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division of the empire, in the sense in which it is said to be divided(Dan. ii. 41) in regard to its component elements, as being a part of potter's clay and part of iron,” and its division, in another sense, and at a later period, into ten kingdoms.

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Page 32, Note 3.-With the passages quoted from St. Jerome and St. Cyril (sup. pp. 27, 28; cf. pp. 66, 67), testifying to the general tradition, and also the quotations from Irenæus (ibid.) and Hippolytus (pp. 29. 352), compare Tertullian, de Resurr. Carnis, cap. 24: (“ Donec de medio fiat quis, nisi Romanus status ? cujus abscessio in decem reges dispersa Antichristum superducet.”) Also S. Chrysost. in 2 Thess. ii., Ephrem Syrus, Serm. Ascet. Op. t. i. p. 44. &c.

Page 33, Note 7. — We find, in the sixth century, Cosmas Indicopleustes opposing the received interpretation (Christian. Opinio de Mundo, lib. ii. ap. Montfaucon. . Collect. Nov. Pat. t. ii. pp. 145, 146). But his writings give proof that he is no authority on questions of interpretation of prophecy; while some of his views anticipate those which have been, unhappily, too prevalent in modern times.

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Page 36, Note 4.—The question is, Which are the kings referred to, when it is said, “In the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom," &c. ?

66 This is explained,” says Dr. Todd (Discourses, p. 53), “to signify that, in the days of the kings who shall be at the head of its several subdivisions," i. e. the ten subdivisions of the fourth kingdom, “the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom,' &c.” He adds, in a note, “So verse 44 is generally understood, if we adopt the reading of the present. Chaldee text. Dr. Gill,” whom he goes on to quote, “says:

666 And in the days of these kings, &c.] Not of the Babylonian, Persian, and Grecian kings, nor indeed of the old Roman kings or emperors; but in the days of these ten kings or kingdoms into which the Roman em404

Appendix. pire is divided, signified by the ten toes of different power and strength.'— Gill on the Prophets, Vol. ii. p. 273, col. 2. fol. Lond. 1758."

For this interpretation, however, I do not find any authority. The general consent of interpreters would seem rather to understand the words to mean, “during the succession of these four monarchies, and in the times of the last of them.” (Lowth.) Dr. Maitland (“ Attempt,” &c. p. 7) observes of the fourth kingdom, that “it is stated that it shall be, at its beginning, strong as iron, but afterwards divided,” adding, “I presume we are to under

“ stand • divided' among kings, for it is said (ver. 44), “In the days of these kings;' but no kings had been previously mentioned, unless it be thus by implication. (4.) ) It is added, that they' (I presume these kings) shall mingle themselves with the seed of men, but they shall not cleave one to another. (5.) That in the days of these kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom, which shall break in pieces and consume all the others, and stand for ever." From the fact, which Dr. Maitland notices, that “no other kings had been mentioned" but

” the four (see Lecture), it seems to me the natural and legitimate conclusion, that those four are intended. Of interpreters I will only quote St. Chrysostom, who gives his undoubting interpretation of the words įv tais ňuépais των βασιλέων εκείνων-των Ρωμαίων δηλονότι. He proceeds to answer the question, πώς τας ήδη σβεσθείσας βασιλείας καθαιρεί ;-άλλα το καθαιρείν ετέρας εν αίς αι τοιαύται εισιν, είκότως έμποιεί. Op. tom. vi. p. 216. , .

. . p. .

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Page 39, Note 4.-In Matt. xxi. 44 (cf. Luke xx. 18), the language of the former clause (και ο πεσων επί τον λίθον τούτον, συνθλασθήσεται) would recal to mind that of Isai. viii. 14, 15; xxviii, 13; but then follows, d'ov d'âv méon, dekuńoel ajtóv. Schleusner (Lex. N. T. in voc.) gives as the sense of dexuaw,"1) propriè: ventilo triticum, ita ut minute partes in auras dispergantur, frumentum purgo, cribro, glumas et paleas à frumento ventilando separo, à Alkuós, oī, è, ventilabrum, vannus. In hac signi

ó ficatione respondet apud Alexandrinos Hebr. 177! ven

V

Appendix.

405 tilavit frumentum. Ruth iii. 2..2), metaphoricè : contero, comminuo et instar palearum dissipo, disjicio, et ex adjuncto: penitus perdo, deleo. Bis tantum legitur in N. T. Μatt. xxi. 44, εφ' δν δ' αν πέση, λικμήσει αυτόν, .... Luc. xx. 18. In utroque loco sermo est de interitu ac pænis adversariorum religionis Christianæ, maxime Judæorum. Dan. ii. 44, λεπτύνεϊ και λικμήσει πάσας τας βασιλείας, ubi Chald. 91? (909) a 710 consumo, respondet.” Cf. Lex. Vet. Test. in voc. dekuaw. The sense of the words Aukuhoel

λικμάω. λικμήσει ajtóv in the two evangelists, is, in fact, that which is fully developed in the words in Daniel (ver. 35), “Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them.

