The expedition made its way directly | title," came in state to visit the stranand without special adventures (except gers. Standing up in his canoe, he adthe encountering some bad weather) to dressed the captain in "une prédication the coast of Labrador. Here, apparently et preschement," with gestures" d'une at Mingan (Cartier called it St. Nicolas), merveilleuse sorte," expressive of confithey set up a great wooden cross, the dence and friendship, and was easily perposition of which is carefully described suaded to taste the bread and wine prefor the benefit of future voyagers. Leav- sented to him. ing this place, they met with a terrible The difference between the convenstorm, from which they thankfully, took tional Indian of romance, and the real refuge in a beautiful bay full of islands. and perfectly unsophisticated Indians of To this place, and not to“ the great river this true narrative, is very wonderful. of Canada," Cartier gave the name of St. Not only Donacona and his people, but Laurent. It seems to have been at the all the other tribes whom Cartier met with, mouth of the River St. John, Labrador; seem to have been simple, almost childish but it is impossible to say when or why sauvages, wild men, friendly, hospitable, the name, originally attached to this har. confiding; and cunning only in the clumbor of refuge, was applied to the whole siest and most transparent fashion. Like magnificent stream and gulf which now children, they show themselves somebear it.

times wilful and unreasonable; but the Carefully exploring the coasts as he worst complaint Cartier makes of them is went on, the captain, always anxiously that they were “marvellous thieves,” mindful of that “perfection” - the pas- while they certainly seem to have been sage to Cathay – which more than all else quite as ready to give as to take. would reward his toils, led his little fleet After a little delay the ships left their along the northern shores of the gulf, past anchorage and, passing below the beauti. the dangerous island of Anticosti, and the ful Fall of Montmorenci with its veil of innumerable smaller ones lying higher silver mist, coasted the green north shore, up, until he reached “the country of drawing near with wonder to the grand Saguenay” and the great river which still cliffs that rose majestically, towering bears that name. Here he was not only above the broad waters, as if nature had pleased with the beauty of richly wooded made her citadel there and bade the and watered lands, and with the report of strangers stand back from her impregnathe Indians that copper was found in the ble ramparts. At the foot of the rock neighborhood, but also saw some creat- fortress they again dropped their anures not more wonderful to his eyes than chors; sheltering themselves at the mouth his description of them is to our ears. of a stream which flowed quietly into the “ Here we saw," he says, some fishes great river from the north. To this such as no man had seen or heard of. smaller stream they gave the name of They were the size of porpoises, with Ste. Croix, which it retained for less than heads like greyliounds, well made and a hundred years, till in 1617 the Recollet white as snow, without spot. The Indi. Fathers of Quebec rechristened it the St. ans called them adnothings, and said Charles. they were good to eat.”

In the whole of Cartier's story there is Sailing on past Ile aux Cendres (which no trace of any origin for the name by still retains the name he gave it), and which the place he had now reached is other small islands, he anchored at last, known to us. He calls it simply Stadaone fair September evening, near the cona, and it is evident that he never atnorth shore at the lower end of the lle tempted to give it any other appellation. d'Orléans. “Here,” he says, “ began the The story of his sailors crying out Quel land and province of Canada," and here bec !and their exclamation being rehe allowed his men to go ashore, and to peated until it came be used as the name accept freely the presents of fruit, maize of the cliffs which caused it, is never and fish brought to them by the Indians. hinted at. Indeed, after many attempts

