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tibus suis pulchra, et mundum tradidit disputa- seem to be apparelled and clothed, and nothing tionibus eorum, ita tamen ut non inveniat homo properly naked but the first particles of things. opus, quod operatus est Deus, principio ad finem.” Concerning his blindness, the allegory is full That is, he hath made every thing beautiful in of wisdom: for this love, or desire, whatsoever their seasons, also he hath set the world in their it be, seems to have but little providence, as meditations, yet man cannot find the work that directing his pace and motion by that which it God hath wrought, from the beginning even to perceives nearest, not unlike blind men, that go the end. For the principal law of nature, or by feeling: more admirable then must that chief power of this desire, created by God, in these divine providence be, which, from things empty parcels of things, for concurring and meeting to- and destitute of providence, and as it were blind, gether, from whose repetitions and multiplications by a constant and fatal law produceth so excellent all variety of creatures proceeded and were com- an order and beauty of things. posed, may dazzle the eyes of men's understand- The last thing which is attributed unto Love ings, and comprehended it can hardly be. The is archery, by which is meant, that his virtue is Greek philosophers are observed to be very acute such, as that it works upon a distant object: beand diligent in searching out the material princi- cause that whatsoever operates afar off, seems ples of things: but in the beginnings of motion, to shoot, as it were, an arrow. Wherefore whowherein consists all the efficacy of operation, soever holds the being both of atoms and vacuity, they are negligent and weak, and in this that we must needs infer, that the virtue of the atom handle, they seem to be altogether blind and stam- reacheth to a distant object; for if it were not so, mering: for the opinion of the Peripatetics con- there could be no motion at all, by reason of the cerning the appetite of matter caused by privation, interposition of vacuity, but all things would is in a manner nothing else but words, which ra- stand stone still, and remain immovable. ther sound than signify any reality. And those that Now as touching that other Cupid, or Love, refer it unto God do very well, but then they leap he may well be termed the youngest of the gods, up, they ascend not by degrees: for doubtless because he could have no being, before the conthere is one chief law subordinate to God, in stitution of species. And in his description the which all natural things concur and meet, the allegory may be applied and traduced to mansame that in the forecited scripture is demonstrated ners: nevertheless he holds some kind of conin these words, “Opus, quod operatus est Deus formity with the elder; for Venus doth generally à principio usque ad finem,” the work that God stir up a desire of conjunction and procreation, hath wrought from the beginning even to the end. and Cupid, her son, doth apply this desire to But Democritus, which entered more deeply into some individual nature; so that the general disthe consideration of this point after he had con- position comes from Venus, the more exact symceived an atom with some small dimension and pathy from Cupid : the one derived from causes form, he attributed unto it one only desire, or first more near, the other from beginnings more remotion simply or absolutely, and another com- mote and fatal, and as it were from the elder paratively or in respect: for he thought that all Cupid, of whom every exquisite sympathy doth things did properly tend to the centre of the world, depend. whereof those bodies which were more material descend with swifter motion, and those that had less matter did on the contrary tend upward.
DIOMEDES, OR ZEAL. But this meditation was very shallow, containing DIOMEDES flourishing with great fame and less than was expedient: for neither the turning glory in the Trojan wars, and in high favour of the celestial bodies in a round, nor shutting and with Pallas, was by her instigated, being indeed opening of things may seem to be reduced or ap- forwarder than he should have been, not to forplied to this beginning. And as for that opinion bear Venus a jot, if he encountered with her in of Epicurus concerning the casual declination and fight; which very boldly he performed, wounding agitation of the atom, it is but a mere toy, and a her in the right arm.
presumptuous fact he plain evidence that he was ignorant of that point. carried clear for a while, and being honoured and It is therefore more apparent than we could wish, renowned for his many heroic deeds, at last rethat this Cupid, or Love, remains as yet clouded turned into his own country, where finding himunder the shades of night. Now as concerning self hard bestead with domestic troubles, fed his attributes : he is elegantly described with into Italy, betaking himself to the protection of perpetual infancy or childhood, because com- foreigners, where in the beginning he was fortapound bodies they seem greater and more stricken nate, and royally entertained by King Daunus in years; whereas the first seeds of things or with sumptuous gifts, raising many statues in atoms, they are little and diminute, and always honour of him throughout his dominions. But in their infancy.
