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At present I must content myself with expressing my anxious hope that the project for a metropolitan university will (as it will sooner or later) be realized, and that the enquirers for knowledge will not be under the present necessity of attending for information at the different taverns in the different parts of this city: at Willis's Rooms, and at the London Tavern, and at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, and the Paul's Head, Cateaton Street, where lectures, numerrously attended, are now delivered upon different parts of natural and human philosophy.

the crude, hasty, and injudicious method in which mathematics are taught in one university, seems little preferable to the absolute neglect of them in the other. In both the genuine sources of information, the ancient writers, have been too much neglected, and from the same neglect has proceeded the downfall of logic, as well as mathematics. Since neither in the first is Aristotle, or his purest Greek commentators, Simplicius and Philopinus regarded; nor in the latter have the elegant inventions recorded in Pappus and Archimedes, the Analytical restitutions which Vieta and Halley have given from Apollonius, the genuine conic geometry of the same author, the spherics of Theodosius and Menceaus, the remains of Theon and Eutocius, of Eratosthenes and Hero, been sufficiently attended, to which, and to the successful use of the new methods of calculus, it has happened that mathematics, as they are now cultivated, have much departed from that perspicuity and evidence which ought always to be their character.

"I make it therefore a desideratum that the use and effect of the ancient Analysis be well considered both in plane and solid problems, since it is certain that its use did extend very far among the ancients, and the restitution of it would very much improve the construction of problems, which are always less perspicuously, many times less easily treated by common Algebra.

"Something of this kind, though not generally known, is to be found in an unpublished MS. of Sir Isaac Newton, de Geometria libri tres, great part of which is perfect.

"The true theory of the Porisms, imperfectly found in Pap

Query 1. As a tree is for some dimension and space entire and continued before it breaks and parts itself into arms and boughs, ought there not to be lectures upon such general sub-pus, given up as unintelligible by IIalley, inadequately atjects as will be applicable to men in all states of society: upon

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John Milton in his tract on education, says, "That which casts our proficiency therein so much behind, is our time lost partly in too oft idle vacancies given both to schools and universities: partly in a preposterous exaction, forcing the. empty wits of children to compose themes, verses, and orations, which are the acts of ripest judgment, and the final work of a head filled by long reading and observing, with elegant maxims and copious invention. These are not matters to be wrung from poor striplings, like blood flowing out of the nose, or the plucking of untimely fruit; besides the ill habit which they get of wretched barbarizing against the Latin and Greek idioms, with their untutored Anglicisms, odious to read, yet not to be avoided without a well continued and judicious conversing among the pure authors digested, which they scarce taste." "I deem it to be an old error of universities, not well recovered from scholastic grossness of barbarous ages, that instead of beginning with arts most easy, (and those be such as are most obvious to the sense,) they present their young unmatriculated novices at first coming with the most intelleétive abstractions of logic and metaphysics."

Cicero, says Middleton, made it his constant care that the progress of his knowledge should keep pace with the improvement of his eloquence. He considered the one as the foundation of the other, and thought it in vain to acquire ornaments before he had provided necessary furniture.

I subjoin the following observations from a MS. in my possession; by whom it was written I know not:

"The defects here noted in the universities seem to have cured themselves. Logic, by the supineness of teachers, and Indolence of pupils, having become a mere dead letter: nothing however has been properly substituted in its place, and

tempted by the acute Fermat, and laboured with much unvailing industry by Rob. Simson, may be said to be at last completely ascertained by Professor Playfair of Edinburgh."


Referring to page 143.

Bacon arranges the History of Arts as a species of Natural History. This subject is much improved in the treatise “ De Augmentis," where he states his reasons for this arrangement, (See chap. 2. Book 2. De Aug.) saying, "We are the rather induced to assign the History of Arts, as a branch of Natural History, because an opinion hath long time gone current, as if art were some different thing from nature, and artificial from natural." The same sentiment is expressed both by Sir Thomas Brown and by Shakspeare. Brown says, "Nature is not at variance with art; nor art with nature: they being both the servants of the Providence of God. Art is the perfection of nature: were the world now as it was the sixth day, there were yet a chaos. Nature hath made one world, and art another. In brief, all things are artificial: for, nature is the art of God." So Shakspeare says,

"Perdita. For I have heard it said,
There is an art, which in their piedness shares
With great creating nature.