The boys, Taignoagny and Domagaya, to find a Canadian origin for the name of who had been in France, were received Quebec, one is obliged to confess that the with the greatest joy by their countrymen, question remains as much unanswered as and there seems to have been a tremen- ever. Charlevoix says that the word is dous uproar of welcome about the ships Algonquin. "Les Abenaquis, dont la all that evening and night. Next day langue est une dialecte Algonquine, le "the lord of Canada, who was called Dó- nomment Quelibec, qui veut dire ce qui nacona by name, and Agouhanna as his I est fermé, parceque de l'entré de la petite


rivière de la Chaudière par où ces sau- stronghold of European power and civilivages venaient à Quebec, le port de Que-zation in the midst of the primitive rebec ne paroit qu'une grande barge." But, gion. Beyond the ships a grassy and on the other hand, when we remember level shore extended, until, rising graduthat Quebec is an old form of the word ally, it grew into those steep cliffs fringed Caudebec, it seems probable that the with clinging bushes, over which, six French did really give the name, though miles off, the Montmorenci flung itself, after the time of Cartier. The Earl of marking its descent by a cloud of glim. Suffolk of Henry VI.'s reign bore the mering whiteness. Further on and furtitles of Domine ile Hamburg et de Que-ther back from the river the land still bec. He was a powerful seigneur in rose, richly wooded and beautiful, but all Normandy, and the same place may easily solitary, where in later days Wolfe's little have given him his title and the gem of army was to have its encampment, and La Nouvelle France its name. In the where now scattered villages lie, stretchtime of Cartier, however, the Quebec of ing mile after mile past the place where to-day was certainly called Stadacona, the white houses and glittering spire of and was a populous and prosperous In- Les Anges Gardiens nestle among the dian town.

green slopes of the hills. No sooner were his ships safely an- It must have been a day never to be chored than the captain went on shore to forgotten when Cartier — surely for a moreturn the vis he had received from the ment unconscious

bis voyage needed Indian chief. “ Near the river,” he says, any other perfecting-climbed the heights “there is a people of whom Donacona is of Stadacona, and looked down upon this chief, and their dwelling is called Stada- picture. He was to grow familiar with cona, which is as beautiful a place as it is it, to see it daily through times of diffipossible to see, and very fertile — full of culty, danger, and almost despair; but fine trees the same as in France, such as for all the suffering that might come to oaks, elms, ashes, walnuts, maples, vines, be associated with it, it would keep its whitethorns which bear fruit as large as place in his memory as something to be damsons, and other trees; under which recalled in the peaceful years to come grows fine hemp as good as that of | with all a lover's admiration and a discovFrance, without any cultivation." Kindly erer's pride. received by the Indians, and guided up A short time was spent in exploring steep pathways to the rugged heights the neighborhood of Siadacona and the where the citadel now stands, Cartier, first Ile d'Orléans (on which, from its abunof Europeans, looked down upon one of dant vines, the name of Ile de Bacchus the most magnificent landscapes in the was bestowed) and in taking measures for world. That grand panorama is nature's the safety of the ships; but the captain's own, and must have been in its outlines mind was now resolutely bent on a voyage the same to his eyes as it is to ours. At up “the great river,” to visit an important his feet the cliffs, sharply cut by some Indian settlement of which reports had long-past convulsion, formed a precipitous reached him. The chief and people of wall two hundred feet high, at whose base Stadacona were for some reason opposed clung the narrow strip of beach, then to this expedition, and not only contrived green and fertile, but now covered by causes of delay, but finally managed so Champlain Street, and the wharves and that the French were obliged to do without warehouses of the Lower Town. Beyond the guides and interpreters on whose help this line of beach stretched the glorious they had counted. Cartier, however, was waters of “ the great river,” cradling the not to be discouraged; and on September green Ile d'Orléans, with its abundant 19 started up the river with the “ Emefoliage, where perhaps the golden touches rillon,” the smallest of his three small of autumn had already given their first vessels, and two boats. They stopped at splendor to the vines. On bis right, a place called Ochelay, which seems to parted from him by the broad current, have been at or near Richelieu, and were rose the broken Point Levi sliore, a wild, hospitably received by the Indians there. wooded solitude, “very fair," but seem- When they reached Lake St. Peter their ingly undisturbed by man. On his left journey began to be troublesome and the shallower stream of the Ste. Croix dangerous, and they were obliged to leave flowed peacefully, out from a channel the “ Emerillon” in charge of a small already far too wide for its waters, and party, and only take on the boats, manned there his ships, with the royal arms of by twenty sailors, four gentlemen volunFrance displayed, lay safely – a little teers, and the two masters Marc Jalobert and Guillaume le Breton. They had and a cross, which he was instructed to heard from so many quarters a report of kiss and to hang round his neck. Then the importance of Hochelaga, whither the party went on through the fields, they were bound, that it must have been passing among the tall stems of Indian with no little eagerness that they pushed corn, with their graceful leaves and long their way on through the islands at the tassels of golden-tinted floss, until they head of the lake, and at last, on October reached the gate of the town and entered 2, came in sight of their destination. it, much amazed at what they saw; for

