can assure you, that though many things of great hope decay Unmindful of the feebleness of his constitution ; unmindful with youth, and multitude of civil businesses is wont to di- of his love of contemplation ; unmindful of his own words: ninish the price, though not the delight of contemplations, he in an evil hour accepted the offer. One of the conse. yet the proceeding in that work doth gain with me upon my quences was, the sacrifice of his favourite work, upon wnich affection and desire, both by years and businesses. And he had been engaged for thirty years, and had twelve therefore I hope, even by this, that it is well pleasing to God, times transcribed with his own hand. In his letter to the from whom, and to whom, all good moves. To him I most king, dated 16th October, 1620, and sent with the Novum Or. heartily commend you."

ganum, he says: “The reason why I have published it now "To Sir George Villiers, acknowledging the king's favour. specially, being imperfect, is, to speak plainly, because I num. -Sir, I am more and more bound unto his majesty, who, I ber my days and would have it saved." The same sentiment think, knowing me to have other ends than ambition, is con- was expressed by him in the year 1607. “But time, in the tented to make me judge of mine own desires."

interim, being on the wing, and the author too much engaged Such was Bacon's inclination: and if, instead of his needy in civil affairs, especially considering the uncertainties of life, circumstances, he had possessed the purse of a prince, and he would willingly hasten to secure some part of his design the assistance of a people, * he

from contingencies.” Another consequence was, the injury in the prime of early youth, to his reputation; a subject upon which, although I hope at Would have shunned the broad way and the green, some future time to be more explicit, I cannot refrain from And laboured up the hill of heavenly truth.

subjoining a few observations. Upon the nature of ambition and great place, it is scarcely

When the chancellor first heard of the threatened attack possible to suppose that he could have entertained erroneous upon him by the very Parliament, convened by his advice for opinions. His sentiments are contained in his Essays on

the detection of abuses, he wrote to the House of Lords, re. those subjects, and are incidentally mentioned in different questing to be heard : and he thus wrote to the Marquis of parts of his works. He could not much respect a passion by Buckingham :-“Your lordship spoke of purgatory. I am which men, to use his own words, were—“Like a seeled now in it; but my mind is in a calm, for my fortune is not dove, that mounts and mounts because he cannot see about my felicity; I know I have clean hands, and a clean heart; hin.... As if,” he says, “man, made for the contemplation and I hope a clean house for friends, or servants. But Job of heaven, and all noble objects, should doe nothing but kneel himself, or whosoever was the justest judge, by such hunting before a little idol, and make bimselfe subject, though not of for matters against him, as hath been used against me, may, the mouth (as beasts are) yet of the eye, which was given for a time, seem foul, especially in a time when greatness is him for higher purposes." He must have contrasted the pbi- the mark, and accusation is the game. And if this be to be a losophic freedom of a studious life with the servile restraints chancellor, I think, if the great seal lay upon Hounslow or an ambitious life, who says—“Men in great place, are lordship will, i hope, put an end to these my straits one way

Heath, nobody would take it up. But the king and your thrice servants: servants of the soveraigne or state; servants of fame; and servants of businesse. So as they have no

or other.” By what way the king and his lordship did put freedome, neither in their persons; nor in their actions; nor

an end to these straits, is stated by Bushel in his old age, in in their times. It is a strange desire to seeke power and to the year 1659, thirty-three years after the death of the chanJose liberty; to seeke power over others, and to lose power « But before this could be accomplished to his own content,

