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less of, which will not do well without the spur, Seth the total greater, yet nevertheless, it often but rather the other is to be reckoned a delicacy, carries the mind away, yea, it deceiveth the sense;
а than a virtue: so glory and honour are the spurs as it seemeth to the eye a shorter distance of way, to virtue: and although virtue would languish if it be all dead, and continued, than if it have trees without them, yet since they be always at hand to or buildings, or any other marks, whereby the eye attend virtue, virtue is not to be said the less chosen may divide it. So when a great moneyed man hath for itself, because it needeth the spur of fame and divided his chests, and coins, and bags, he seemreputation: and therefore that position, “ nota ejus eth to himself richer than he was, and therefore a rei quod propter opinionem et non propter veritatem way to amplify any thing is, to break it and to eligitur, hæc est; quod quis si, clam putaret fore, make anatomy of it in several parts, and to exafacturus non esset,” is reprehended.
mine it according to several circumstances. And
this maketh the greater show if it be done without IV.
order, for confusion maketh things muster more; “Quod rem integram servat bonum, quod sine receptu est and besides, what is set down by order and divimalum. Nam se recipere non posse impotentiæ genus est, sion, doth demonstrate that nothing is left out potentia autem bonum,'* Hereof Æsop framed the fable of the two frogs without order, both the mind comprehendeth less
or omitted, but all is there; whereas if it be that consulted together in the time of drought, that which is set down; and besides, it leaveth when many plashes that they had repaired to were dry, what was to be done, and the one propounded
a suspicion, as if more might be said than is exto go down into a deep well, because it was like pressed.
This colour deceiveth, if the mind of him that the water would not fail there; but the other answered, yea, but if it do fail, how shall we get
is to be persuaded, do of itself over-conceive, or up again. And the reason is, that human actions prejudge of the greatness of any thing; for then are so uncertain and subject to perils, as that the breaking of it will make it seem less, because seemeth the best course which hath most passages
it maketh it to appear more according to the truth: out of it. Appertaining to this persuasion, the and therefore if a man be in sickness or pain, the
time will seem longer without a clock or hourglass, forms are, you shall engage yourself, on the other side, “ tantum, quantum voles, sumes ex fortuna," than with it; for the mind doth value every mo&c.
you shall keep the matter in your own hand. ment, and then the hour doth rather sum up the The reprehension of it is, that proceeding and re
moments than divide the day. So in a dead plain solving in all actions is necessary. For as he
the way seemeth longer, because the eye hath saith well, not to resolve, is to resolve, and many frustrating of that maketh it seem longer than the
preconceived it shorter than the truth, and the times it breeds as many necessities, and engageth
truth. Therefore if any man have an over-great as far in some other sort, as to resolve. So it is but the covetous man’s disease, translated into power; breaking it into several considerations he shall
opinion of any thing, then if another think by for the covetous man will enjoy nothing, because he will have his full store and possibility to enjoy and therefore in such cases it is not safe to divide,
make it seem greater to him, he will be deceived ; the more ; so by this reason, a man should execute but to extol the entire, still in general. Another nothing, because he should be still indifferent, and at liberty to execute any thing. Besides
case wherein this colour deceiveth is, when the necessity and this same sjacta est alea,” hath matter broken or divided is not comprehended by many times an advantage, because it awaketh the sense or mind at once, in respect of the disthe powers of the mind, and strengtheneth endea- tracting or scattering of it; and being entire and not vour, « cæteris paret necessitate certe superiores in heaps of five pounds will show more than in one
divided, is comprehended ; as an hundred pounds istis."
gross heap, so as the heaps be all upon one table V.
to be seen at once, otherwise not; as flowers grow“Quod ex pluribus constat et divisibilibus, est majus quam \ing scattered in divers beds will show more than
quod ex paucioribus et magis unum; nam omnia per partes if they did grow in one bed, so as all those beds considerata majora videntur, quare et pluralita inagnitudinem præ se fert : fortius antem operatur plurali- be within a plot, that they be objects to view at tas partium si ordo absit, nam inducit similitudinem infiniti, et impedit comprehensionem."