The news of their approach bad gone they found themselves within a circle of before them, and there was an excited large extent, formed by wooden ramparts crowd waiting as their boats drew up to and broken by only a single entrance. the beach. More than a thousand per. These ramparts were triple, and most sons, Cartier says, were assembled, danc- strongly and ingeniously built – very ing and singing tumultuously, and throw- thick at the bottom and diminishing toing cakes made of maize into their boats, wards the top, the beams extremely well in such abundance " that you would have joined, and each rampart two spears' thought they were rained down from length in height. The gateway, the only heaven.” As soon as the strangers land- passage through them, could be closed ed, they found a great feast prepared for with bars against an enemy, and all round them, the whole town apparently consti- the town inside the ramparts ran gallertuting themselves their entertainers; but ies, where piles of stones were stored that day there was no state reception, nor ready to be thrown on the heads of a bedid they visit the town itself, contenting sieging army. Within all these fortificathemselves with making friends of the tions were about fifty houses arranged crowd, and especially of the women, who round a central square or place. Each seem to have been everywhere most house was about fifty feet long, cleverly prominent in public demonstrations. roofed with sheets of bark, and contain

Next morning the captain and his coming one large hall with a fireplace, and pany started, with a certain state and for several smaller rooms for the use of difmality, for the town or bourgade, as he ferent members of the family. An upper calls it, of Hochelaga. They found the story served as the granary and storeapproach to it formed by a good and well- house; the supplies which it held controdden road, which passed through a sisted of Indian corn (which was beaten country of great natural beauty, well into flour with wooden mallets), pease, wooded, and evidently fertile. Oaks, large cucumbers, and fruits, with abunmaple, and other valuable trees grew dance of dried fish. Cartier tells us abundantly, and as they proceeded, fields nothing as to the furnishing of these subof Indian corn began to spread out around stantial dwellings, though their comfortathem. In the midst of these fields, sur. ble aspect seems to have much impressed rounded on all sides by the ripening har- him, except as to the beds, which were vest, rose the walls of Hochelaga. Above made of bark with plenty of furs for covthe town a beautiful hill sloped up, shel- erings. tering it towards the north, and in front The French were led by the chief, their flowed the great river, an expanse of conductor, into the great central square nearly two miles of swift, blue water, of the town, being joined by a crowd of contrasting with the green shore. As the inhabitants, women as well as men. they drew near the town a chief, attended All these came round them without the by a number of people, came out to meet least sign of fear or shyness, caressing them, and invited them to sit down and them, the former bringing babies, whom rest in the place where they then were. they begged them to touch, as if they When they had done so, the chief began thought their doing so would procure the the invariable oration, preschement of children some good fortune. At last, welcome, of which little, if any, could after the wonien had gratified their curihave been intelligible; for supposing, osity, they were all dismissed by the men, as seems evident, that the French had who seated themselves on the ground. learned something of the language spoken Presently, however, some of the women at Stadacona, they would now find them- came back bringing mats, which they selves in the region of a different (proba- arranged in the centre of the square, and bly a Huron) dialect.