cellor. As the tract is very scarce, I subjoin the statement. over a mans selfe." Ile was not likely to form an erroneous estimate of different pleasures who knew that the great dif- there arose such complaints-against his lordship and the then ference between men consisted in what they accepted and favourite atcourt, that for some days put the king to this query, rejected. “The logical part of men's minds,” he says, “is whether he should permit the favourite of his affection, or the often good, but the mathematical part nothing worth: that is, oracle of bis council, to sink in his service; whereupon his they can judge well of the mode of attaining any end, but lordship was sent for by ihe king, who, after some discourse, cannot estimate the value of the end itself.”—(See page 177.) gave him this positive advice, to submit himself to his house But, notwithstanding his love of contemplation, and his know- of peers, and that (upon his princely word) he would then Jedge that the splendid speculations of genius are rarely united restore him again, if they (in their honours) should not be with that promptness in action or consistence in general con- sensible of his merits. Now though my lord foresaw his ap. duet which is necessary for the immediate control of civil proaching ruin, and told his majesty there were little hopes affairs, he was impelled by various causes to engage in active of mercy in a multitude, when his enemies were to give fire, life. His necessities in youth: the importunities of his if he did not plead for himself; yet such was his obedience to friends; the queen encouraging him, "as her young lord him from whom he had his being, that he resolved his makeeper :” his sentiment that all men should be active, that jesty's will should be his only law, and so took leave of him man's motto should not be abstine' but sustine: that in this with these words: "Those that will strike your chancellor, theatre of man's life, God and angels only should be lookers it's much to be feared will strike at your crown;' and wished, on it his opinion that he was actuated by the only lawful end that as he was then the first, so he might be the last of sacri

Soon after (according to his majesty's commands) of his own superiority by which he was hurried into the opi- he wrote a submissive letter to the house, and sent me to my nion that he could subdue all things under his feet,& ipduced Lord Windsor to know the result, which I was loath, at my him to attempt the union of two not very reconcilable cha- return, to acquaint him with; for, alas ! his sovereign's favour racters, the philosopher and the statesman.

fices. of aspiring—“the power to do good,"I and the consciousness.

was not in so high a measure, but he, like the phanix, must

be sacrificed in flames of his own raising, and so perished, Forth reaching to the fruit, he plucked, he eat,

like Icarus, in that his lotty design, the great revenue of his and, after all the honours of his professions had been succes- office being lost, and his titles of honour saved but by the sively conferred upon him, in the year 1617, when he was bishops' votes; whereunto he replied, that he was only fifty-seven years of age, the great seals were offered to him. bound to thank his clergy; the thunder of which fatal sen.

tence did much perplex my troubled thoughts, as well as "Such a collection of natural history,” says Bacon, "as others, to see that famous lord, who procured his majesty to we have measured out in our mind, and such as really ought call this parliament, must be the first subject of this revenge. to be procured, is a great and royal work, requiring the purse ful wrath ; and that so unparalleled a master should be thus of a prince and the assistance of a people."

brought upon the public stage for the foolish miscarriages of + See his beautiful illustration in page 220 of this volume. his own servants, whereof with grief of heart I confess my.

1 "Power to doe good, is the true and lawful end of aspir- self to be one. Yet shortly after the king dissolved the par. ing. For good thoughts (though God accept them) yet to- liament, but never restored that matchless lord to his place, wards men, are little better than good dreams : except they which made him then to wish the many years he had spent be put in act; and that cannot be without power, and place as in state policy and law study had been solely devoted to true the vantage, and commanding ground. Merit, and good philosophy: for, said he, the one at best doth but comprehend works, is the end of man's motion; and conscience of the man's frailty in its greatest splendour, but the other the myssame, is the accomplishment of man's rest. For if a man be terious knowledge of all things created in the six days' partaker of God's theatre; he shall likewise be partaker of work." That there was a private interview between the God's rest."

chancellor and the king, thus appears from the journals of See page 163 of this volume.

