were not to many unwelcome. Many were glad, and especially those of settled estate and fortune, that the fears and uncertainties were overblown, and that the die was cast. Others, that had made their way with the king, or offered their service in the time of the former queen, thought now the time was come for which they had prepared: and generally all such as had any dependence upon the late Earl of Essex, who had mingled the ser

And in special, Parsons the Jesuit, under a disguised name, had not long before published an express treatise, wherein, whether his malice made him believe his own fancies, or whether he thought it the fittest way to move sedition, like evil spirits, which seem to foretell the tempest they mean to move, he laboured to display and give colour to all the vain pretences and dreams of succession which he could imagine; and thereby had possessed many abroad that knew not the affairs here with | vice of his own ends with the popular pretence of those his vanities. Neither wanted there here advancing the king's title, made account their within this realm, divers persons both wise and well cause was amended. Again, such as might misaffected, who, though they doubted not of the un-doubt they had given the king any occasion of doubted right, yet setting before themselves the distaste, did contend by their forwardness and waves of people's hearts, guided no less by sudden confidence, to show it was but their fastness to and temporary winds, than by the natural course the former government, and that those affections and motion of the waters, were not without fear what ended with the time. The papists nourished their might be the event. For Queen Elizabeth being hopes, by collating the case of the papists in Enga princess of extreme caution, and yet one that land, and under Queen Elizabeth, and the case of loved admiration above safety; and knowing the the papists in Scotland under the king: interpretdeclaration of a successor might in point of safety ing that the condition of them in Scotland was be disputable, but in point of admiration and re- the less grievous, and divining of the king's spect assuredly to her disadvantage; had, from governnient here accordingly: besides the comthe beginning, set it down for a maxim of estate, fort they ministered to themselves from the memoto impose a silence touching succession. Neither ry of the queen his mother. The ministers, and was it only reserved as a secret of estate, but re- those which stood for the presbytery, thought strained by severe laws, that no man should pre- their cause had more sympathy with the discipline sume to give opinion, or maintain argument touch- of Scotland than the hierarchy of England, and so ing the same: so, though the evidence of right took themselves to be a degree nearer their desires. drew all the subjects of the land to think one Thus had every condition of persons some conthing; yet the fear of danger of law made no man templation of benefit, which they promised themprivy to other's thought. And therefore it rejoiced selves; over-reaching, perhaps, according to the all men to see so fair a morning of a kingdom, | nature of hope, but yet not without some probable and to be thoroughly secured of former apprehen-ground of conjecture. At which time also there sions; as a man that awaketh out of a fearful dream. But so it was, that not only the consent, but the applause and joy was infinite, and not to be expressed, throughout the realm of England upon this succession: whereof the consent, no doubt, may be truly ascribed to the clearness of the right; but the general joy, alacrity, and gratulation, were the effects of differing causes. For Queen Elizabeth, although she had the use of many both virtues and demonstrations, that might draw and knit unto her the hearts of her people: yet nevertheless carrying a hand restrained in gift, and strained in points of prerogative, could not answer the votes either of servants or subjects to a full contentment; especially in her latter days, when the continuance of her reign, which extended to five-and-forty years, might discover in people their natural desire and inclination towards change so that a new court and a new reign

came forth in print the king's book, intituled, Bariλikov Apov: containing matter of instruction to the prince his son touching the office of a king; which book falling into every man's hand, filled the whole realm, as with a good perfume or incense, before the king's coming in; for being excellently written, and having nothing of affectation, it did not only satisfy better than particular reports touching the king's disposition, but far exceeded any formal or curious edict or declara|tion, which could have been devised of that nature, wherewith the princes in the beginning of their reigns do use to grace themselves, or at least express themselves gracious in the eyes of their people. And this was for the general the state and constitution of men's minds upon this change; the actions themselves passed in this manner.

The rest is wanting.




In the consideration of the present state of Christendom, depending on the inclinations and qualities of the princes, governors of the same, first the person of the pope, acknowledged for supreme of the princes catholic, may be brought forth.