invited the captain and his party to take When the preschement ended, Cartier their places upon them. They had no presented to the chief gifts suitable to sooner obeyed than the Agouhanna, the his rank — two hatchets, a pair of knives, great chief, made his appearance, carried by nine or ten men, and placed himself | a Book of Hours, and read distinctly on a deerskin beside that assigned to from it, word for word, the passion of Cartier. He was a man of about fifty, our Lord. While he thus read words no better dressed than his subjects, ex- which, though in an unknown tongue, cept that he wore as a crown a fillet of they must have guessed to be in some hedgehog's skin, dyed red; he was, how-way divine, the people stood around him ever, a most pitiable object, being so pal- silent, looking up to heaven, and imitatsied that all his limbs shook.

ing reverently the devout gestures of the The scene that follows is so singular French. and so touching that one stops to ask Did any miracle of healing follow? We oneself what it was in the aspect of the know nothing more. Cartier's narrative strangers which thus inspired in a people, goes back to common things, and tells us not altogether barbarous, a faith equally briefly of the rest of his hurried visit to sudden and unclaimed? They had seen Hochelaga. Yet it is hard to believe that no proofs of their power. Even the fire such an hour left no trace. Even those arms which had awed the people of Sta- who refuse belief, absolutely and without dacona had not been used here to obtain exception, to all modern miracles, may for the French a prestige born of fear. allow that among a people highly imagiThey knew still less, one would think, native and full of faith, cures of nervous of the disposition of the newcomers — diseases were, under such circumstances, whether they would show themselves gen- very possible; to those less sceptical it tle or cruel. Yet they evidently believed may be permitted to hope that even more at once in their will, as well as in their than such cures took place. One thiny capacity, to help. Was it one of those can hardly be doubted." The recollection intuitions which we see sometimes in of that appeal and response — the cry of children, by which they comprehend char- human misery answered by the message acter as it affects themselves with an of divine love — must have left an undyalmost unerring certainty?

ing impression on the minds of those who The chief of Hochelaga only waited saw and heard; and probably the recital until the usual ceremonies of greeting of this scene was one of the first induceand welcome were ended, and then imme- ments to pious men and women in France diately showed his disabled limbs to the to undertake the long and difficult task captain, begging him to touch them. He of evangelizing the people of Canada. did so, rubbing them gently with his Cartier and his party explored the envi. hands, and the chief, apparently satisfied, rons of Hochelaga, and climbed “the took off the red fillet and presented it to mountain ” to which later travellers gave him. As if this gift had been a signal the name of Mont Royal; but the season expected and waited for, a strange stir was advancing and they could make no instantly began, and there was carried long stay. Taking a warm and friendly into the square from all sides a crowd of farewell of their Indian hosts, they went sick, helpless, blind and deformed per- on board their boats, and soon rejoining sons, who were laid down round Cartier, the Emerillon,” returned to Stadacona their friends praying him only to touch by the middle of the month. them -" tellement qu'il sembloit que Dieu Much had to be done before winter set feust descendu pour les gué, and strange must have been the feel.

Never, surely, since the days when the ings of the little colony when, shut up in lame, the halt, and the blind were brought the enclosure with which they had surto our Lord, was there a similar throng rounded their ships, they saw' the great assenzbled, and it was well for the man river change into a plain of ice, and the who stood there with so many imploring green and fertile country shroud itself in eyes turned to him that he could feel, its deep mantle of snow. They knew above his human weakness, the certainty that for six months they must remain of a divine power and compassion. Deep- prisoners, but they did not know all the ly moved, he took, as it were, these igno- suffering those winter months were to rant prayers of the people and offered bring. The captain's journal through the them to God. Standing in the midst, he winter is a story of simple heroism full recited the beginning of St. John's Gos- of interest, but for which we have no pel, and making the sign of the cross space here. A terrible illness broke out upon the sick, prayed that God would among the party, which proved fatal to make himself known to them, and give twenty of them, and was so universal that them grace to receive Christianity and at one time there were but three men the holy rite of baptism. Then he took / well out of the three crews. At the same

