comitia Curiata did in the latter no's historical lore. On this day is to be days of the republic.

seen the little republican army of eighteen strong, drawn up to the best advan- the sulphurous soil around Mount Tita. tage. Though the soldiers have no notion nus, and the wines produced from them of drill or of military bearing, though are sparkling and pure. Their cellars their gaudy uniforms fit them like sacks, beneath the mountain are warm in winter nevertheless they are unique in them and cool in summer; no wonder then that selves; there are only eighteen such in they exceed occasionally in their libathe whole wide world, and they represent tions. There is a well-known character the smallest standing army in existence. at San Marino, an old beggarman, who However, San Marino is not entirely de- gains his livelihood by means of a poem pendent on them for its defence; every he once wrote; he has spent his patrimale citizen is presumably a soldier, and mony on drink, and now subsists on the they are divided into several regiments; enthusiasm excited by his stirring verses. but their uniforms have long since been | This poem is entitled, “ Che Tremenda worn out, and in these days of peace the Repubblica,and, intoxicated with their prudent lawgivers have not seen fit to love of liberty, the Sammarinesi at their replace them. Yet the law obliges each festivals will listen again and again to the man to keep a gun and a cockade in case pompous refrain of the old man's song. of a rupture with some foreign power. He is the hero of their oft-repeated festi

I feel morally convinced that Lord vals and the minstrel of their board. Cardwell must one day have been at San It was with many feelings of regret Marino, and, whilst sighing over the ex. that we left this old-fashioned little countravagance of the British lion, have men-try, and it was with infinite pleasure that tally resolved to follow the lumble exam- shortly after my departure I received an ple set him by Europe's smallest State. · intimation that for the interest I had

The traveller who is not fortunate taken in the republic they had thought fit enough to be present at the installation to make me a citizen. For in these days of the captain, may any day get an order of craving for novelty it was satisfactory to inspect their state wardrobe, where are to me to look through the list of citizens, seen their rich velvet cloaks, their insig- and find myself the only Englishman ennia of office, and the above-mentioned rolled therein. Continental celebrities collection of dress clothes; he will then there were by scores whom interest or feel thankful that he was not born a Sam- curiosity had brought in contact with the marinese, with a chance of the captaincy, republic; and the accompanying letter, for it would require an acute archæologist herewith transcribed, will show their own to decide on the date of these raiments, opinion of the honor they conferred upon and an entire disregard for cleanliness to It ran as follows : allow of putting them on.

San Marino: Feb. 14, 1979. For the lovers of legendary lore and

Illustrious Sir and Fellow-Citizen, - The wild, fantastic beauties, San Marino is a perfect paradise. Legends are attached gift of citizenship of San Marino is truly a to each weird spot, principally connected iance you may be protected thereby; but if

great one, since if perchance you are at a dis. with the history of their patron saint, and you come to this Alpine mountain no one can the scenes of his spiritual labors in the molest you, and you will be respected by all, days of Diocletian. There is his bed of and possess the same privileges that the other hein stone, bis garden in an almost inac- citizens enjoy; Accept, then, dear sir, this cessible cliff, his head and face in the diploma in order that the great city of London parish church; but perhaps the heritage may rejoice with you over the possession of it. he has left his successors inost worthy of Be good enough to acknowledge the receipt of remark is their skill in stone-masonry.

the diploma. Your devoted servant,

FRANCESCO CASALI. Himself a quarryman employed in build.