"Pol. Say there be,

Yet nature is made better by no mean,
But nature makes that mean;

So over that art, which you say adds to nature,
Is an art that nature makes; you see, sweet maid,
We marry a gentle scion to the wildest stock,
And make conceive a bark of baser kind
By bud of nobler race. This is an art,
Which does mend nature, change it rather; but
The art itself is nature."

NOTE P. Referring to page 146.

This note is referred to the treatise De Augmentis.

NOTE Q. Referring to page 150.

See as to the nature of credulity under Fantastical Learning, ante pages 139, 171. See also Nov. Org. aph. 9.

"The mind has the peculiar and constant error of being more moved and excited by affirmatives than by negatives, whereas it should duly and equally yield to both. But, on the contrary, in the raising of true axioms, negative instances have the greatest force.

"The mind of man, if a thing have once been existent, and

held good, receives a deeper impression thereof, than if the same thing far more often failed and fell out otherwise: which is the root, as it were, of all superstition and vain credulity." Bacon, in his experiments respecting antipathy in his Sylva Sylvarum, speaking of "the supposed sympathies between persons at distant places," says, "it is true that they may hold in these things which is the general root of superstition, namely that men observe when things hit, and not when they miss: and commit to memory the one, and forget and pass

over the other."


Referring to page 150

"The spirit of man presupposes and feigns a greater equal Hence ity and uniformity in nature than in truth there is. that fiction of the mathematicians, that in the heavenly bodies all is moved by perfect circles, rejecting spiral lines. So it comes to pass that whereas there are many things in nature, as it were, monodica and full of imparity: yet the conceits of men still feign and frame unto themselves relatives; parallels, and conjugates: for upon this ground the element of fire and its orb is brought in to keep square with the other three, earth, water, air. The chymists have set out a fanatical squadron of words, feigning by a most vain conceit in these their four elements, (heaven, air, water, earth,) there are to be found to every one parallel and uniform species.

"As the northern part of the earth was supposed to be a hemisphere, the southern part was assumed to be of the same form.

"Bacon says, 'In the structure of the universe the motion of living creatures is generally performed by quadruple limits or flexures: as the fins of fish; the feet of quadrupeds; and the feet and wings of fowl.'-To which Aristotle adds, "the four wreaths of serpents.'

"That produce increases in an arithmetic and population in a geometric ratio, is a position which seems to partake of the love of uniformity."

See Novum Organum, aph. 45.


Referring to page 150.

Bacon's doctrine of idols of the understanding is more fully explained in the beginning of the Novum Organum, where these idols or tendencies of the mind to be warped from the truth are investigated and deprecated. He then explains, that if these idols once take root in the mind, truth will hardly find entrance, or if it do, that it will be choked and destroyed, and he warns us that "Idols are to be solemnly and forever renounced, that the understanding may be thereby purged and cleansed; for the kingdom of man, which is founded in the sciences, can scarce be entered otherwise than the kingdom of God, that is, in the condition of little children."

And in his introduction to the just method of compiling history, he says; "If we have any humility towards the Creator; if we have any reverence and esteem of his works; if we have any charity towards men, or any desire of relieving their miseries and necessities; if we have any love for natural truths; any aversion to darkness; and any desire of purifying the understanding; mankind are to be most affectionately intreated, and beseeched to lay aside, at least for a while, their preposterous, fantastic and hypothetical philosophies, which have led experience captive, and childishly triumphed over the works of God; and now at length condescend, with due submission and veneration, to approach and peruse the volume of the Creation; dwell some time upon it; and, bringing to the work a mind well purged of opinions, idols, and false notions, converse familiarly therein. This volume is the language which has gone out to all the ends of the earth, unaffected by the confusion of Babel; this is the language that men should thoroughly learn, and not disdain to have its alphabet perpetually in their hands: and in the interpretation of this language they should spare no pains; but strenuously proceed, persevere, and dwell upon it to the last." Bacon having explained the general nature of idols, and demonstrated the importance of destroying them, divides them into four sorts: but they seem to be reducible to two, which may be thus exhibited.

