« VorigeDoorgaan »
popularity of opinion to measure of reason, may had hitherto only hope of it, and hope deferred ; appear in that, we see men are more curious what and he was desirous to know the event of the they put into a new vessel than into a vessel season- matter, and to be freed, one way or other, from ed; and what mould they lay about a young plant, the suspense of his thoughts. His friend returnthan about a plant corroborate ; so as the weakesting, told him plainly that he must thenceforth terms and times of all things used to have the best despair of that grant, how much soever his forapplications and helps; and, therefore, the ancient tunes needed it. 6. Be it so," said his lord ship; wisdom of the best times did always make a just and then he dismissed his friend very cheerfully, complaint, that states were too busy with their with thankful acknowledgments of his service. laws, and too negligent in point of education : His friend being gone, he came straightway to which excellent part of ancient discipline hath Dr. Rawley, and said thus to him, “ Well, sir, been in some sort revived of late times, by the yon business won't go on, let us go on with this, colleges of the Jesuits ; of whom, although in for this is in our power :" and then he dictated to regard of their superstition I may say, quo meli- him afresh, for some hours, without the least heores, eo deteriores; yet in regard of this, and some sitancy of speech, or discernible interruption of other points concerning human learning and moral thought, matters, I may say, as Agesilaus said to his He proceeded with his literary labours, and, enemy, Pharnabasus, Talis quum sis, utinam noster during this year, published in Latin his celebrated
treatise, “ De Augmentis Scientiarum," and his His application was not successful; the king important « Historia Vitæ et Mortis." answered that it had been designed for Sir Wil- Between the year 1605, when the Advancement liam Beecher, but that there was some hope that, was published, and the year 1623, he made great by satisfying him elsewhere, his majesty might progress in the completion of the work, which, be able to comply with the request. Sir William having divided into nine books, and subdivided was satisfied by the promise of £2500, but the each book into chapters, he caused to be translated provostship was given to Sir Henry Wotton, into Latin by Mr. Herbert, and some other “ who had for many years, like Sisyphus, rolled friends, and published in Latin in 1623, in a the restless stone of a state employment; knowing volume entitled De Dignitate et Augmentis Sciexperimentally that the great blessing of sweet entiarum. content was not to be found in multitudes of men This treatise De Augmentis is an improvement, or business,” and that a college was the fittest by expunging, enlarging, and arranging, of the place to nourish holy thoughts, and to afford rest Advancement of Learning. both to his body and mind, which he much re- In the first part there are scarcely any alteraquired from his age, being now almost threescore tions, except the omission of his beautiful praise years, and from his urgent pecuniary wants; for of Elizabeth, not, perhaps, very acceptable to her he had always been as careless of money as
The material alterations are in the though our Saviour's words, Care not for to- analysis of Natural History and Natural Philosomorrow,' were to be literally understood.” He, phy; in his expansion of a small portion of the therefore, upon condition of releasing a grant, science of Justitia Universalis ;” in that part of which he possessed, of the mastership of the rolls, human philosophy under the head of Government, was appointed provost.
which relates to man as a member of society; and At this disappointment Bacon could not be in his arrangement of the important subject of much affected. One day, as he was dictating to revealed religion. Dr. Rawley some of the experiments in his Sylva, he had sent a friend to court, to receive for him In the annexed outline of the work the parts a final answer, touching the effect of a grant marked in italics exhibit the material alterawhich had been made him by King James. Hetions :
Sl. By Divines.
1. Objections. 2. By Politicians. ri. Preliminary.
3. From the errors of learned men. 2. Advantages.
51. Divine. 2. Human.
S Heavens, Earth, Elements, Meteors,
ri. Subject. 2. Preter generations. Marvels.
Magic, &c. 3. Lectures. -1. Nature.
3. Arts. 2. Use.
2. Induction. 1. Fragments.
S 1. Memorials.
2. Antiquities. 2. Civil.
1. Chronicles. ri. Different histories.
S. r1. Simple. 2. Lives. (2. Perfect.
3. Relations. -2. What done
(2. Mixed. and omitted. 1. History, relat
1. The Church. ing to the Me
3. Ecclesiastical. 2. Prophecy. mory.
3. Providence. 4. Literary
(1. Orations. (2. Appendices. 2. Epistles.
1. Narrative. (2. Division. 2. Poetry, relating to s the Imagination.
2. Representative. 3. Parabolical.
ri. General. 1. Natural.
ri. Religion. 2. Particular.