P.S. - Our Republic enjoys the greatest ing Rimini, San Marino gathered around him on his mountain a colony of his com

tranquillity. rades, and for fifteen centuries these men Before bidding adieu to San Marino, I of San Marino have hewn and toiled in propose laying before any traveller who their natural workshops for a means of may wend that way the advantages which livelihood.

a sojourn in the republic offers for exThey are most expert too in the rear- ploring an almost unknown district of the ing of cattle, and from far dealers come Apennines. By means of a small pony. to the fairs at San Marino to purchase chaise, possessed by an energetic repubthe far-famed oxen fed on the slopes of lican who has seen somewhat of the outer the giant mountain.

world and served under the Italian flag in Very excellent grapes are produced on the Crimea, we were enabled to make



some delightful excursions from our re of sea breezes and pure mountain air topublic to Verruchio, where Dante places gether. the scene of the imprisonment of the

J. THEODORE BENT. erring Paolo and Francesca da Rimini, and where a red mediæval castle, a strong. hoid of the Malatesta, dominates a beetling cliff, and looks down in grim silence on a little town teeming with reminiscen

From The Spectator.

AMERICAN PROSPERITY. ces of the wrongheads.

To the small streamlet which once de- It is hardly fair to smile at the slight cided the destinies of the world we paid tone of self-congratulation which runs a pilgrimage the far-famed Rubicon, through the last message of President which flows some few miles beyond Ver- Hayes. It is not in human nature for the ruchio, or rather there is the bed in which chief magistrate of a great State, he he it once did flow.

sovereign or president, not to feel in a San Leo offers the architect two rich time of rushing prosperity that he himand ancient cathedrals where the Bishops self has done something to produce it. of Montefeltro.once held their see. This He might have prevented it so easily; is indeed a strange, weird spot, built on a and every man credits himself not only rock which, like San Marino, is raised with the good acts which are seen of bis two thousand feet above the surrounding neighbors, but with the good abstinences valley. On the journey thither from San which are invisible. Especially is this Marino, the traveller passes Monte Mag. excusable in an American president, who, gio, or the “bowing mountain,” which the bowever modest, must feel with a certain countryfolk tell you inclines eastwards bitterness that, although his administraeach year more and more in pious rever- tion has been successful, he has never ence towards the Holy Sepulchre; and been asked even by implication to take the old inhabitants of San Marino affirm back his own self-denying pledge, and that now they can distinctly see houses accept a second term. Mr. Hayes has which were invisible from the opposite been a very fair president, and an unvalley in their youth. And Monte Mag- usually self-effacing one, and he leaves gio too is celebrated for a theft perpe- behind him a republic prosperous beyond trated by Napoleon, who took from thence any historic precedent. We can recall to Paris two lovely frescoes by Giulio no country which has ever been in preRomano, and replaced them with hideous cisely such a condition. The treasury is daubs.

literally brimming over with wealth. The Urbino, the eagle nest of the Montefel. surplus this year amounts to £ 13,170,000 trian ciukes, the quondam hereditary pro- sterling, an amount of which Mr. Gladtectors of our little republic, is a pleasant stone has never ventured to dream, and driic from San Marino, and there the which all other financiers in Europe must artist and the antiquary can enjoy to the regard with envious despair. The whole full the legacies of beauty which the art of this vast surplus — nearly the revenue loving dukes of Urbino have left behind of Prussia when she advanced to the them.

beadship of Europe — and a million and Buried in a cleft of the Apennines, and a half besides, has been applied to the approached only by a bridle path from reduction of debt. The American people, San Marino, iš the quaint village of balf-ruined by their Civil War, insisted Monte Cerignone. A high arched bridge on paying off instead of bearing their over a mountain stream leads you into debt, and amid the most terrible temptathe town, and reminds you of the Ponte tions adhered to that resolve with an unalla Maddalena near Lucca. And a grim swerving persistence which throws a square castle overlooks the town, once a new light upon the future of democracy. favorite summer resort of the Urbino They were utterly unused alike to debt dukes. It is still rich in mouldering fres- and to sharp taxation. They were, for a coes and beautiful specimens of Cinque- time, doubtful if they had succeeded in cento work by skilful artists, who were their war. They were compelled to pass summoned thither by the dukes to beau- through a cycle of depression unparaltify their summer hiding-place.

lelled in their annals, depression amid These and many others are the attrac- which every one felt poor, and it was tions offered by San Marino, where a gravely stated, on competent authority, spring or autumn month can be spent, that every Western farmer was more or combining as it does the rare advantage | less mortgaged, and workmen in the great


come aware.