once, otherwise not: and therefore men, whose This colour seemeth palpable, for it is not plu- living lieth together in one shire, are commonly rality of parts, without majority of parts, that mak-counted greater landed than those whose livings
are dispersed, though it be more, because of the * “That which keeps a matter safe and entire is good ; but notice and comprehension. A third case wherein what is destitute and unprovided of retreat is bad ; for whereas all ability of acting is good, not to be able
to with this colour deceiveth, and it is not so properly a draw one's self is a kind of impotency.” greater, and more one than what is made up of fewer; for in effect as large as the colour itself; and that is, +" That which consists of more parts and those divisible, is case of reprehension, as it is a counter colour
, being all things when they are looked upon piecemeal seem greater; when also a plurality of parts make a show or bulk "omnis compositio indigentiæ cujusdam videtur considerable, which a plurality of parts affects more strongly, esse particeps,” because if one thing would servo if they be in no certain order for it then resembles an infi- the turn, it were ever best, but the defect and imnity, and hinders the comprehending of them."
perfections of things hath brought in that help to is in hell thinks there is no other heaven. 6. Satis piece them up; as it is said, “ Martha, Martha, quercus.” Acorns were good till bread was attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit." So likewise found, &c. And of the other side, the forms hereupon Æsop framed the fable of the fox and to make it conceived, that that was good which the cat; whereas the fox bragged what a number was changed for the worse, are, “Bona magis of shifts and devices he had to get from the hounds, carendo quam fruendo sentimus: Bona a tergo and the cat said she had but one, which was to formosissima;" Good things never appear in their climb a tree, which in proof was better worth than full beauty, till they turn their back and be going all the rest; whereof the proverb grew, “ Multa away, &c. novit vulpes, sed felis unum magnum.” And in The reprehension of this colour is, that the good the moral of this fable it comes likewise to pass, or evil which is removed may be esteemed good that a good sure friend is a better help at a pinch or evil comparatively, and not positively or simply. than all the stratagems and policies of a man's So that if the privation be good, it follows not the own wit. So it falleth out to be a common error former condition was evil, but less good; for the in negotiating, whereas men have many reasons to flower or blossom is a positive good, although the induce or persuade, they strive commonly to utter remove of it to give place to the fruit, be a comand use them all at once, which weakeneth them. parative good. So in the tale of Æsop, when the For it argueth, as was said, a neediness in every old fainting man in the heat of the day cast down of the reasons, by itself, as if one did not trust to his burden and called for Death; and when Death any of them, but fled from one to another, helping came to know his will with him, said, it was for himself only with that: “Et quæ non prosunt sin- nothing but to help him up with his burden again: gula, multa juvant." Indeed in a set speech in an it doth not follow, that because Death, which was assembly, it is expected a man should use all his the privation of the burden, was ill, therefore the reasons in the case he handleth, but in private burden was good. And in this part, the ordinary persuasions it is always a great error. A fourth form of “ malum necessarium” aptly reprehendeth case wherein this colour may be reprehended, is this colour, for “privatio mali necessarii est mala," in respect of that same “vis unita fortior," ac- and yet that doth not convert the nature of the necording to the tale of the French king, that when cessary evil, but it is evil. the emperor's ambassador had recited his master's Again it cometh sometimes to pass, that there style at large, which consisteth of many countries is an equality in the change of privation, and as it and dominions; the French king willed his chan were a "dilemma boni,” or a "dilemma mali:": cellor, or other minister, to repeat and say over so that the corruption of the one good, is a geneFrance as many times as the other had recited ration of the other. “Sorti pater æquus utrique the several dominions; intending it was equiva- est:" and contrary, the remedy of the one evil is lent with them all, and besides more compacted the occasion and commencement of another, as in and united. There is also appertaining to this Scylla and Charybdis. colour another point, why breaking of a thing doth help it, not by way of adding a show of mag
VII. nitude unto it, but a note of excellency and rarity ;
“ Quod bono vicinum, bonum; quod a bono remotum, whereof the forms are, Where shall you find
malum.”+ such a concurrence; Great but not complete; for Such is the nature of things, that things conit seems a less work of nature or fortune, to make trary, and distant in nature and quality, are also any thing in his kind greater than ordinary, than severed and disjoined in place; and things like to make a strange composition. Yet if it be nar- and consenting in quality, are placed, and as it rowly considered, this colour will be reprehended were quartered together: for, partly in regard of or encountered, by imputing to all excellencies in the nature to spread, multiply, and infect in simicompositions a kind of poverty, or at least a casu- litude; and partly in regard of the nature to alty or jeopardy; for from that which is excellent break, expel, and alter that which is disagreeable in greatness, somewhat may be taken, or there may and contrary, most things do either associate, and be decay, and yet sufficiency left; but from that draw near to themselves the like, or at least assiwhich hath his price in composition, if you take milate to themselves that which approacheth away any thing, or any part do fail, all is disgrace. near them, and do also drive away, chase and
exterminate their contraries. And that is the VI.