the House of Lords, 17th April, 1621. “The lord treasures VOL. 1,-32

signified, that in the interim of this cessation, the lord chan. and heavenly contemplation of justice and equity, which cellor was an humble suitor unto his majesty, that he might was never taught them, but on the promising and pleasing see his majesty, and speak with him; and although his thoughts of litigious terms, fat, contentious, and flowing majesty, in respect of the lord chancellor's person, and of fees; others betake them to state affairs, with souls so unthe place he holds, might have given his lordship that favour, principled in virtue and true generous breeding, that flattery yet, for that his lordship is under trial of this house, his ma- and courtshifts and tyrannous aphorisms appear to them jesty would not on the sudden grant it. That on Sunday last, the highest points of wisdom; instilling their barren bearts the king calling all the lords of this house which were of his with a conscientious slavery; if, as I rather think, it be not council before him, it pleased his majesty, to show their lord- reigned. Others, lastly, of a more delicious and airy spirit, ships, what was desired by the lord chancellor, demanding retire themselves, (knowing no better,) to the enjoyments of their lordships' advice therein. The lords did not presume ease and luxury, living out their days in feast and jollity; to advise his majesty; for that his majesty did suddenly pro- which indeed is the wisest and the safest course of all these, pound such a course as all the world could not devise better, unless they were with more integrity undertaken. And which was that his majesty would speak with him privately. these are the errors, and these are the fruits of misspending That yesterday, his majesty admitting the lord chancellor to our prime youth at the schools and universities as we do, his presence, &c. It was thereupon ordered, That the lord either in learning mere words, or such things chiefly as were treasurer should signiy unto his majesty, that the lords do better unlearned." thankfully acknowledge that his majesty's favour, and hold That the love of excelling has a tendency to generate bad themselves, highly bound unto his majesty for the same." feeling, is as easily demonstrated. Tucker says, “This pas. In the morning of the 911h of April, a few days after this sion always chooses to move alone in a narrow sphere, interview, the king was ; resent in the House of Lords, com- where nothing noble or important can be achieved, rather mended the complaint of all public grievances, and protested, than join with others in moving mighty engines, by which that he would prefer no person whomsoever before the public much good might be effected. Where did ambition ever good; and, in the evening of the same day, the Prince of glow more intensely than in Cæsar? whose favourite saying, Wales signified to the lords, that the Lord Chancellor had we are told, was, that he would rather be the first man in a sent a submission.—The sentence was passed. The king petty village, than the secoud in Rome. Did not Alexander, remitted all which it was in his power to pardon. That the another madman of the sanie kind, reprove his tutor Aristotle time would arrive when it would be proper to investigate the for publishing to the world those discoveries in philosophy whole nature of these proceedings, Bacon foresaw. In a he would have had reserved for himself alone ? 'Nero,' says paper written in November, 169, in Greek characters, and Plutarch, "put the fiddlers to death, for being more skilful in found amongst his papers, he says, “Of my offences, far be it the trade than he was.' Dionysius, the elder, was so angry from me to say, Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas: at Philoxenus for singing, and with Plato for disputing better but I will say what I have good warrant for, they were not than he did, that he sold Plato a slave to Ægina, and conthe greatest offenders in Israel, upon whom the wall of Shilo demned Philoxenus to the quarries.” In illustration of this fell:" And in his will, after desiring to be buried by his mo- doctrine, I cannot refrain from subjoining an anecdote which ther, he says, “ For my name and memory, I leave it to men’s explains the whole of this morbid feeling. “A collector of charitable speeches, and to foreign nations, and the next shells gave thirty-six guineas for a shell: the instant he paid ages." It is hoped that documents are now in existence, by the money, he threw the shell upon the hearth, and dashed which the whole of this transaction may, without impro- it into a thousand pieces: 'I have now,' said be, 'the only priety, be elucidated. It seems that, from the intimacy be specimen in England."" tween Archbishop Tennison and Dr. Rawley, the chancellor's The love of excelling has, however, its uses. It leads to chaplain and secretary, all the facts were known to the that portion of knowledge for which it operates Archbishop, who published his Baconiana in the year 1679,

* The spur is puwerful, and I grant its force; “too near to the heels of truth and to the times of the per

Il pricks the genius forward in his course, sons concerned;" in which he says, “ His lordship owned it

Allows short time for play and none for sloth, under his hand, that he was frail and did partake of the

And, felt alike by each, advances both abuses of the times.' And surely he was a partaker of their severities also. The great cause of his suffering is to some and is attended with the chance of generating a habit to ae. a secret. I leave them to find it out by his words to King quire knowledge, which may continue when the motives James. "I wish, as I am the first, so I may be the last sacri- themselves have ceased to act. It is a bait for pride, which, fice in your times, and, when from private appetite it is re- when seized, may sink into the affections." solved, that a creature shall be sacrificed, it is easy to pick Such is the nature of the love of excelling. The love of up sticks enough from any thicket, whither it hath strayed, excellence, on the other hand, produced the Paradise Lost: to make a fire to offer it with. At present I shall only add, the Ecclesiastical Polity, and the Novum Organum. It inthat when upon his being accused, he was told it was time fluenced Newton, and Descartes, and Hooker, and Bacon. to look about him, he said, 'I do not look about me, I look It has ever permanently influenced, and will ever permaabove me,' and when he was condemned, and his servants nently influence the noblest minds, and has ever generated, rose upon his passing through the gallery, 'Sit down, my and will ever generate good feeling. “We see,” says Bafriends,' he said, 'your rise has been my fall.""