upon the very first calamity that happened unto He is also well feigned to be naked, because this nation, whereunto he was fled for succour, all compound bodies to a man rightly judging, King Daunus enters into a conceit with himself
that he had entertained a wicked guest into his condemned, their very names are hateful, and all family, and a man odious to the goddess, and an their glory ends in obloquy. impunger of their divinity, that had dared, with In that Diomedes is said to be murdered by his sword, to assault and wound that goddess, his host, it gives us to understand that the difwho, in their religion, they held it sacrilege so ference of religion breeds deceit and treachery, much as to touch. Therefore, that he might ex. even among nearest acquaintance. piate his country's guilt, nothing respecting the Now in that lamentation and mourning was duties of hospitality, when the bonds of religion not tolerated but punished; it puts us in mind, tied him with a more reverend regard, suddenly that let there be never so nefarious an act done, slew Diomedes, commanding withal that his yet there is some place left for commiseration trophies and statues should be abolished and de- and pity, that even those that hate offences should stroyed. Neither was it safe to lament this yet in humanity commiserate offenders and pity miserable destiny; but even his companions in their distress, it being the extremity of evil when arms, whilst they mourned at the funeral of their mercy is not suffered to have commerce with captain, and filled all the places with plaints and misery. Yea, even in the cause as well of lamentations, were suddenly metamorphosed into religion as impiety, many men may be noted and birds like unto swans, who when their death ap- observed to have been compassionate. But on proacheth, sing melodious and mournful hymns. the contrary the complaints and moans of Dio
This fable hath a most rare and singular sub- medes' followers, that is, of men of the same ject: for in any of the poetical records, wherein sect and opinion, are wont to be shrill and loud, the heroes are mentioned, we find not that any like swans, or the birds of Diomedes. In whom one of them, besides Diomedes, did ever with also that part of the allegory is excellent, to sig. his sword offer violence to any of the deities. nify, that the last words of those that suffer death And indeed, the fable seems in him to represent for religion, like the songs of dying swans, do the nature and fortune of man, who of himself wonderfully work upon the minds of men, and doth propound and make this as the end of all strike and remain a long time in their senses and his actions, to worship some divine power, or to memories. follow some sect of religion, though never so vain and superstitious, and with force and arms
DÆDALUS, OR MECHANIC. to defend the same: for although those bloody quarrels for religion were unknown to the ancients, MECHANICAL wisdom and industry, and in it the heathen gods not having so much as a touch unlawful science perverted to wrong ends, is of that jealousy, which is an attribute of the true shadowed by the ancients under the person of God, yet the wisdom of the ancient times seems Dædalus, a man ingenious, but execrable. This to be so copious and full, as that, what was not Dædalus, for murdering his fellow servant that known by experience, was yet comprehended by emulated him, being banished, was kindly entermeditations and fictions. They then that en- tained, during his exile, in many cities and prindeavour to reform and convince any sect of ces' courts: for indeed he was the raiser and religion, though ain, corrupt, and infamous, builder of many goodly structures, as well in shadowed by the person of Venus, not by the honour of the gods, as the beauty and magnififorce of argument and doctrine, and holiness of cence of cities, and other public places, but for life, and by the weight of examples and authority, his works of mischief he is most notorious. It but labour to extirpate and root it out by fire and is he that framed the engine which Pasiphaë used sword, and tortures, are encourageu, it may be, to satisfy her lust in company with a bull, so that thereunto by Pallas, that is by the acrity of pru- by his wretched industry and pernicious device, dence, and severity of judgment, by whose vigour that monster Minotaur, the destruction of so many and efficacy, they see into the falsity and vanity hopeful youths, took his accursed and infamous of these errors. And by this their hatred of beginning; and studying to cover and increase pravity, and good zeal to religion, they purchase one mischief with another, for the security and to themselves great glory, and by the vulgar, to preservation of this monster he invented and built whom nothing moderate can be grateful, are es- \ a labyrinth. a work for intent and use most nefateemed and honoured as the only supporters of rious and wicked, for skill and workmanship. truth and religion, when others seem to be luke- | iamous and excellent. Afterwards, that he might warm and full of fear. Yet this glory and hap- | not be noted only for works of mischief, but be piness doth seldom endure to the end, seeing sought after as well for remedies, as for instruevery violent prosperity, if it prevent not altera- ments of destruction, he was the author of that tion by an untimely death, grows to be unpros- ingenious device concerning the clue of thread. perous at last: for if it happen that by a change by which the labyrinth was made passable withof government this banished and depressed sect out any let. This Dædalus was persecuted by get strength, and so bear up again, then these Minos with great severity, diligence, and inquiry, zealous men, so fierce in opposition before, are but he always found the means io avoid and
escape his tyranny. Lastly, he taught his son that will always abide in our city, though always Icarus to fly, but the novice, in ostentation of forbidden. And yet notwithstanding unlawful this art, soaring too high, fell into the sea, and and curious arts of what kind soever, in tract of was drowned.