reason commonly yielded, why the middle region “ Cujus privatio bona, malum ; cujus privatio mala,
of the air should be coldest, because the sun and
stars are either hot by direct beams, or by reflecThe forms to make it conceived, that that was tion. The direct beams heat the upper region, evil which is changed for the better, are, He that the reflected beams from the earth and seas heat
the lower region, That which is in the midst, “That whose privation (or the want of which) is good, is in itself evil; that whose privation (or the want whereof) * “What is near to good, is good; what is at a distan's is an evil, is in itself good."
from good, is evil.”
being farthest distant in place from these two the other, it is a kind of compensation: so the regions of heat, are most distant in nature, that is, poets in tragedies do make the most passionate coldest; which is that they term cold or hot “per lamentations, and those that forerun final despair,
" antiperistasin,” that is, environing by contraries: to be accusing, questioning, and torturing of a which was pleasantly taken hold of by him that man's self. said, that an honest man, in these days, must needs “Seque unam clamat causamque caputque malorum." be more honest than in ages heretofore, “propter And contrariwise, the extremities of worthy antiperistasin,” because the shutting of him in the persons have been annihilated in the consideration midst of contraries, must needs make the honesty of their own good deserving. Besides, when stronger and more compact in itself.
the evil cometh from without, there is left a kind The reprehension of this colour is: first, many of evaporation of grief, if it come by human things of amplitude in their kind do as it were in- injury, either by indignation, and meditating of gross to themselves all, and leave that which is revenge from ourselves, or by expecting or forenext them most destitute: as the shoots or under-conceiving that Nemesis and retribution will take wood, that grow near a great and spread tree, is hold of the authors of our hurt : or if it be by for the most pined and shrubby wood of the field, tune or accident, yet there is left a kind of exposbecause the great tree doth deprive and deceive tulation against the divine powers; them of sap and nourishment; so he saith well, “ Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater.” “ divitus servi maxime servi;" and the comparison But where the evil is derived from a man's own was pleasant of him, that compared courtiers at fault, there all strikes deadly inwards and suffotendant in the courts of princes without great place cateth. or office, to fasting-days, which were next the The reprehension of this colour is, first in holydays, but otherwise were the leanest days in respect of hope, for reformation of our faults is all the week.
“in nostra potestate;" but amendment of our forAnother reprehension is, that things of great- tune simply is not. Therefore, Demosthenes, in ness and predominancy, though they do not ex- many of his orations, saith thus to the people of tenuate the things adjoining in substance, yet Athens : “ That which having regard to the time they drown them and obscure them in show past is the worst point and circumstance of all the and appearance; and therefore the astronomers rest; that as to the time to come is the best: what say, That whereas in all other planets conjunction is that? Even this, that by your sloth, irresoluis the perfectest amity; the sun contrariwise is tion, and misgovernment, your affairs are grown good by aspect, but evil by conjunction.
to this declination and decay. For had you used A third reprehension is, because evil approach- and ordered your means and forces to the best, eth to good sometimes for concealment, sometimes and done your parts every way to the full, and, for protection; and good to evil for conversion notwithstanding, your matters should have gone and reformation. So hypocrisy draweth near to backward in this manner, as they do, there had religion for coverts and hiding itself; "sæpe latet been no hope left of recovery or reparation; but vitium proximitate boni :” and sanctuary-men, since it hath been only by your own errors," &c which were commonly inordinate men and male- So Epictetus in his degrees saith, “ The worst factors, were wont to be nearest to priests and state of man is to accuse external things, better prelates, and holy men; for the majesty of good than that to accuse a man's self, and best of all to things is such, as the confines of them are revered. accuse neither." On the other side, our Saviour, charged with Another reprehension of this colour is, in renearness of publicans and rioters, said, “The spect of the well-bearing of evils wherewith a physician approacheth the sick rather than the man can charge nobody but himself, which whole."
maketh them the less
“Leve fit quod bene fertur onus." VIII.