Gregory XIII., of the age of seventy years, by surname Boncompagno, born in Bolonia, of the meanest state of the people, his father a shoemaker by occupation; of no great learning nor understanding, busy rather in practice, than desirous of wars, and that rather to further the advancement of his son and his house, a respect highly regarded of all the popes, than of any inclination of nature, the which, yet in these years, abhorreth not his secret pleasures. Howbeit, two things especially have set so sharp edge to him, whereby he doth bend himself so vehemently against religion. The one is a mere necessity, the other the solicitation of the King of Spain. For if we consider duly the estate of the present time, we shall find that he is not so much carried with the desire to suppress our religion, as driven with the fear of the downfall of his own, if in time it be not upheld and restored.

The reasons be these: He seeth the King of Spain already in years, and worn with labour and troubles, that there is little hope in him of long life. And he failing, there were likely to ensue great alterations of state in all his dominions, the which should be joined with the like in religion, especially in this divided time, and in Spain, already so forward, as the fury of the Inquisition can scarce keep in.

In France, the state of that church seemeth to depend on the sole life of the king now reigning, being of a weak constitution, full of infirmities, not likely to have long life, and quite out of hope of any issue. Of the Duke of Anjou he doth not assure himself; besides the opinion conceived of the weakness of the complexion of all that race, giving neither hope of length of life nor of children. And the next to the succession make already profession of the reformed religion, besides the increase thereof daily in France; England and

Scotland are already, God be thanked, quite reformed, with the better part of Germany. And because the queen's majesty hath that reputation to be the defender of the true religion and faith; against her majesty, as the head of the faithful, is the drift of all their mischiefs.

The King of Spain having erected, in his conceit, a monarchy, wherein seeking reputation in the protection of religion, this conjunction with the pope is as necessary to him for the furtherance of his purposes, as to the pope behoveful for the advancing of his house, and for his authority; the King of Spain having already bestowed on the pope's son, degree of title and of office, with great revenues. To encourage the pope herein, being head of the church, they set before him the analogy of the name Gregory, saying, that we were first under a Gregory brought to the faith, and by a Gregory are again to be reduced to the obedience of Rome.

A prophecy likewise is found out, that foretelleth, "the dragon sitting in the chair of Peter, great things should be brought to pass."

Thus is the King of France solicited against those of the religion in France; the emperor against those in his dominions; divisions set in Germany; the Low Countries miserably oppressed; and daily attempts against her majesty, both by force and practice; hereto serve the seminaries, where none are now admitted, but those who take the oath against her majesty.

The sect of the Jesuits are special instruments to alienate the people from her majesty, sow faction, and to absolve them of the oath of obedience, and prepare the way to rebellion and revolt.

Besides, for confirmation of their own religion, they have used some reformation of the clergy. and brought in catechizing.

To go forth with the Princes of Italy, next in situation.

The great Duke of Tuscany, Francisco de Medici, son to Cosmo, and the third duke of that family and province; of the age of forty years; of

disposition severe and sad, rather than manly and grave; no princely port or behaviour more than a great justicer; inclined to peace, and gathering money. All Tuscany is subject unto him, wherein were divers commonwealths; whereof the chief were Florence, Siena, and Pisa, Prato, and Pistoia, saving Lucca, and certain forts on the sea-coast, held by the King of Spain.

He retaineth in his service few, and they strangers, to whom he giveth pensions. In all his citadels he hath garrison of Spaniards, except at Siena: in housekeeping spendeth little, being as it were in pension, agreeing for so much the year with a citizen of Florence for his diet: he has a small guard of Swissers, and when he rideth abroad a guard of forty light-horsemen. The militia of his country amounteth to forty thousand soldiers, to the which he granteth leave to wear their weapons on the holydays, and other immunities. Besides, he entertaineth certain men of arms, to the which he giveth seven crowns the month. He also maintaineth seven galleys, the which serve under his knights, erected by his father in Pisa, of the order of St. Stephano: of these galleys three go every year in chase.