con, "in all other pleasures there is a satiety, and after they That the love of excelling is only a temporary motive for the be used, their verdure departeth: which showeth well they acquisition of knowledge, may as easily be demonstrated : be but deceits of pleasure, and not pleasures: and therefore when the object is gained, or the certainty of failure disco we see that voluptuous men turn friars, and ambitious vered, what motive is there for exertion? What worlds are princes turn melancholy: bul of knowledge there is no there to conquer? “Sed quid ego hæc, quæ cupio deponere satiety; but satisfaction and appetite are perpetually interet toto animo atque omni cura pidocopelv. Sic inquam in changeable, and therefore appeareth 10 be good in itself animo est. Vellem ab initio;" are the words of Cicero. simply without fallacy or accident.” “I have,” says Burke, “ Indeed, my lord, I greatly deceive myself, if in this hard | “through life been willing to give every thing to others, and season I would give a peck of refuse wheat for all that is to reserve nothing to myself, but the inward conscience that called fame and honour in the world," are the words of I have omitted no pains to discover, to animate, to discipline, Burke. Milton, in his tract on Education, speaking of young to direct the abilities of the country for its service, and to men when they quit the universities: “Now on the sudden place them in the best light to improve their age, or to adorn transported under another climate to be tossed and turmoiled it. This conscience I have. I have never suppressed any with their unballasted wits in fathomless and unquiet deeps man; never checked him for a moment in his course, by any of controversy, do for the most part grow into hatred and jealousy, any policy. I was always ready to the height of contempt of learning, mocked and deluded all this while with my means (and they were always infinitely below my deragged notions and babblements, while they expected worthy sires) to forward those abilities which overpowered my and delightful knowledge ; till poverty or youthful years call own.” And so Pæderatus, “being left out of the election them importunately their several ways, and hasten them of the number of the three hundred, said, “It does me good with the sway of friends either to an ambitious and merce- to see there are three hundred found better in the city ihan nary, or ignorantly zealous divinity; some allured to the myself.'” trade of law, grounding their purposes not on the prudent If any reader of this note conceive that education cannot be conducted without the influence of this motive, he will | Roman fleet before Syracuse, and baffled the unceasing find the subject most ably investigated in the chapter on efforts of Marcellus to take the town. An Athenian admiral Vanity in Tucker's Light of Nature :-and if he imagine that delayed till evening to attack, on the coast of Attica, a Lace. this doctrine is injurious, he may be satisfied that there never demonian fleet, which was disposed in a circle, because he will be wanting men to fill up the niches of society. “These knew that an evening breeze always sprung up from the things will continue as they have been : but so will that also land. The breeze arose, the circle was disordered, and at continue whereupon learning hath ever relied, and which that instant he made his onset. The Athenian captives, by faileth not: “Justificata est sapientia a filiis suis.'” And if repeating the strains of Euripides, were enabled to charm he imagine that this doctrine will deter elevation of mind their masters into a grant of their liberty." from engaging in worldly pursuit, let him read Bacon's refutation of the conceit that learning should dispose men to

NOTE M. leisure and privateness,* and his admonition that we should direct our strength against nature herself, and take her high

Referring to page 142. towers and dismantle her fortified holds, and thus enlarge the borders of man's dominion as far as Almighty God of his riments in the New Atlantis.

See page 268 of this volume, relating to the houses of expegoodness shall permit.

At the time I am writing this note, a proposal has just Note I.

been published for the formation of a university in YorkReferring to page 140.

shire, and another proposal for the formation of a university

in London : aud I please myself with the consciousness of In page 207 of this work may be found Bacon's observa- the good which inust result from the agitation of this ques. tions upon the importance of invention: upon which the con- tion, in the age in which we are so fortunate to live. London siderations seem to be:

is, perhaps, except Madrid, the only capital in Europe, with1. The utility of inventions.