1. General.

1. Of the tribe.
2. Of the market.
1. Of the den.

2. Particular.2. Of the theatre.

"Speaking of idols of the tribe, he says, 'There are certain predispositions which beset the mind of man; certain idols which are constantly operating upon the mind and warping it from the truth; the mind of man, drawn over and clouded with the sable pavilion of the body, is so far from being like a smooth, equal, and clear glass, which might sincerely take and reflect the beams of things according to their true incidence, that it is rather like an enchanted glass, full of superstitions and impostures.'

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Having explained the nature of some of the "idols of the tribe," he explains the "idols of the den," or those prejudices which result from the false appearances imposed by every man's own peculiar nature and custom. "We every one of us have our particular den or cavern which refracts and corrupts the light of nature, either because every man has his respective temper, education, acquaintance, course of reading and authorities, or from the difference of impressions, as they happen in a mind prejudiced or prepossessed, or in one that is calm and equal. The faculties of some men are confined to poetry: of some to mathematics: of some to morals: of some to metaphysics. The schoolmaster, the lawyer, the physician, have their several and peculiar ways of observing nature."


Referring to page 150.

The prejudices from words are what Bacon calls, "idols of the market," which are fully explained in the Novum Organum, where there is an expansion of the following doctrine.

"There are also idols that have their rise, as it were, from compact, and the association of mankind; which, on account of the commerce and dealings that men have with one another, we call idols of the market. For men associate by discourse, but words are imposed according to the capacity of the vulgar; whence a false and improper imposition of words strangely possesses the understanding. Nor do the definitions and explanations wherewith men of learning in some cases defend and vindicate themselves, any way repair the injury; for words absolutely force the understanding, put all things in confusion, and lead men away to idle controversies and subtleties without number.”

This important subject is investigated in the Novum Organum, where the different defects of words are explained.


Referring to page 150.

This important subject of memory is investigated in the Novum Organum, under the head of "Constituent Instances," and may be thus exhibited.

I. The art of mak-
ing strong im--

II. The art of re-
calling a gi-
ven impres-

1. The state of the
mind of the

2. By the conduct.
of the agent.

1. Cutting off infi-

1. When the mind is free.

2. When the mind is agitated.

1. Variety of impression.

2. Slowness of im pression.

1. Order.

2. Places for artificial memory. 3. Technical me mory.

2. Reducing intellectual to sensible things.

That impressions are strongly made when the mind is free and disengaged, may appear from the permanent impressions made in early life, which often remain in old age, when all intermediate impressions are forgotten.

That impressions may be strongly made when the mind is influenced by passion, may be illustrated by the following anecdote, from the Life of Benvenuto Cellini, who says, "My father happened to be in a little room, in which they had been washing, and where there was a good fire of oak burning, with a fiddle in his hand he sang and played near the fire; the weather being exceeding cold, he looked at this time into the flames and saw a little animal resembling a lizard, Y

which could live in the hottest part of that element: instantly perceiving what it was, he called for my sister, and, after he had shown us the creature, he gave me a box of the ear: I fell a crying, while he soothing me with his caresses, spoke these words, 'My dear child, I dont give you that box for any fault you have committed, but that you may recollect that this little creature which you see in the fire, is a salamander."" Instances of the same nature occur daily, of which one of the most common and practical is the custom, when boys walk the boundaries of parishes, for the officer to strike the boy, that he may remember in old age the boundary which he walked; so that Bacon's doctrine seems to be well founded, that these things which make an impression by means of strong affection or passion assist the memory. The mind when disturbed, being, for this purpose, free from the same cause, the exclusion of all thought but the predominant passion.