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time the friendship of Donacona and his vain, and when autumn approached the people had so far cooled that Cartier felt patience of the adventurers seems to have it most imperative to conceal the helpless been worn out. They left the great river condition of his men, and was driven to for the last time, met De Roberval at St. all sorts of expedients for this purpose, John, but would not turn back, and before while his heart was torn by the misery the end of October had been received about him, and often, as De Joinville says with great rejoicings and honors in their of St. Louis," he had nothing but cour- own town. Only the first part of this age to maintain life.”

voyage is related by the captain himself; At last the time of suffering was over. his journal breaks off abruptly at a moA decoction of a plant called anneda ment when, just at the closing in of winperhaps the wild barberry – proved so ter, he was putting his little fort in order efficacious that the sick began quickly to to withstand an anticipated attack. If he

One of the ships must indeed finished it (which is almost certain), the be abandoned, but the others were brought last portion was entirely lost within a few out of their enclosure and made ready years of his death, and Hakluyt, who tried

Early in May all was prepared, anxiously, but in vain, to recover it, was but Cartier seems to have feared that able to pick up only the most fragmentary Donacona and his people meant to hinder information as to later events. his departure. They had shown great For ten years “the Captain" seems to distrust of the French for some time, and have enjoyed quiet and modest ease in this is the only excuse for what certainly his seaside Manoir of Lemožlou. The was a line of conduct entirely at variance king gave him letters of nobility, but apwith the captain's general character. parently little or nothing else; and after Donacona was suddenly seized and, with De Roberval's return to France there was several of his attendants, forcibly invited even question raised as to the expendito pay a visit to the king of France. He ture of the sum granted to them jointly was allowed to see and speak with his from the royal treasury. It was proved, people, and to appoint a regent, but never- however, that Cartier had spent more than theless there is no doubt that he was car. he had received, and the court gave senried off against his will. On May 6, 1536, tence in his favor in June, 1544. This is the two ships left their anchorage, and the latest public record of his life. In moved down the river, and on June 6 they 1554 he died, at the age of sixty, leaving came safely into the harbor of St. Malo, no children and no wealth — nothing at the joy of their prosperous home-coming all, indeed, except his well-deserved repuclouded by the memory of twenty com- tation as a skilful sailor, an excellent comrades who would never return.

mander, and an honest man. Four years later. Cartier once

ANNIE WALKER. sailed for La Nouvelle France. The interval had been filled by public events of such importance as to distract King Francis's thoughts entirely from his newly.

From The Cornhill Magazine. claimed territory, and had been marked

MY FAITHFUL JOHNNY. also by the downfall of Admiral de Chabot, Cartier's friend and patron. At last, however, a fresh commission was issued I HAD a long time to wait before Mrs. (and this time expressly for purposes of Harwood came. The morning sun was colonization), in which unfortunately Car- shining into the room, making everything tier was hampered by the partnership of more dingy. No doubt it had been dusted the Sieur de Roberval. De Roberval that morning as well as the little maid made so many delays that Cartier was at could dust it; but nothing looked pure or last ordered off alone and ill provided. fresh in the brightness of the light, which He reached his old anchorage at the Ste. was full of motes, and seemed to find out Croix August 23, 1540, and though he dust in every corner. The dingy cover had not brought Donacona or any of his on the table, ihe old-fashioned “ Books of attendants back, he was again well re- Beauty,” the black horsehair chairs, stood ceived by the Indians. He afterwards out remorselessly shabby in the sunshine. began preparations for a settlement at I wondered what kind of house Ellen Charlebourg Royal (Cap Rouge) and built would have when she furnished one for a fort, where he must have spent the win. herself. Would John and she show any ter and part of the following summer. All “taste" between them - would they pick this time De Roberval was expected in up” pretty things at sales and old furni.



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