His common exercise is in distillations, and in trying of conclusions, the which he doth exercise in a house called Cassino in Florence, where he spendeth the most part of the day; giving ear in the mean season to matters of affairs and conferring with his chief officers. His revenues are esteemed to amount to a million and a half of crowns, of the which spending half a million, he layeth up yearly one million. But certainly he is the richest prince in all Europe of coin. The form of his government is absolute, depending only of his will and pleasure, though retaining in many things the ancient officers and show. But those magistrates resolve nothing without his express directions and pleasure. Privy council he useth none, but reposeth much his trust on sound secretaries, and conferreth chiefly with his wife, as his father did with one of secretaries. For matter of examinations, one Corbolo hath the especial trust; he doth favour the people more than the nobility, because they do bear an old grudge to the gentlemen, and the people are the more in number, without whom the nobility can do nothing. One thing in him giveth great contentment to the subjects, that he vouchsafeth to receive and hear all their petitions himself. And in his absence from Florence, those that have suit do resort to the offices, and there exhibit their bill endorsed; whereof within three days absolute answers is returned them, unless the matter be of great importance, then have they directions how to proceed. He is a great justicer; and for the ease of the people, and to have the better eye over justice, hath built hard by his palace a fair row of houses for all offices together in one place.

Two years sithence he married la Signora Bianca, his concubine, a Venetian of Casa Capelli. whereby he entered straiter amity with the Venetians: with the pope he had good intelligence, and some affinity by the marriage of Signor Jacomo, the pope's son, in Casa Sforza.

To the emperor he is allied, his first wife being the Emperor Maximilian's sister.

With Spain he is in strait league, and his mother was of the house of Toledo; his brother likewise, D. Pietro, married in the same house. With France he standeth at this present in some misliking.

With Ferrara always at jar, as with all the Dukes of Italy, for the preseance in some controversy.

All his revenues arise of taxes and customs; his domains are very small.

He hath by his first wife one son, of the age of four or five years, and four daughters; he hath a base child by this woman, and a base brother, D. Joanni, sixteen years of age, of great expectation.

Two brothers, D. Pietro, and the cardinal.

The Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d'Este, the fifth duke, now about forty years of age; his first wife Lucretia, daughter to Cosmo de Medici, whom they say he poisoned; his second, daughter to Ferdinand the emperor; his third wife, now living, Anne daughter to the Duke of Mantua. He hath no child. The chief cities of his state are Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio: he is rich in money, growing as the most of Italy, of exactions; of all the princes of Italy alone inclineth to the French; with the pope hath some jar about the passage of a river. The Venetians and he fall in great hatred; with Florence hath enmity: with Lucca little skirmishes every year for a castle he buildeth on their confines, to raise a great toll in a strait passage, by reason of his mother, a Guise.

William, of the house of Gonsaga, the third Duke of Mantua; his wife Barbara, daughter to the Emperor Ferdinand, by whom he hath a son of twenty-two years of age, and a daughter. His son is called Vincentio, his daughter Anne, married of late to the Duke of Ferrara; his son likewise married a year sithence to the Prince of Parma's daughter. The duke his self very deformed and crook-backed, well in years, Montferrat likewise appertaineth to him. Divers of his bouse have pension always, and serve the King of Spain; his brother, the Duke of Nevers, remaineth in France. He only seeketh to maintain his estate and enrich himself; his greatest pleasure is in horses and building.

The Duke of Urbin, Francesco Maria, of the house of Roveré, the second of that name, a prince of good behaviour and witty. In his state are seven reasonable fair cities; Pesaro, Augubio, Sinigaglia, Fossombrone, Sanleo, Cagli, Urbino,

Pesaro and Sinigaglia are fortresses on the sea- | protection of the King of Spain: small in terside, Urbino and Sanleo on the Appenine, well ritory: the city itself well fortified and provided, fortified. He holdeth three provinces, Monte- because of the doubt they have of the Duke of feltro, Massa Trebaria, and Vicariato di Mon- Florence. davio.

There hath been good princes and valiant of that house, not so great exactors as the rest of Italy, therefore better beloved of their subjects, which love restored their house, being displaced by Pope Leo X.

His wife Leonora, sister to the Duke of Ferrara, by whom he hath no children, and now is divorced. He hath two sisters, the one married to the Duke of Gravina, the other to the Prince Bisignano, and a third is to marry, whose name is


Ottaviano, first Duke of Castro, then of Camerino, and after of Parma and Piacenza, with great trouble restored to his estate; now is aged, and liveth quietly: his wife Marguerite, daughter to Charles the Fifth, first wife to Alexander de Medici, first Duke of Florence. He hath one son called Alexander, now general for the King of Spain in the Low Countries; his daughter Vittoria was mother to the duke of Urbin.