That strong impressions are produced by a variety of circumstances, appears by "proving the same geometrical proposition by different forms of proofs, as algebraic and geometric, &c. Reading the same several truths in prose and in verse, and in different styles in each, &c.

That impressions ought not to be too hastily made, may be inferred from the old adage, that "great wits have short memories.' ""

With respect to cutting of infinity, or what Bacon terms, "the limitation of an indefinite seeking to an inquiry within a narrow compass."

The first mode is, he says, by order or distribution; the second by places for artificial memory; which he says, "May either be places in a proper sense, as a door, a window, a corner, &c., or familiar and known persons, or any known persons, or any other things at pleasure: provided they be placed in a certain order, as animals, plants, words, letters, characters, historical personages, &c., though some of these are more, and some less fit for the purpose. But such kind of places greatly help the memory, and raise it far above its natural powers." And we are told by Aubrey, that Lord Bacon's practice corresponded with his theory; for "In his description of Lord Bacon's house at Gorhambury, he says, "Over this portico is a stately gallery, where glass windows are all painted: and every pane with several figures of beast, bird, or flower: perhaps his lordship might use them as topics for local memory.'"

The third mode is, he says, by technical memory, of which there are an infinite number of modes, not very highly prized by Bacon, (see page 212 of this volume,) of which old Fuller says, "It is rather a trick than an art, and more for the gain of the teacher than profit of the learners. Like the tossing of a pike, which is no part of the postures and motions thereof, and is rather ostentation than use, to show the strength and nimbleness of the arm, and is often used by wandering soldiers as an introduction to beg. Understand it of the artificial rules which at this day are delivered by the memory mountebanks: for sure an art therefore may be made, (wherein as yet the world may be defective,) and that no more destructive to natural memory than spectacles are to the eyes, which girls in Holland wear from twelve years of age."

With respect to the reduction of intellectual to sensible things, Bacon is more copious in his treatise "De Augmentis," where he says, "What is presented to the senses strikes more forcibly than what is presented to the intellect. The image of a huntsman pursuing a hare; or an apothecary putting his boxes in order; or a man making a speech; or a boy reciting verses by heart; or an actor upon the stage, are more easily remembered than the notions of invention, disposition, elocution, memory, and action."


Referring to page 157.

This seed has, for the last two centuries, been apparently not really dormant. It has, during this interval, been softening and expanding, and has lately appeared above the surface. By the labours of foreign authors, from Montesquieu to the benevolent Beccarria, and of various philosophers and political economists in this island, and, above all, of Jeremy Bentham, it is beginning to be admitted that "law is a science," and that "pour diriger les mouvemens de la pouppée humaine, il faudroit connoitre les fils qui la meuvent." Commerce has already felt the influence of these opinions, the injurious restraints, by which its freedom was shackled, are mouldering away: and the lesson taught two thousand years ago, of forgiveness of debtors, has, after the unremitted exertions of philosophy during this long period, been lately sanctioned by the legislature. It is now no longer contended that the counting-house has any alliance with the jail, or that a man should be judge in his own cause, and assign the punishment of his own pain. These errors have passed away. In the first year of the reign of his present majesty, arbitrary imprisonment for debt was abolished by the establishment of the Insolvent Court. The same influence has extended to our criminal law. The restraints upon conscience are gradually declining and the punishment of death is receding within its proper limits, which it has for years exceeded, by the erroneous notion, that the power of a law varied not inversely, but directly as the opinion of its severity. Twenty years have scarcely passed away since Sir Samuel Romilly first proposed the mitigation of the punishment of death. His proposal was met in the English parliament as disrespectful to the judges, and an innovation by which crime would be increased, and the constitution endangered. During the excesses of the French revolution, the prudence of this country stood upon the old ways, dreading the very name of change; but these fears no longer exist: timidity is finding its level, and, instead of being perplexed by fear of change, our intellectual government encourages improvement, which, thus fostered, is now moving upon the whole island. In the same first year of the reign of his present majesty, the following laws were enacted:

"An Act, to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Elizabeth, the fourth of George I., the fifth and eighth of George II., as inflicts capital punishments on certain offences therein specified, and to provide more suitable and effectual punishment for such offences.