centres not only talked socialism, but | immigration has suddenly swollen until fought for it, and the first feeder of the half a million of people – the population resources of the nation, the marvellous of two cities like Leeds, or of two counimmigration from Europe, came practi- ties like Suffolk – have entered the repubcally to an end. The people, however, lic, bringing with them cash equal to had made up their minds, and they taxed £5,000,000 sterling at least, and themselves wholesale, as if self-flagella- labor worth £10,000,000 a year. It is betion titillated them, and, with one notable lieved that the new census to be taken exception, that of the income-tax, they next year will show, speaking roughly, a bore their heavy imposts without flinch- population of fifty millions, — forty-five ing. No doubt they were helped by the millions of them whites; while, if pros. national feeling, entertained even by those perity continues, the immigration may not who indulge, that alcohol is in se an evil impossibly be doubled. Every day the thing, by the rooted prejudice in favor of means of communication improve, every high tariffs, and by the national careless-day the exhaustion of the European continess about the cost of certain luxuries nentis more felt, while every day, as intelno other people in the world would bear the ligence spreads, the masses fret more and Western price for good boots and gloves more under their monotonous daily toil,

but their resolution to pay rather than with its want of chances, and the insetheir descendants should pay, had in it a curity of which they have only just besuperb pride. They held on, devoted a

T is to say, the Union is surplus eighty per cent. higher than already the second of the wbite powers of their whole taxation before the war to the world in population, and might exthe redemption of debt, voted down all spend a German army a year in slaughter repudiators by crushing majorities — for without feeling an impediment to her the craze about “the dollar of our fathers”

progress. Nor are these multitudes as was honest enough — and finally reached yet pressing on the means of subsistence. their present financial position. More It is a special feature of the condition of than a third of their debt is paid, the in the American Union that there are within terest will next year be under £18,000,000 it few “congestions,” that as men grow a year (£17,800,000), or, say, tivo-thirds the thick on the ground they move off of debt of Great Britain ; and the secretary their own will to more attractive soils, to the treasury, while proposing to sweep that migration has become an automatic away all inland duties except those on laiv, till the sweep of the population alcohol and tobacco, expects to place a towards the West -- that is, towards an vast refunding loan at from three to three area of profitable agriculture -- is gradand a half per cent. The half-ruined ually transferring the control of the Union people of 1865, with their consols at forty- to the Western freeholder. All who will eight and an irredeemable paper cur- work obtain a living, and the immense rency fluctuating two per cent. in an hour, majority of the population secure one have in 1880 the credit of Great Britain, which, though not without sordid features and could raise £300,000,000 for a war. in it and an element of grinding anxiety, There never was such a financial triumph is, as regards food, clothing, lodging, and in the history of a nation, or one which education, distinctly better than that of reflected greater credit on its authors. any large population in the past or pres

The people have not been skinned, ent of the Old World. either. If Mr. Sherman's proposals are The economic condition of the Union adopted, the Union will next year be as is marvellous, and a just source of pride free of excise duties as Great Britain, to its people, but Americans must not and more free of direct taxes the State forget that much of their brimming prostaxation counting against our rates perity is purchased at a beavy moral

- the depression has disappeared, the price. They do less for the world involve mortgages are paid off, and again the ing self-sacrifice, deliberately do less, over-spill of the Caucasian world is pour than any great people in it, unless it be ing, in ever-increasing volume, in to the the Germans, who may fairly plead that republic. The Union has received since their gigantic armaments, if they produce 1847 five millions and a half of white men, unrest, still save Europe from the ambiand among them - a fact to be carefully tion alike of Gaul and Slav. The Amernoted Irishmen are not the majority. ican Union is rich beyond compare, first, They are beaten by the Germans alone, because it inherited the richest'estate but and 'the Teutons of all branches outnum- one in the world — Brazil is possibly richber them by three to two. This year the er, as men will see when the Germans



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