2. Philosophy. 3. Philosophy,
S 1. As an individual. 3. Man.
1. Conversat,n. relating to
2. In society. 2. Negotiation Reason.
S 1. Enlarging a state.
2. Justitia Universalis.
Of this extraordinary work various editions Copies were presented to the king, to whom it and translations have been since published." was dedicated, the Prince, the Duke of Bucking• Different editions of the treatise De Augmentis.
Is it not rather extraordinary that not an edition has been 1. The first edition is thus described by, Tenison : “ The published in either of the universities of England fairest and most correct edition of this book in Latin is that in folio, printed at London, 1623; and whoever would un
Translations. derstand the Lord Bacon's cypher, let him consult that accurate edition : for, in some other editions which I have perused, In the year 1610 a translation into English was published at the form of the letters of the alphabet, in which much of the Oxford, with a portrait of the philosopher writing his Instauramystery consisteth, is not observed, but the roman and italic tio, and the following inscriptions prefixed and subjoined: shapes of them are confounded." The following is a copy of “ Tertius a Platone philosophiæ princeps. Quod feliciter vor. the title page : “ Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervianfio, tat reip. literariæ V. C. Fran. de Verulamio philosoph. liberVice-Comitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis tates assertor avdax, scientiaru' reparator felix mundi menScientiarum. Libri ix. Ad Regem svvm. Londini, in Offi- risq. magnus arbiter inclyris max. terrarum orbis Acad. Oxon. cina Joannis Haviland, MDCXXIII.” There is a copy at Cam. Contab. Q. hanc suam Instavr. voto suscepto vivus decer. bridge and in the British Museum, and I have a copy. nebat obiit v. non. April. 11. D. N. Caroli I. Pp. Aug. cio 150
2. The work had scarcely appeared in England, when an xxv!"-Appended is another engraving of two spheres, edition was published in France: it appeared in 1624. The fol. the one of the visible, the other of the intellectual world, and lowing is a copy of the title page : Francisci Baronis de Ve. supported by two fixed pillars, the one Oxford and the other rvlamio Vicecomitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis Cambridge, with a vessel sailing between them, with the Scienciarum. Libri IX. Ad Regem svvm. Iuxta exemplar following inscription: “Of the Advancement and Proficience Londini impressum. Parisiis, typis Petri Metayer, typogra- of Learning, or the Partitions of Sciences, ix Bookes. phi Regij. M.DC XXIV." I have a copy.
Written in Latin by the most illustrious and famous Lord 3. In 1638 an edition was published by Dr. Rawley, in a Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulani, Vicont St. Alban, Counfolio entitled, “ Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervlamio Vice- silour of Estate and Lord Chancellor of England. Interpreted Comitis Sancti Albani tractatus de Dignitate et Augmentis by Gilbert Wais. Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia. Scientiarum qui est Instaurationis magne pars prima. Ad Oxford, printed by Leon. Lichfield, printer to the University regem svvm. Londini, typis loh. Haviland. Prostant ad for Rob. Young, and Ed. Forrest. CICIOC XL." insignia Regia in Cæmeterio D. Pauli, apud Iocosam Norton In the year 1674 another edition of the translation by Wats et Richardum Whitakerum. 1638.”
was published in London, but instead of the engravings 4. In the year 1645 an edition in 12mo. was published in which were prefixed to the edition of 1610, there is prefixed Ilolland. The following is the title page: Francisci Baconis to the annexed title page only a portrait of Lord Bacon. The de Verulamio, Vice-Comitis Sancti Albani de Dignitate et following is the title page : "Of the Advancement and Profi. Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri ix. Ad Regem suuin. Edi- cience of Learning : or the Partitions of Sciences, Nine tio nova, cum Indice rerum et verborum locupletissimo. Books. Written in Latin by the most eminent, illustrious Lugd. Batav. apud Franciscum Moyardum et Adrianum and famous Lord Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount Wijngaerde. Anno 1615.”—The title page of this Dutch edi. St. Alban, Counsellor of Estate, and Lord Chancellor of Eng. tion is adorned with an engraving, not undeserving the atten- land. Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. London, printed for tion of our students in England: it is of a youth aspiring to Thomas Williams, at the Golden Ball ir, Osier lane, 1074." the attainment of knowledge.