The Cardinal Farnese, his uncle, of great credit in that college, long time hath aspired to be pope, but withstood by the King of Spain; on whom though now that house depend, yet forgetteth not, as he thinketh, the death of Pier Lugi, and the loss of Parma and Piacenza restored to their house by the French.

Genoa is recommended to the King of Spain, their galleys serve under him, and the chiefest of their city are at his devotion. Though there is a faction for the French, whereto he doth hearken so weakly, that the Spaniard is there all in all; by whom that state in few years hath made a marvellous gain. And the King of Spain hath great need of their friendship for their ports, where embark and land all men, and whatsoever is sent between Spain and Milan.

They hold Corsica, an island, and Savona a fair city, and the goodliest haven in Italy, until it was destroyed by the Genevois; the which now make no profession but of merchandise.

There is a dangerous faction amongst them, between the ancient houses and the new, which were admitted into the ancient families.

St. George is their treasure-house and receiver, as at Venice, St. Mark.

Venice, retaining still the ancient form of government, is always for itself in like estate and all one; at this time between the Turk and the King of Spain, in continual watch, seeming to make more account of France, so much in hope of any great affiance at this present to be had in him, but for the reputation of that nation, and the amity always they have had with the same, and behoving them so to do. They use it with good The young princes of Mirandola, in the govern- foresight and speedy preventing, sparing for no ment of their mother Fulvia Correggio, and under charge to meet as they may with every accident. the protection of the King of France, who main-Of late they have had some jar with the pope, as taineth there a garrison.

The Duke of Savoy, Carlo Emanuel, a young prince of twenty-one years, very little of stature, but well brought up and disposed. His territory is the greatest of any Duke of Italy, having Piemont beyond the Alps, and Savoy on this side; divers fair towns and strongholds, richly left of his father, who was accounted a very wise prince. This duke, as is thought, is advised to remain always indifferent between Spain and France, being neighbour to them both, unless some accident do counsel him to declare himself in behalf of either. Therefore both those princes go about by marriage to have him nearer allied to them. His mother was sister to King Francis the Great: his father being expulsed his dominions by the French, was restored by the King of Spain, with whom while he lived he had strait intelligence. As yet his inclination doth not appear, he retaineth his father's alliances with Venice, especially in Italy, and with the emperor. With Florence he hath question for pre-eminence.

His revenues are judged to be a million of crowns yearly; now he is in arms against Geneva, and guarded against Bern.

well about the Inquisition as title of land. With Ferrara and the Venetians is ancient enmity, specially because he receiveth all their banished and fugitives. They make most account of the Duke of Savoy amongst the Princes of Italy. They maintain divers ambassadors abroad, with the Turk, the emperor, France, Spain, and at Rome; with them is an ambassador of France and Savoy, always resident, and an agent of Spain, because they gave the preseance to France.

In this it seemeth all the potentates of Italy do agree to let all private grudges give place to foreign invasion, more for doubt of alteration in religion, than for any other civil cause.

There is none amongst them at this day in any likelihood to grow to any greatness. For Venice is bridled by the Turk and Spain. The Duke of Tuscany seeketh rather title than territory, otherwise than by purchasing.

Savoy is yet young; the rest of no great force of themselves. France hath greatly lost the reputation they had in Italy, by neglecting the occasions offered, and suffering the King of Spain to settle himself.

The Emperor Adolphe, of the house of AusOf free estates, Lucca, the least, is under the triche, son to Maximilian, about thirty years of

age; no strong constitution of body, and greatly | son he hath bought in Germany a pretty state, weakened by immoderate pleasure; no great not far from Ulms; the second is a cardinal. quickness of spirit. In fashion and apparel all Now he is a widower, and said that he shall Spanish, where he had his education in his youth. marry a daughter of the Duke of Mantua. He was most governed by his mother while she remained with him; and yet altogether by his steward Dyetristan, and his great chamberlain Romphe, both pensionaries of Spain, and there with him maintained.