"An Act to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in the first and second years of the reign of Philip and Mary, the eighteenth of Charles II., the ninth of George I., and the twelfth of George II., as inflicts capital punishment on certain offences therein specified.

"An Act to repeal so much of an Act passed in the tenth and eleventh years of King William III., entitled, An Act for the better apprehending, prosecuting, and punishing of felons, that commit burglary, house-breaking, or robbery, in shops, ware-houses, coach-houses, or stables, or that steal horses, as takes away the benefit of clergy from persons privately stealing in any shop, ware-house, coach-house, or stable, any goods, wares, or merchandises, of the value of 5s., and for more effectually preventing the crime of stealing privately in shops, ware-houses, coach-houses, or stables."

May we not hope that during the next fifty years more progress will be made in sound legislation, than for some preceding centuries and may we not ascribe these improvements partly to the exertions of this great philosopher, who, in his dedication of the Novum Organum to King James, says, "I shall, perhaps, when I am dead, hold out a light to posterity, by this new torch set up in the obscurity of philosophy."




THIS fable my lord devised, to the end that he might exhibit therein a model or description of a college, instituted for the interpreting of nature, and the producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit of men, under the name of Solomon's House, or the College of the Six Day's Works. And even so far his lordship hath proceeded, as to finish that part. Certainly, the model is more vast, and high, than can possibly be imitated in all things; notwithstanding most things therein are within men's power to effect. His lordship thought also in this present fable to have composed a frame of laws, or of the best state or mould of a commonwealth; but foreseeing it would be a long work, his desire of collecting the Natural History diverted him, which he preferred many degrees before it.

This work of the New Atlantis (as much as concerneth the English edition) his lordship designed for this place;* in regard it hath so near affinity (in one part of it) with the preceding Natural History. W. RAWLEY.


WE sailed from Peru, where we had continued by the space of one whole year, for China and Japan, by the South Sea, taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months' space and more. But then the wind came about and settled in the west for many days, so as we could make little or no way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then again there arose strong and great winds from the south, with a point east, which carried us up, for all that we could do, towards the north; by which time our victuals failed us, though we had made good spare of them. So that finding ourselves in the midst of the greatest wilderness of waters in the world, without victual, we gave ourselves for lost men, and prepared for death. Yet we did lift up our hearts and voices to God above, who showeth "his wonders in the deep;" beseeching him of his mercy, that as in the beginning he discovered the face of the deep, and brought forth dry land, so he would now discover land to us that we might not perish. And it came to pass, that the next day about evening, we saw within a kenning before us, towards the north, as it were thick clouds, which did put us in some hope of land;

See the Note at the end.

knowing how that part of the South Sea was utterly unknown; and might have islands or continents, that hitherto were not come to light. Wherefore we bent our course thither, where we saw the appearance of land all that night; and in the dawning of the next day, we might plainly discern that it was a land, flat to our sight and full of boscage, which made it show the more dark. And after an hour and a half's sailing, we entered into a good haven, being the port of a fair city; not great indeed, but well built, and that gave a pleasant view from the sea. And we thinking every minute long till we were on land, came close to the shore, and offered to land. But straightways we saw divers people with batons in their hands, as it were forbidding us to land; yet without any cries or fierceness, but only as warning us off by signs that they made. Whereupon being not a little discomforted, we were advising with ourselves what we should do. During which time there made forth to us a small boat, with about eight persons in it; whereof one of them had in his hand a tipstaff of a yellow cane, tipped at both ends with blue, who came aboard our ship, without any show of distrust at all. And when he saw one of our number present himself somewhat afore the rest, he drew