time, when they cannot perform what they proThe parable seems to be thus: in the begin- mise, do fall from the good opinion that was held ning of it may be noted that kind of envy or of them, no otherwise than Icarus fell down from emulation that lodgeth, and wonderfully sways the skies, they grow to be contemned and scorned, and domineers amongst excellent artificers, there and so perish by too much ostentation. And to being no kind of people more reciprocally tor-say the truth, they are not so happily restrained mented with bitter and deadly hatred than they. by the reins of law as bewrayed by their own
The banishment also of Dædalus, a punish- vanity. ment inflicted on him against the rules of policy and providence, is worth the noting: for artificers
ERICTHONIUS, OR IMPOSTURE. have this prerogative to find entertainment and welcome in all countries, so that exile to an ex- The poets fable that Vulcan solicited Minerva cellent workman can hardly be termed a punish- for her virginity, and impatient of denial, with an ment, whereas other conditions, and states of life inflamed desire, offered her violence, but in strugcan scarce live out of their own country. The gling his seed fell upon the ground, whereof came admiration of artisicers is propagated and in- Ericthonius, whose body from the middle upward creased in foreign and strange nations, seeing it was of a comely and apt proportion, but his thighs is a natural and inbred disposition of men to and legs like the tail of an eel, small and deformed. value their own countrymen, in respect of me- To which monstrosity, he being conscious, became chanical works, less than strangers.
the first inventor of the use of chariots, whereby Concerning the use of mechanical arts, that that part of his body which was well proportioned which follows is plain. The life of man is much might be seen, and the other which was ugly and beholden to them, seeing many things, conducing uncomely might be hid. to the ornament of religion, to the grace of civil This strange and prodigious fiction may seem to discipline, and to the beautifying of all human show that art, which, for the great use it hath of fire, kind, extracted out of their treasuries : and yet not- is shadowed by Vulcan, although it labour by withstanding, from the same magazine or store- much striving with corporeal substances to force house are produced instruments both of lust and nature, and to make her subject to it, she being for death; for to omit the wiles of bands, we well her industrious works rightly represented by Miknow how far exquisite poisons, warlike engines, nerva, yet seldom or never attains the end it aims and such like mischiefs, the effects of mechanical at, but with much ado and great pains, wrestling inventions, do exceed the Minotaur himself in as it were with her, comes short of its purpose, malignity and savage cruelty.
and produceth certain imperfect births, and lame Moreover that of the labyrinth is an excellent works, fair to the eye but weak and defective in allegory, whereby is shadowed the nature of me-use, which many impostors, with much subtilty chanical sciences, for all such handicraft works as and deceit, set to view, and carry about, as it were are more ingenious and accurate may be com- in triumph, as may for the most part be noted in pared to a labyrinth, in respect of subtilty and chemical productions, and other mechanical subdivers intricate passages, and in other plain resem- tilties and novelties, especially when, rather proseblances, which by the eye of judgment can hardly cuting their intent than reclining their errors, they be guided and discerned, but only by the line of rather strive to overcome nature by force; than sue experience.
for her embracements by due obsequiousness and Neither is it impertinently added, that he which observance. invented the intricate nooks of the labyrinth, did also show the commodity of the clue: for mechanical arts are of ambiguous use, serving as
DEUCALION, OR RESTITUTION. well for hurt as for remedy, and they have in a The poets say that the people of the old world manner power both to loose and bind themselves. being destroyed by a general deluge, Deucalion
Unlawful trades, and so by consequence arts and Pyrrha were only left alive; who praying themselves, are often persecuted by Minos, that is with fervent and zealous devotion, that they by laws, which do condemn them, and prohibit might know by what means to repair mankind, men to use them. Nevertheless they are hid and had answer from an oracle that they should obtain retained everywhere, finding lurking holes and what they desired, if taking the bones of their moplaces of receipt, which was wellobserved by Ta- ther they cast them behind their backs; which at citus of the mathematicians and figure-flingers of first struck them with great amazement and dehis time, in a thing not so much unlike; “Genus spair, seeing, all things being defaced by the flood, hominum quod in civitate nostra seniper et re- it would be an endless work to find their mother's tinebitur et vetabitur.” There is a kind of men sepulchre, but at length they understood that by
bones, the stones of the earth, seeing the earth That day, by Greekish force, was Ripheus slain,
So just and strict observer of the law, was the mother of all things, were signified by the
As Troy, within her walls, did not contain oracle.