out an university. Why is such an institution expedient in “Let any one consider what a difference there is betwixt Edinburgh and Dublin, and inexpedient in the capital in the life led in any polite province of Europe, and in the England ? Lord Bacon thought, in the year 1620, that from savage and barbarous parts of the world ; and he will find it the constitution of our universities, they opposed the adso great that one man may deservedly seem a god to another, vancement of learning. He says, “In the customs and insti. not only on account of greater helps and advantages, but also tutions of schools, universities, colleges, and the like convenupon a comparison of the two conditions; and this difference tions, destined for the seats of learned men and the promois not owing to the soil, the air, or bodily constitution, but to tion of knowledge, all things are found opposite to the adarts."

vancement of the sciences; for the readings and exercises 2. Utility of an art of invention.'

are here so managed, that it cannot easily come into any “If some large obelisk were to be raised, would it not one's mind to think of things out of the common road. Or seem a kind of madness for men to set about it with their if here and there one should venture to use a liberty of judg. naked hands ? and would it not be greater madness still to ing, he can only impose the task upon himself, without obincrease the number of such naked labourers, in confidence taining assistance from his fellows; and if he could dispense of effecting the thing ? and were it not a further step in

with this, he will still find his industry and resolution a great lunacy, to pick out the weaker bodied, and use only the hinderance to the raising of bis fortune. For the studies of robust and strong; as if they would certainly do ? but if, not content with this, recourse should be had to anointing the writings of certain authors; from which, if any man happens

men in such places are confined, and pinned down to the limbs, according to the art of the ancient wrestlers, and then

to differ, he is presently reprehended as a disturber and innoall begin afresh, would not this be raving with reason? Yet this is but like the wild and fruitless procedure of mankind and civil affairs; for the danger is not the same from new

vator. But there is surely a great difference between arts in intellectuals; whilst they expect great things from multi- light, as from new commotions. In civil affairs, it is true, a tude and consent; or the excellence and penetration of ca. change even for the better is suspected, through fear of dispacity; or strengthen, as it were, the sinews of the mind turbance; because these affairs depend upon authority, conwith logic. And yet, for all this absurd bustle and struggle, sent, reputation, and opinion, and not upon demonstration : men still continue to work with their naked understandings.” but arts and sciences should be like mines, resounding on all

The object of the Novum Organum is to explain the nature sides with new works, and farther progress. And thus is of the art of invention.

ought to be, according to right reason; but the case, in fact, 3. The high estimation of inventors.

is quite otherwise. For the above-mentioned administration In addition to the passage to which this note is appended, and policy of schools and universities, generally opposes and there is another similar passage, I believe, in the Novum greatly prevents the improvement of the sciences.". Organum.

Whether these observations made by Bacon, in 1620, are 10 “The introduction of noble inventions seems to hold by far any and what extent applicable to the year 1820, I know not: the most excellent place among all human actions. And this but I have been informed, that the anxiety for improvement, was the judgment of antiquity, which attributed divine for which this age is distinguished, has extended to the unihonours to inventors, but conferred only heroical honours versity of Cambridge: that it has already beautified the upon those who deserved well in civil affairs, such as the buildings; and that an inquirer may now safely consider founders of empires, legislators, and deliverers of their coun

whether the compendia and calculations of moral and politja try. And whoever rightly considers it, will find this a judi- cal philosophy which are to be found in the university manu. cious custom in former ages, since the benefits of inventors als, are best calculated to form high national sentiments. may extend to all mankind, but civil benefits only to particu.

There is scarcely any subject of more importance than the lar countries, or seats of men; and these civil benefits seldom subject of universities. So Bacon thought. In this note, I descend to more than a few ages, whereas inventions are

had intended to have collected his scattered opinions, and to perpetuated through the course of time. Besides, a state is

have investigated various questions respecting universities ; seldom amended in its civil affairs, without force and pertur. but I must reserve these considerations for the sanie bation, whilst inventions spread their advantage, without doing injury or causing disturbance."

passage in the treatise “De Augmentis," where I bope to

examine See also in page 269 of this volume, where Bacon speaks

1. The uses of universities. in his New Atlantis of the respect due to inventors: the pas.

1. The preservation and propagation of existing sage beginning with the words, “we have two very long and

knowledge. fair galleries."