These are uncles to the emperor; besides Maximilian and Ernest, he hath two brothers, the Archduke Matthias, that hath a pension of the estates of the Low Country, and a Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo.

Of the empire he hath, by the last imperial In Germany there are divers princes diversely diet, one million of dollars towards the mainte-affected. The Elector Palatine Ludovic, a Lunance of the garrisons of Hungary; and, besides, his guards are paid of the empire.

To the Turk he payeth yearly tribute for Hungary forty thousand dollars, besides the charge of the presents and his ambassadors, amounting to more than the tribute; in all one hundred thousand dollars.

The ordinary garrisons in Hungary are to the number of but evil paid at this time.

theran; his chief abode is at Heidelberg.

His brother, John Casimir, Calvinist, at Keiserslautern, or Nieustadt.

Richard, their uncle, at Symyers.

During the life of the last elector, Ludovic
dwelt at Amberg in the Higher Palatinate.
Philip Ludovic dwelt at Norbourg on the
Danow, and is commonly called duke of.

John dwelleth at Rypont, or Sweybourgh, or in The revenues and subsidies of Hungary do not Bergesaber; the other three brethren have no pass one hundred thousand florins. The last certain dwelling-place. George John, son of emperor affirmed solemnly that the charge of Rupert, Count Palatine, dwelleth at Lysselsteyn. Hungary amounted to one million and a half. Augustus, Duke and Elector of Saxony, reThe revenues of Bohemia, ordinary and extra-maineth the most part at Dresden on the Elbe; ordinary, amount to fifty thousand dollars. sometimes at Torge on Elbe, a goodly castle for

In the absence of the emperor, the Baron of tified by John Frederick. This elector is LuRosemberg is Governor of Bohemia, who possess-theran, and a great enemy to our profession; of eth almost a fourth part of that country, and is sixty years of age, half frantic, severe, governed a Papist; neither he nor his brother have children: much by his wife, greater exactor than the Gerhe beareth the emperor in hand to make him his man princes are wont to be, and retaineth in his heir. service divers Italians; his eldest son married of

Of Silesia and Moravia, the emperor yearly late the daughter of the Duke of Brandebourg. may have two hundred thousand florins.

Out of Austriche of subsidy and tribute, one hundred thousand florins, for his domains are all sold away and engaged.

The sons of John Frederick, captive, and yet in prison, remain at Coburge in East Franconia, near the forest of Turinge.

The sons of John William abide at Vinaria in

Thus all his revenues make half a million of Turingia. florins.

To his brothers Maximilian and Ernest he alloweth yearly, by agreement made between them, forty-five thousand florins apiece, as well for Austriche, as that might hereafter fall unto them by the decease of the Archduke Ferdinand in Tyrol, the which shall come to the emperor. The emperor altogether dependeth on Spain, as well in respect of his house, as the education he received there, and the rule his mother hath over him with the chief of his council. He is utter enemy to religion, having well declared the same in banishing the ministers out of Vienna, and divers other towns, where he goeth about to plant Jesuits.

Of his subjects greatly misliked, as his house is hateful to all Germany.

The Archduke Charles holdeth Styria and Carinthia; his chief abode is at Gratz; his wife is sister to the Duke of Bavyre, by whom he hath children.

The Archduke Ferdinand hath Tyrol, and remaineth the most part at Ilsburg. For his eldest

Joachim Frederick, son of John George, Elector of Brandebourg, at Hala, in Saxony, on the river of Sala, as administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdebourg.

George Frederick, son of George, dwelleth at Orsbuche in East Franconia, or at Blassenbourge, the which was the mansion of his uncle Albert the warrior.

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The Elector of Brandebourg, John George, remaineth at Berlin on the river of Sprea: his uncle John dwelleth at Castryne, beyond Odera, very strong both by the situation, and fortified.

William, Duke of Bavyre, a Papist, at Munich in Bavary, married the daughter of the Duke of Lorrain.

His second brother Ferdinand remaineth most at Landshutt.

The third, Ernest, is Bishop of Frishinghent and Hildesheim, and late of Liege.

Julius, Duke of Brunswick, at the strong castle of Wolfenbuttel on Oker.

Ericke of Brunswick, son to Magnus, uncle to Julius, remaineth at Mynda, or where the rivers

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