A better man: Yet God then good it saw. This fable seems to reveal a secret of nature,
She is described with wings, because the and to correct an error familiar to men’s conceits; changes of things are so sudden, as that they are for through want of knowledge men think that
seen, before foreseen; for in the records of all things may take renovation and restoration from their putrefaction and dregs, no otherwise than the ages, we find it for the most part true, that great phenix from the ashes, which in no case can be potentates and wise men have perished by those
misfortunes which they most contemned; as may admitted, seeing such kind of materials, when they be observed in Marcus Cicero, who being admohave fulfilled their periods, are unapt for the be- nished by Decius Brutus of Octavius Cæsar's hyginnings of such things: we must therefore look
pocritical friendship and hollow-heartedness toback to more common principles.
wards him, returns this answer, " Te autem, mi
Brute, sicut debeo, amo, quod istud quicquid est NEMESIS, OR THE VICISSITUDE nugarum me scire voluisti." I must ever acknow. OF THINGS.
ledge myself, dear Brutus, beholden to thee, in
love, for that thou hast been so careful to acquaint Nemesis is said to be a goddess venerable unto me with that which I esteem as a needless trifle all, but to be feared of none but potentates and For
to be doubted. tune's favourites. She is thought to be the daughter
Nemesis is also adorned with a coronet, to show of Oceanus and Nox. She is portrayed with wings the envious and malignant disposition of the vulon her shoulders, and on her head a coronet, bear
for when fortune's favourites and great potening in her right hand a javelin of ash, and in her tates come to ruin, then do the common people releft a pitcher, with the similitudes of Æthiopians joice, setting, as it were, a crown upon the head of engraven on it: and lastly, she is described sitting revenge. on a hart.
The javelin in her right hand points at those The parable may be thus unfolded. Her name whom she actually strikes and pierceth thorough. Nemesis, doth plainly signify revenge or retribu
And before those whom she destroys not in tion, her office and administration being, like a their calamity and misfortune, she ever presents tribune of the people, to hinder the constant and that black and dismal spectacle in her left hand; perpetual felicity of happy men, and to interpose for questionless to men sitting as it were upon her word, “veto,” I forbid the continuance of it; the pinnacle of prosperity, the thoughts of death, that is not only to chastise insolency, but to inter- and painfulness of sickness and misfortunes, mix prosperity, though harmless, and in a mean, perfidiousness of friends, treachery of foes, with the vicissitudes of adversity, as if it were a
change of estate, and such like, seem as ugly to custom, that no mortal man should be admitted to the eye of their meditations as those Ethiopians the table of the gods but for sport. Truly when I
pictured in Nemesis's pitcher. Virgil, in describread that chapter, wherein Caius Plinius hath col-ing the battle of Actium, speaks thus elegantly lected his misfortunes and miseries of Augustus of Cleopatra. Cæsar, whom of all men I thought the most happy, who had also a kind of art to use and enjoy his
“Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro
Nec dum etiam geminos à tergo respicit angues." fortune, and in whose mind might be noted neither pride, nor lightness, nor niceness, nor
The queen amidst this hurly-burly stands,
And with her country timbrel calls her bands; disorder, nor melancholy, as that he had ap
Not spying yet, where crawled behind her back, pointed a time to die of his own accord, I then Two deadly snakes with venom speckled black. deemed this goddess to be great and powerful,
But not long after, which way soever she to whose altar so worthy a sacrifice as this was turned, troops of Ethiopians were still before her drawn.
eyes. The parents of this goddess were Oceanus and
Lastly, it is wisely added that Nemesis rides Nox, that is, the vicissitude of things, and divine upon a hart, because a hart is a most lively creajudgment obscure and secret : for the alteration of ture. And albeit, it may be, that such as are cut things are aptly represented by the sea, in respect off by death in their youth prevent and shun the of the continual ebbing and flowing of it, and hid
power of Nemesis ; yet doubtless such, whose den providence is well set forth by the night: for prosperity and power continue long, are made subeven the nocturnal Nemesis, seeing human judg-ject unto her, and lie, as it were, trodden under her ment differs much from divine, was seriously ob
ACHELOUS, OR BATTLE.