to approach farther; which we did. And thereupon the man, whom I before described, stood up, and with a loud voice in Spanish, asked, “Are ye Christians ?" We answered, "we were ;" fearing the less, because of the cross we had seen in the subscription. At which answer the said person lifted up his right hand towards heaven, and drew it softly to his mouth, which is the gesture they use when they thank God, and then said; "If ye will sware, all of you, by the merits of the Saviour, that ye are no pirates; nor have shed blood lawfully nor unlawfully within forty days past, you may have license to come on land." We said, "we were all ready to take that oath." Whereupon one of those that were with him, being, as it seemed, a notary, made an entry of this act. Which done, another of the attendants of the great person, which was with him in the same boat, after his lord had spoken a little to him, said aloud; "My lord would have you know, that it is not of pride or greatness that he cometh not aboard your ship; but for that in your answer you declare, that you have many sick amongst you, he was warned by the conservator of health of the city, that he should keep a distance." We bowed ourselves towards him and answered, "we were his humble servants; and accounted for great honour, and singular humanity towards us, that which was already done; but hoped well, that the nature of the sickness of our men was not infectious." So he returned; and a while after came the notary to us aboard our ship, holding in his hand a fruit of that country, like an orange, but of colour between orange-tawney and scarlet, which cast a most excellent odour. He used it, as it seemeth, for a

forth a little scroll of parchment, somewhat yellower than our parchment, and shining like the leaves of writing tables, but otherwise soft and flexible, and delivered it to our foremost man. In which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew, and in ancient Greek, and good Latin of the school, and in Spanish, these words; “Land ye not, none of you, and provide to be gone from this coast within sixteen days, except you have further time given you mean while, if you want fresh water, or victual, or help for your sick, or that your ship needeth repair, write down your wants, and you shall have that which belongeth to mercy." This scroll was signed with a stamp of cherubim's wings, not spread but hanging downwards, and by them a cross. This being delivered, the officer returned, and left only a servant with us to receive our answer. Consulting hereupon amongst ourselves, we were much perplexed. The denial of landing, and hasty warning us away, troubled us much; on the other side, to find that the people had languages and were so full of humanity, did comfort us not a little. And above all, the sign of the cross to that instrument was to us a great rejoicing, and as it were a certain presage of good. Our answer was in the Spanish tongue; "That for our ship, it was well; for we had rather met with calms and contrary winds than any tempests. For our sick, they were many, and in very ill case; so that if they were not permitted to land, they ran danger of their lives." Our other wants we set down in particular; adding, "that we had some little store of merchandise, which if it pleased them to deal for, it might supply our wants without being chargeable unto them." We offered some reward in pistolets unto the servant, and a piece of crim-preservative against infection. He gave us our son velvet to be presented to the officer; but the servant took them not nor would scarce look upon them; and so left us, and went back in another little boat which was sent for him.

About three hours after we had despatched our answer, there came towards us a person, as it seemed, of place. He had on him a gown with wide sleeves, of a kind of water-chamblet, of an excellent azure colour, far more glossy than ours; his under apparel was green, and so was his hat, being in the form of a turban, daintily made, and not so huge as the Turkish turbans; and the locks of his hair came down below the brims of it. A reverend man was he to behold. He came in a boat, gilt in some part of it, with four persons more only in that boat; and was followed by another boat, wherein were some twenty. When he was come within a flight shot of our ship, signs were made to us, that we should send forth some to meet him upon the water, which we presently did in our ship-boat, sending the principal inen amongst us save one, and four of our numher with him. When we were come within six yards of their boat, they called us to stay, and not

oath; "By the name of Jesus and his merits:" and after told us, that the next day by six of the clock in the morning we should be sent to, and brought to the Strangers' House, so he called it, where we should be accommodated of things, both for our whole and for our sick. So he left us; and when we offered him some pistolets, he smiling, said, "he must not be twice paid for one labour:" meaning, as I take it, that he had salary sufficient of the state for his service. For, as I after learned, they call an officer that taketh re wards, Twice-paid.

The next morning early, there came to us the same officer that came to us at first with his cane. and told us, "he came to conduct us to the Strangers' House: and that he had prevented the hour, because we might have the whole day before us for our business. For," said he, "if you will follow my advice, there shall first go with me some few of you; and see the place, and how it may be made convenient for you; and then you may send for your sick, and the rest of your number, which ye will bring on land." We thanked him, and said, that this care, which he took of

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