And therefore many natures that are either
extremely proud, and will take no fault to them“Quod quis culpa sua contraxit, majus malum, quo externis imponitur, minus malum."*
selves, or else very true and cleaving to themselves, The reason is, because the sting and remorse
when they see the blame of any thing that falls of the mind accusing itself doubleth all adversity: shift but to bear it out well, and to make the least
out ill must light upon themselves, have no other contrariwise, the considering and recording in
of it; for as we see when sometimes a fault is wardly, that a man is clear and free from fault
committed, and before it be known who is to and just imputation, doth attempter outward blame, much ado is made of it; but after, if it calamities. For if the evil be in the sense, and in the conscience both, there is a gemination appear to be done by a son, or by a wife, or by a of 11; but if evil be in the one, and comfort in
near friend, then it is light made of: so much
more when a man must take it upon himself. is a greater mischief, (or evil :) that which is laid on him by that marry husbands of their own choosing against
* "That which a man hath procured by his own default And therefore it is commonly seen, that women Oihers is a lesser evil."
their friends' consents, if they be never so ill used, therefore open to be imitated and followed; whereyet you shall seldom see them complain, but set as felicity is inimitable: so we generally see that a good face on it.
things of nature seem more excellent than things of art, because they be inimitable; for “ quod
imitabile est, potentia quadam vulgatum est.” IX.
Thirdly, felicity commendeth those things "Quod opera et virtute nostra partum est, majus bonum; which come without our labour; for they seem quod ab alieno beneficio vel ab indulgentia fortuna delatum, est minus bonum."*
gifts, and the other seem pennyworths; whereThe reasons are, first, the future hope, because upon Plutarch saith elegantly of the acts of Tiin the favours of others, or the good winds of for- moleon, who was so fortunate, compared with the tune, we have no state or certainty; in our endea
acts of Agesilaus and Epaminondas ; that they vours or abilities we have. So as when they have were like Homer's verses, they ran so easily and purchased us one good fortune, we have them as
so well. And therefore it is the word we give ready, and better edged, and inured to procure cility seemeth ever to come from happiness.
unto poesy, terming it a happy vein, because faanother. The forms be: you have won this by play, you
Fourthly, this same “præter spem, vel præter have not only the water, but you have the receipt, of many things : and this cannot be incident to
expectatum,” doth increase the price and pleasure you can make it again it be lost, &c. Next, because these properties which we enjoy
those things that proceed from our own care and by the benefit of others, carry with them an obli.
compass. gation, which seemeth a kind of burden ; whereas the other, which derive from ourselves, are like
X. the freest parents, "absque aliquo inde reddendo;"
“Gradus privationis major videtur, quam gradus diminuand if they proceed from fortune or providence, tionis; et rursus gradus inceptionis major videtur, quam yet they seem to touch us secretly with the reve
gradus incrementii.”+ rence of the divine powers, whose favours we It is a position in the mathematics, that there is taste, and therefore work a kind of religious fear no proportion between something and nothing. and restraint: whereas in the other kind, that therefore the degree of nullity and quiddity or act, comes to pass which the prophet speaketh, seemeth larger than the degree of increase and de“lætantur et exultant, immolant plagis suis, et crease; as to a “monoculus” it is more to lose one sacrificant reti suo."
eye than to a man that hath two eyes. So if one Thirdly, because that which cometh unto us have lost divers children, it is more grief to him to without our own virtue, yieldeth not that commen- lose the last than all the rest; because he is “spes dation and reputation : for actions of great felicity gregis.” And therefore Sibylla, when she brought may draw wonder, but praise less; as Cicero said her three books, and had burned two, did double to Cæsar, “Quæ miremur, habemus; quæ laude- the whole price of both the other, because the burnmus, expectamus."