Of these translations Archbishop Tenison thus speaks in 5. In 1652 another edition in 12mo. was published in Holthe Baconiana : " The whole of this book was rendered into land: the engraving prefixed to the edition of 1615 is also pre. English by Dr. Gilbert Wats, of Oxford, and the translation fixed to this edition; but the descriptive title is omitted, and has been well received by many: but some there were, who the address to the reader is at the back of the engraving. wished that a translation had been set forth, in wbich the The following is the title page : “Fr. Baconis de Vervlam genius and spirit of the Lord Bacon had more appeared. And Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarvm. Lib. IX. I have seen a letter written by certain gentlemen to Dr. RawLvgd. Batavorvm, ex officina Adriani Wijngaerden. Anno ley, wherein they thus importune him for a more accurate
version, by his own hand. It is our humble suit to you, 6. In 1662 another edition was published in 12mo. in Holland. and we do earnestly solicit you to give yourself the trouble to The following is a copy of the title page: “Fr. Baconis de correct the too much defective translation of De Augmentis Vervlam Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarum. Scientiarum, which Dr. Wats hath set forth. It is a thou. Lib. IX. Amstelædami, sumptibus Joannis Ravesteinij. sand pities that so worthy a piece should lose its grace and 1662.” At the back of which, as in the edition of 1652, there credit by an ill expositor; since those persons who read that is the address to the reader: “Amice Lector. Hoc opus de translation, taking it for genuine, and upon that presumption Augmen'is Scientiarum, novo ejusdem autoris organo si præ- not regarding the Latin edition, are thereby robbed of that mittatur, non modo necessarium ei lucem præbet ; sed et benefit which, if you would please to undertake the business, partitiones continet scientiarum quæ primam Instaurationis they might receive. This tendeth to the dishonour of that magnæ partem constituunt quas id circo auctor in ipso organi noble lord, and the Advancement of Learning.'' Timine retractare noluit. Hæc te scire volebam.”
or the correctness or incorrectness of these observations, 7. In 1765 an edition in 8vo. was published at Venice. The some estimate may be formed from the following specimens ; following is the title page : “Francisci Baronis de Verulamio, The Instauratio Magna thus begins: “Franciscus de VeruAngliæ Cancellarii de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. lamio sic cogitavit.”—Translation by Wats : “ Francis Lord Pars prima. Lugani, MDCCLXIII. Expensis Gasparis Girar. Verulam consulted thus." di, Bibliopolæ Veneti." I have a copy.
Another specimen: Advancement of Learning.--"We see in 8. In 1779 an edition was published on the continent. The all other pleasures there is satiety, and after they be used their following is the title, page : “ Francisci Baconi Baronis de verdure departeth ; which showeth well they be but deceits Verulamio de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Tomus of pleasure, and not pleasures, and that it was the novelty I. Wirceburgi, apud Jo. Jac. Stahel. 1779.”
which pleased, and not the quality; and therefore we see 9. In 1829 another edition was published on the continent, that voluptuous men turn friars, and ambitious men turn me. in two vols., of which the following is the title page : "Fran- lancholy; but of knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfaccisci Baconis de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri tion and appetite are perpetually interchangeable, and there. IX. Ad fidem optimarum editionum edidit vitamque auctoris, fore appeareth to be good in itself simply, without fallacy or adjecit Philippus Mayer, Philosophie Doctor ei Gymnasii accident." Norimbergensis Collega. Norimbergae, aumptibus Riegelii Wats's Translation.-"In all other pleasures there is a et Wiessneri. MDCCCXXIX."
finite variety, and after they grow a little stale, their flower
and verdure fades and departs ; whereby we are instructed Such are the different editions of which I have any know that they were not indeed pure and sincere pleasures, but ledge. I understand that editions have been published in shadows and deceits of pleasures, and that it was the novelty Germany, for which I have sent, and hope to be able to pro. wbich leased, and not the quality ; wherefore voluptuous
men often turn friars, and the declining age of ambitious
ham, Trinity College, Cambridge, the University | his body was reduced to bones, and his bones alof Cambridge, and the University of Oxford. most to dust. For though the earth in the chanThe present was gratefully acknowledged by the cel of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, where he different patrons to whom it was presented, and was interred, hath not so quick a digestion with by all the learning of England.