2. The formation of virtuous habits in youth 4. The art of inventing arts and sciences is deficient.

3. The discovery of unexplored truths See page 207 of this volume.

2. The situation of universities. Note L.

3. The buildings.

1. Libraries. Referring to page 141.

1. General, The power of man is his means to attain any end. “ Archi.

2. Particular. medes by his knowledge of optics was enabled to burn the

1. Law. * See page 165 of this volume.

2. Medical, &c.

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2. Scientific houses.

the crude, hasty, and injudicious method in which mathe1. Mathematical houses.

matics are taught in one university, seems little preferable 2. Chemical houses.

to the absolute neglect of them in the other. In both the 3. Houses for fine arts, &c.

genuine sources of information, the ancient writers, have 4. Collections of natural history.

been too much neglected, and from the saine neglect bas pro1. Animals.

ceeded the downfall of logic, as well as mathematics. Since 2. Vegetables.

neither in the first is Aristotle, or his purest Greek commen3. Minerals.

tators, Simplicius and Philopinus regarded; nor in the latter 5. Collections of arts.

have the elegant inventions recorded in Pappus and Archi1. Patents.

medes, the Analytical restitutions which Vieta and Halley 2. Mathematical arts.

have given from Apollonius, the genuine conic geometry of 3. Fine arts.

the same author, the spherics of Theodosius and Menceaus, 1. Engravings.

the remains of Theon and Eutocius, of Eratosthenes and 2. Paintings.

Hero, been sufficiently attended, to which, and to the suc3. Sculpture.

cessful use of the new methods of calculus, it has happened 6. Lectures.

that mathematics, as they are now cultivated, have much de7. Defects of universities.

parted from that perspicuity and evidence which ought At present I must content myself with expressing my always to be their character. anxious hope that the project for a metropolitan university “I make it therefore a desideratum that the use and effect will (as it will sooner or later) be realized, and that the en- of the ancient Analysis be well considered both in plane and quirers for knowledge will not be under the present necessity solid problems, since it is certain that its use did extend very of attending for information at the different taverns in the far among the ancients, and the restitution of it would very different parts of this city: at Willis's Rooms, and at the much improve the construction of problems, which are London Tavern, and at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, always less perspicuously, many times less easily treated by and the Paul's Head, Cateaton Street, where lectures, numer- common Algebra. rously attended, are now delivered upon different parts of “Something of this kind, though not generally known, is natural and human philosophy.

to be found in an unpublished M8. of Sir Isaac Newton, de Query 1. As a tree is for some dimension and space entire Geometria libri tres, great part of which is perfect. and continued before it breaks and parts itself into arms and “The true theory of the Porisms, imperfectly found in Papboughs, ought there not to be lectures upon such general sub-pus, given up as unintelligible by Halley, inadequately at. jects as will be applicable to men in all states of society : tempted by the acute Fermat, and laboured with much unvailupon

ing industry by Rob. Simson, may be said to be at last com1. Man as an individual.

pletely ascertained by Professor Playfair of Edinburgh." 1. The laws of health. 2. The passions, including all our different pleasures.

NOTE O. 3. The understanding 2. Man in society.

Referring to page 143. 1. The general principles of law.

Bacon arranges the History of Arts as a species of Natural 2. The general principles of politics, political eco- History. This subject is much improved in the treatise "De

Augmentis," where he states his reasons for this arrangenomy, &c. &c. Query 2. As the British Museum contains a noble library, ment, (see chap. 2. Book 2. De 'Aug.) saying, "We are the a collection of natural history, of sculpture, and of paint rather induced to assign the History of Arts, as a branch of ings: as the buildings are rapidly advancing, and as it has Natural History, because an opinion hath long time gone been intimated that a street is to be opened from the museum

current, as if art were some different thing from nature, and to Waterloo bridge, could this establishment be of any and artificial from natural.” The same sentiment is expressed what use to such an institution ?

both by Sir Thomas Brown and by Shakspeare. Brown says,

“Nature is not at variance with art ; nor art with nature: NOTE N.

they being both the servants of the Providence of God. Art

is the perfection of nature: were the world now as it was Referring to page 142.

the sixth day, there were yet a chaos. Nature hath made John Milton in his tract on education, says, "That which one world, and art another. In brief, all things are artificial: casts our proficiency therein so much behind, is our time lost for, nature is the art of God.” partly in too oft idle vacancies given both to schools and So Shakspeare says, universities : partly in a preposterous exaction, forcing the

* Perdita. For I have heard it said, empty wits of children to compose themes, verses, and ora

There is an art, which in their piedness shares tions, which are the acts of ripest judgment, and the final

With great creating nature. work of a head filled by long reading and observing, with

Pol. Say there be, elegant maxims and copious invention. These are not mai.