ing of that had been “ gradus privationis," and Fourthly, because the purchases of our own in- not "diminutionis." dustry are joined commonly with labour and strife, This colour is reprehended first in those things, which gives an edge and appetite, and makes the the use and service whereof resteth in sufficiency, fruition of our desires more pleasant. “Suavis competency, or determinate quantity: as if a man cibus a venatu."
be to pay one hundred pounds upon a penalty, it is On the other side, there be four countercolours more to him to want twelve pence, than after that to this colour, rather than reprehensions, because twelve pence supposed to be wanting, to want ten they be as large as the colour itself. First, because shillings more ; so the decay of a man's estate felicity seemeth to be a character of the favour and seems to be most touched in the degree, when he love of the divine powers, and accordingly worketh first grows behind, more than afterwards, when he both confidence in ourselves, and respect and au- proves nothing worth. And hereof the common thority from others. And this felicity extendeth forms are, “Sera in fundo parsimonia,” and, as to many casual things, whereunto the care or virtue good never a whit, as never the better, &c. It is of man cannot extend, and therefore seemeth to be reprehended also in respect of that notiun, “ Cora larger good; as when Cæsar said to the sailor, ruptio unius, generatio alterius :" so that “ gradus “Cæsarem portas et fortunam ejus;" if he had privationis” is many times less matter, because it said, “ et virtutem ejus," it had been small comfort gives the cause and motive to some new course. against a tempest, otherwise than if it might seem As when Demosthenes reprehended the people for upon merit to induce fortune.
hearkening to the conditions offered by King Philip, Next, whatsoever is done by virtue and industry, being not honourable nor equal, he saith they seems to be done by a kind of habit and art, and were but aliments of their sloth and weakness,
* “That which is gotten by our own paing and industry is +“The degree of privation seems greater than the degree of a greater good ; that which comes by another man's courtesy, diminution; and again, the degree of inception (or beginning) or the indulgence of fortune, is a lesser good."
seems greater than the degree of increase." G2
which if they were taken away, necessity would and come to no substance without an iteration; teach them stronger resolutions. So Doctor so as in such cases the second degree seems the Hector was wont to say to the dames of London, worthiest, as the body-horse in the cart that drawwhen they complained they were they could not tell eth more than the fore-horse. Hereof the common how, but yet they could not endure to take any forms are, the second blow makes the fray, the medicine; he would tell them their way was only second word makes the bargain : “ Alter princito be sick, for then they would be glad to take any pium dedit, alter modum abstulit,” &c. Another medicine.
reprehension of this colour is in respect of defatiThirdly, this colour may be reprehended, in gation, which makes perseverance of greater respect that the degree of decrease is more sensi- dignity than inception: for chance or instinct of tive than the degree of privation ; for in the mind nature may cause inception : but settled affection of man “gradus diminutionis” may work a waver- or judgment inaketh the continuance. ing between hope and fear, and so keep the mind Thirdly, this colour is reprehended in such in suspense, from settling and accommodating things, which have a natural course and inclination in patience and resolution. Hereof the common contrary to an inception. So that the inception is forms are, better eye out than always ache; make continually evacuated and gets no start: but there or mar, &c.
behoveth “ perpetua inceptio,” as in the common For the second branch of this colour, it depends form, “ Non progredi est regredi, qui non proficit upon the same general reason : hence grew the deficit :" running against the hill, rowing against common-place of extolling the beginning of every the stream, &c. For if it be with the stream or thing: “dimidium facti qui bene cæpit habet.”' with the hill, then the degree of inception is more This made the astrologers so idle as to judge of than all the rest. a man's nature and destiny, by the constellation Fourthly, this colour is to be understood of "graof the moment of his nativity or conception. This dus inceptionis a potentia ad actum, comparatus colour is reprehended, because many inceptions cum gradu ab actu ad incrementum.” For otherare but, as Epicurus terneth them, “tentamenta,” | wise “ majur videtur gradus ab impotentia ad inat is, imperfect offers and essays, which vanish | potentiam, quam a potentia ad actum."