the earth of Aceldama, to consume flesh in twenFifty years after its publication it was included ty-four hours, yet such the appetite therecf, and at Rome in the list “ Librorum Prohibitorum,” all other English graves, to leave small reverin which list it is now included in Spain. sions of a body after so many years. But now
The vanity of these attempts to resist the pro- such the spleen of the council of Constance, as gress of knowledge might, it should seem, by they not only cursed his memory as dying an obthis time be understood even at the Vatican. stinate heretic, but ordered that his bones (with
How beautifully are the consequences of this this charitable caution,-if it may be discerned intolerance thus stated by Fuller : “ Hitherto the from the bodies of other faithful people) be taken corpse of John Wickliffe had quietly slept in his out of the ground, and thrown far off from any grave about forty-one years after his death, till Christian burial. In obedience hereunto, Richard
Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, Diocesan of Lutterprinces is commonly more sad and besieged with melan-worth, sent his officers, vultures with a quick sight choly; but of knowledge there is no satiety, but vicissitude, perpetually and interchangeably returning of fruition and ap
scent at a dead carcass, to ungrave him. Accordpetite ; so that the good of this delight must needs be simpler, ingly to Lutterworth they come; summer, comwithout accident or fallacy." In the year 1632 a translation into French was published in and their servants, so that the remnant of the
missary, official, chancellor, proctors, doctors, Paris. The following is a copy of the litle page : “Neve Livres de la Dignite ei de l'Accroissement des sciences, com- body would not hold out a bone amongst so many posez par Francois Bacon, Baron de Verulam et Vicomte de hands, take what was left out of the grave, and Saint Aubain, et traduits de Latin en Francois par le sieur burnt them to ashes, and cast them into Swift, a de Golefer, Conseiller et Historiographe du Roy. A Paris, chez Jaques Dugast, rue Sainct Jean de Beauvais, a l'Olivier neighbouring brook running hard by. Thus de Robert Estienne et en sa boutique au bas de la rue de la this brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon, Harpe. M.DC.xxxII. avec privilege du Roy."--Of this edition Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow Archbishop Tenison says, “ This work hath been also translated into French, upon the motion of the Marquis Fiat ; but seas, they into the main ocean; and thus the in it there are many things wholly omitted, many things per ashes of Wickliffe are the emblem of his fectly mistaken, and some things, especially such as relate to religion, wilfully perverted. Insomuch that, in one place, he doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world makes his lordship to magnify the Legend: a book sure of over." little credit with him, when he thus began one of his es.
If Bacon had completed his intended work says, “I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame upon “Sympathy and Antipathy,” the constant is without a mind.'' I have a copy of this edition. antipathy of ignorance to intellect, originating A letter of the Lord Bacon's, in French, to the Marquess Fiat, sometimes in the fear of worldly injury, but
sometimes in the painful feeling of inferiority, relating to his Essays.
always in the influence of some passion more Monsieur l'Ambassadeur mon File,-Voyant que vostre excellence faict et trait mariages, non seulement entre les powerful than the love of truth, would not have princes d'Angletere et de France, niais aussi entre les lan. escaped his notice. gues (puis que faictes traduire non liure de l'Advancement
In this year he also published his History of des Sciences en Francois) i' ai bien voulu vous envoyer, &c.
There is a translation into French in the edition of Lord Life and Death, which, of all his works, is one of Bacon's works, published in the eighth year of the French the most extraordinary, both for the extent of his Republic. The following is the title page of this edition : views, and the minute accuracy with which each “Euvres de François Bacon, Chancelier d'Angletaire; traduites par Ant. La salle; avec des notes critiques, histori- part is investigated. It is addressed, not, to ques et litteraires. Tome premier. A Dijon, de l'Impri- use his own expression, “ to the Adonises of litemerie de L. N. Frantin, an 8 de la Republique Française."
rature, but to Hercules's followers; that is, the DE AUGMENTIS-Latin.
more severe and laborious inquirers into truth."
Upon his entrance, in the Advancement of
portion of knowledge in the continent of nature, 12.no ... Wynyard ... Dutch .. 1662 .. .. 12mo... Ravestein ... Dutch
is to man the end of all knowledge :” and, in
furtherance of this opinion, he explains that the
Wirceburgi. Sth. 2 vols object of education ought to be knowledge and 1829.... 8vo.... Riegelii Nuremberg .9th. 2 vols.
improvement of the body and the mind. Translations.
Of the importance of knowledge of the body, 1640. ... English . G. Wats .... Oxford .... Folio, that, “ while sojourning in this wilderness, and 1674 .... English . G. Wats ....
travelling to the land of promise, our vestments 1032 French . Dugast .... Paris ..
should be preserved," he is incessant in his ob. 8th year Rep.... French .. Frantin Dijon ...... 8vo.
servations. He divides the subject into
1624 .. 1033
. 4th edit.