It is a fable of antiquity, that when Hercules
and Achelous as rivals contended for the marriage
Diis aliter visum
of Dejanira, the matter drew them to combat, was called Dionysus. Being born, was comwherein Achelous took upon him many divers mitted to Proserpina for some years to be nursed, shapes, for so was it in his power to do, and and being grown up, it had such a maiden-face as amongst others, transforming himself into the that a man could hardly judge whether it were a likeness of a furious wild bull, assaults Hercules boy or girl. He was dead also, and buried for a and provokes him to fight. But Hercules, for all time, but afterwards revived : being but a youth, this, sticking to his old human form, courageously he invented and taught the planting and dressing encounters him, and so the combat goes roundly of vines, the making also and use of wine ; for
But this was the event, that Hercules tore which, becoming famous and renowned, he subaway one of the bull's horns, wherewith he being jugated the world even to the uttermost bounds mightily daunted and grieved, to ransom his horn of India. He rode in a chariot drawn by tigers. again was contented to give Hercules, in exchange There danced about him certain deformed hobthereof, the Ainalthean horn, or cornucopia. goblins called Cobali, Acratus, and others, yea,
This fable hath relation unto the expeditions even the muses also were some of his followers. of war, for the preparations thereof on the de- He took to wife Ariadne, forsaken and left by fensive part, which, expressed in the person of Theseus. The tree sacred unto him was the ivy. Achelous, are very diverse and uncertain. But He was held the inventor and institutor of sacrithe invading party is most commonly of one sort, fices and ceremonies, and full of corruption and and that very single, consisting of an army by cruelty. He had power to strike men with fury land, or perhaps of a navy by sea. But for a king or madness; for it is reported, that at the celethat in his own territory expects an enemy, his bration of his orgies, two famous worthies, Penoccasions are infinite. He fortifies towns, he as- theus and Orpheus, were torn in pieces by cersernbles men out of the countries and villages, tain frantic women, the one because he got upon a he raiseth citadels, he builds and breaks down tree to behold their ceremonies in these sacrifices, bridges, he disposeth garrisons, and placeth troops the other for making melody with his harp; and of soldiers on passage of rivers ; on ports, on for his gods, they are in a manner the same with mountains, and ambushes in woods, and is busied Jupiter's. with a multitude of other directions, insomuch There is such excellent morality couched in this that every day he prescribeth new rms and fable, as that moral philosophy affords not better ; orders; and then at last having accommodated for under the person of Bacchus is described the all things complete for defence, he then rightly nature of affection, passion, or perturbation, the represents the form and manner of a fierce fighting mother of which, though never so hurtful, is bull. On the other side, the invader's greatest nothing else but the object of apparent good in care is, the fear to be distressed for victuals in an the eyes of appetite : and it is always conceived enemy's country; and therefore affects chiefly to in an unlawful desire, rashly propounded and obhasten on battle: for if it should happen, that after tained, before well understood and considered ; a field fight, he prove the victor, and as it were and when it begins to grow, the mother of it, break the horn of the enemy, then certainly this which is the desire of apparent good by too follows, that his enemy being stricken with terror, much fervency, is destroyed and perisheth : neand abased in his reputation, presently bewrays vertheless, whilst yet it is an imperfect embryo, it his weakness, and seeking to repair his loss, retires is nourished and preserved in the human soul, himself to some stronghold, abandoning to the which is as it were a father unto it, and represented conqueror the spoil and sack of his country and by Jupiter ; but especially in the inferior part cities ; which may well be termed a type of the thereof, as in a thigh, where also it causeth so Amalthean horn.
much trouble and vexation, as that good determi
nations and actions are much hindered and lamed DIONYSUS, OR PASSIONS.
thereby: and when it comes to be confirmed by They say that Semele, Jupiter's sweetheart, consent and habit, and breaks out as it were having bound her paramour by an irrevocable into act, it remains yet a while with Proserpina, oath to grant her one request which she would as with a nurse; that is, it seeks corners and serequire, desired that he would accompany her in cret places, and as it were, caves under ground, the same form wherein he accompanied Juno: until the reins of shame and fear being laid aside which he granting, as not able to deny, it came in a pampered audaciousness, it either takes the to pass that the miserable wench was burnt pretext of some virtue, or becomes altogether impuwith lightning. But the infant which she bare dent and shameless. And it is most true, that every in her womb, Jupiter the father took out, and vehement passion is of a doubtful sex, as being kept it in a gash which he cut in his thigh till masculine in the first motion, but feminine in prosethe months were complete that it should be born. cution. This burden made Jupiter somewhat to limp, It is an excellent fiction that of Bacchus's revivwhereupon the child, because it was heavy and ing; for passions do sometimes seem to be in a troublesome to its father while it lay in his thigh, dead sleep, and as it were, utterly extinct; but