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Page 40, Note 5.-So Rosenmüller (Schol. in loc.) who, however, observes, “Interpretum plures, et Judæi et Christiani, quarto hoc regno Romanum intelligunt, quam sententiam nostra ætate pluribus commendavit Io. Casp. Velthusen in Animadverss. ad Dan. ii. 27—45, Helmstad. 1783, repet. in Commentatt. Theol. a Kuinoelio editis, Vol. v. p. 361, seqq." 'Rosenmüller, however, mentions another quite novel hypothesis, proposed by Harenberg, who would make the succession of kings to be the sons and grandsons of Nebuchadnezzar, his successors in the empire of Babylon, and the stone which smote the image to be Cyrus. “Quam sententiam," he says, “sese pro

, basse miror Doederleinio in Notis ad Grotii Annotatt. vs. 34, et Scharfenbergio in ‘Animadverss. in Daniel.' p. 35. Quatuor partium statuæ, quæ Nebucadnezari in somnio apparuit, eadem est ratio, qualis quatuor animalium, quæ Daniel in somnio vidit, cap. vii. Iis autem non quatuor singulos reges, sed quatuor imperia significari, perspicuum est ex vss. 23, 24, illius capitis."

In regard to the four empires, and the Catholic Church viewed as a kingdom, see Archdeacon Wilberforce's interesting volume, “The Five Empires."

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Page 74, Note 6.—The promise made to Abraham (in Gen. xv. 18—21), including the whole land “ from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates," makes mention of “the Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.” In Exod. xxiii. 23, the nations of the land of Canaan are enumerated as consisting of “the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites;” and the same in chap. xxxiii. 11. In Deut. vii. 1, are recounted the names of “seven nations,” the Girgashites being added to the six above named. In Joshua i. 4, it is said, “ From the wilderness and this Lebanon, even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.” In Neh. ix. 8, where the covenant made with Abraham is referred to, the land promised to his seed is described as “the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Jebusites, and the Girgashites.” Other instances of a somewhat similar kind might be cited.

In regard to the Gothic nations and the ten kingdoms, I cannot do better than refer to the following passage from an unquestionable authority in this matter, Bossuet. In his commentary on Rev. xvii. 12, he says :

“ L'auteur du commentaire sur l'Apocalypse attribué à Saint Ambroise, et que nous avons vu être Bérengaude, écrivain du septième siècle (Préf. n. 7), dit clairement que par ces dix rois sont designés dix royaumes, par qui l'empire romain'a été détruit; et il compte ces destructeurs au nombre de dix, qui sont les Perses et les Sarrasins devenus maîtres de l’Asie ; les Vandales de l'Afrique; les Goths de l'Espagne; les Lombards de l'Italie ; les Bourguignons de la Gaule ; les Français de la Germanie; les Huns de la Pannonie; les Alains et les Suèves de

Appendix.

407 beaucoup d'autres pays qu'ils ont ravagés.' Il faut donc entendre par ces dix rois, ceux qui ruinèrent Rome, et en démembrèrent l'empire, principalement en Occident. Le nombre de dix est grand pour des rois ; et il est vrai que l'Occident est déchiré presqu'en même temps par un grand nombre de rois qui composent de grands royaumes de ces débris de l'empire. On voit paroître à peu près dans le même temps les Vandales, les Huns, les Francs, les Bourguignons, les Suèves, les Alains, les Hérules, à qui succèdent les Lombards, les Allemands, les Saxons ; plus que tous ceux-là, les Goths, qui sont les vrais destructeurs de l'empire. Rien ne force à se tourmenter, pour les réduire précisément au nombre de dix, encore qu'on les y pût à peu près réduire par rapport aux royaumes fixes qu'ils ont établis. Mais un des secrets de l'interpretation des prophètes, est de ne pas chercher de finesse il n'y en a point, et de ne se pas perdre dans les minuties, quand on trouve de grands caractères qui frappent la vue d'abord. ... Ici, sans qu'il soit besoin d'un plus grand detail, c'est un caractère assez remarquable, que d'un seul empire il se forme tant de grands royaumes, en diverses provinces d'Espagne, en Afrique, dans la Gaule Celtique, dans la Séquanoise, dans la Grande-Bretagne, dans la Pannonie, dans l'Italie, et ailleurs; et que l'empire romain soit abattu dans sa source, c'est-à-dire, en Occident où il est né, non point par un seul prince qui commande en chef, comme il arrive ordinairement, mais par l'inondation de tant d'ennemis qui agissent tous indépendamment les uns des autres."

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Page 75, Note 8.—Theodoret's language, in particular, is very strong. Ο μεν ούν μακάριος Δανιήλ ταύτα ημάς έδίδαξεν' εγώ δε, των Ιουδαίων κατηγορίας επί του παρόντος αφείς, θαυμάζω κομιδή των της ευσεβείας διδασκάλων τινάς Μακεδονικήν βασιλείαν το τέταρτον θηρίον αποκαλέσαντας: έδει γαρ αυτούς συνιδείν κ. τ. λ. .... Λείπεται τοίνυν την Ρωμαϊκήν βασιλείαν νοείν το τέταρτον θηρίον" εν γαρ τω ταύτης τέλει, οι μεν δέκα βασιλείς κατά ταυτόν úvaothgovtal K. 7.1.-Comment. in Dan. cap. vii. Op. t. ii. p. 639. ed. Paris.

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