1765.... 8vo.... Gerard 1779 8vo. Stahel
Folio. .. 4to.
1. The preservation of Health. In flower and tree, and every pebbly stone 1. Health. 2. The cure of Diseases.
That paves the brooks, the stationary rocks,
The moving waters and the invisible air. 2. Strength. 3. The prolongation of Life.
Whate'er exists hath properties that spread 3. Beauty.
Beyond itself, communicating good, 4. Pleasure.
A simple blessing or with evil mixed :
No chasm, no solitude: from link to link His History of Life and Death may be regarded It circulates, the soul of all the worlds." as a treatise upon the art of Preservation of
Excursion, book 9. Health, and Prolongation of Life.
As a foundation of his investigations he con- As another specimen, the mode of explaining siders,
the condensation of spirit by flight may be se.
lected. '1st. The causes of the consumption of the The spirit, he says, is condensed by flight,body.
cold-appeasing, and quelling. The condensa2dly. The modes of reparation.
tion by flight is when there is an antipáthy be
tween the spirit and the body upon which it acts; Of consumption he says there are two causes : the as, in opium, which is so exceedingly powerful in depredation of vital spirit and the depredation of condensing the spirit, that a grain will tranquilambient air; and if the action of either of these lize the nerves, and by a few grains they may be agents can be destroyed, the decomposition is so compressed as to be irrecoverable. The touchmore or less retarded, as in bodies enclosed in ed spirit may retreat into its shell for a time or forwax or coffins, where the action of the external ever: or it may, when fainting, be recalled, by the air is excluded : and when the action of both these application of a stimulant, as surprise from a causes can be prevented, the body defies decom- sudden impulse ; a blow, or a glass of water position, as in bricks and burnt bodies, where the thrown on the face; or the prick of a pin, or the vital air is expelled by exposure of the clay to the action of mind on mind. ambient air, and afterwards by fire; or as a fly in amber, more beautifully entombed than an Egyp- “I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand tian monarch.
Any exploit worthy the name of honour." In making the agents less predatory, and the
As another specimen, his sentiments upon patients less depredable, the science of the retardation of consumption consequently consists.
death, the decomposition of compounds, may be
selected. He proceeds, therefore, with his usual accuracy,
In his doctrine of motion, he says, “ The polito consider how these objects are to be attained 1; and, having considered them, he proceeds to the tical motion is that by which the parts of the body doctrine of reparation, both of the whole frame and are restrained, from their own immediate appetites
or tendencies, to unite in such a state as may prethe decayed parts.
His History of Life and Death contains his serve the existence of the whole body. Thus, favourite doctrine of vital spirit, or excitability,
the spirit, which exists in all living bodies, keeps or life, which he notices in various parts of his all the parts in due subjection; when it escapes, works.
the body decomposes, or the similar parts unite In this place more cannot be attempted than, when the spirit which held the parts together es
as metals rust, fluids turn sour; and, in animals, as a specimen of the whole of this important subject, to explain one or two of the positions.
capes, all things are dissolved, and return to their The foundation position is, that “ All tangible selves, the aqueous to themselves, &c., upon
own natures or principles : the oily parts to thembodies contain a spirit enveloped with the grosser which necessarily ensues that odour, that unctuobody. There is no known body, in the upper parts of the earth, without its spirit, whether it sity, that confusion of parts, observable in putre
faction.” So true is it, that in nature all is be generated by the attenuating and concocting power of the celestial warmth, or otherwise; for beauty; that, notwithstanding our partial views the pores of tangible bodies are not a vacuum, but and distressing associations, the forms of death, either contain air, or the peculiar spirit of the sub- misshapen as we suppose them, are but the ten
dencies to union in similar natures. stance; and this not a vis, an energy, or a fiction,
; but a real, subtile, and invisible, and, therefore,
The knowledge of this science Bacon considers neglected body, circumscribed by place and di- of the utmost importance to our well-being :-that
the action of the spirit is the cause of consumption inension." This doctrine is thus stated in the Excursion:
and dissolution ;—is the agent which produces all
bodily and mental effects ;-—influences the will in To every form of being is absigned
the production of all animal motions, as in the An actine principle, howe'er removed
whale and the elephant;—and is the cause of all From sense and observation; it subsists
our cheerfulness or melancholy :-that the perfecIn all things, in all natures, in the stars Of azure heaven, the unenduring clouds,
tion of our being consists in the proper portion