Yet nature is made better by no mean, ters to be wrung froni poor striplings, like blood flowing out

But nature makes that mean; of the nose, or the plucking of untiinely fruit; besides the ill

So over that art, which you say adds to nature, habit which they get of wretched barbarizing against the

Is an art that nature makes; you see, sweet maid, Latin and Greek idioms, with their untutored Anglicisms,

We marry a gentle scion to the wildest stock, odious to read, yet not to be avoided without a well continued

And make conceive a bark of baser kind and judicious conversing among the pure authors digested,

By bud of nobler race. This an art, which they scarce taste." "I deem it to be an old error of

Which does inend nature, change it rather; but universities, not well recovered from scholastic grossness of

The art itself is nature." barbarous ages, that instead of beginning with arts most easy, (and those be such as are most obvious to the sense,)

NOTE P. they present their young unmatriculated novices at first com

Referring to page 146. ing with the most intellective abstractions of logic and metaplıysics."

This note is referred to the treatise De Augmentis. Cicero, says Middleton, made it his constant care that the

NOTE Q. progress of his knowledge should keep pace with the improvement of his eloquence. He considered the one as the

Referring to page 150. foundation of the other, and thought it in vain to acquire See as to the nature of credulity under Fantastical Learnornaments before he had provided necessary furniture. ing, ante pages 139, 171. See also Nov. Org. aph. 9.

I subjoin the following observations from a Ms. in my pos- “The mind has the peculiar and constant error of being session; by whom it was written I know not :

more moved and excited by affirmatives than by negatives, " The defects here noted in the universities seem to have whereas it should duly and equally yield to both. But, on cured themselves. Logic, by the supineness of teachers, and the contrary, in the raising of true axioms, negative instances indolence of pupils, having become a mere dead letter: no- have the greatest for Ling however has been properly substituted in its place, and “ The mind of man, if a thing have once been existent, apd

2. Particular. 2. of the theatre.

held good, receives a deeper impression thereof, than if the

{ 1. of the tribe.

1. General. same thing far more often failed and fell out otherwise : which

2. Of the market. is the root, as it were, of all superstition and vain credulity.”

1. Or the den. Bacon, in his experiments respecting antipathy in his Sylva Sylvarum, speaking of “the supposed sympathies between persons at distant places,” says, “it is true that they may tain predispositions which beset the mind of man; certain

"Speaking of idols of the tribe, he says, “There are cer. hold in these things which is the general root of superstition, idols which are constantly operating upon the mind and namely that men observe when things hit, and not when they warping it from the truth; the mind of man, drawn over miss: and commit to memory the one, and forget and pass and clouded with the sable pavilion of the body, is so far over the other.”

from being like a smooth, equal, and clear glass, which might

sincerely take and reflect the beams of things according to NOTE R.

their true incidence, that it is rather like an enchanted glass, Referring to page 150

full of superstitions and impostures.'

Having explained the nature of some of the "idols of the “The spirit of man presupposes and feigns a greater equal tribe," he explains the “idols of the den,” or those prejudices ity and uniforinity in nature than in truth there is. Hence which result from the false appearances imposed by every that fiction of the mathematicians, that in the heavenly man's own peculiar nature and custom. “We every one of bodies all is moved by perfect circles, rejecting spiral lines. us have our particular den or cavern which refracts and cor. So it comes to pass that whereas there are many things in rupts the light of nature, either because every man has his nature, as it were, monodica and full of imparity: yet the respective temper, education, acquaintance, course of reading conceits of men still feign and frame unto themselves rela- and authorities, or from the difference of impressions, as tives; parallels, and conjugates : for upon this ground the they happen in a mind prejudiced or prepossessed, or in one element of fire and its orb is brought in to keep square with that is calm and equal. The faculties of some men are conthe other three, earth, water, air. The chymists have set fined to poetry: of some to mathematics: of some to morals: out a fanatical squadron of words, feigning by a most vain of some to metaphysics. The schoolmaster, the lawyer, the conceit in these their four elements, (heaven, air, water, physician, have their several and peculiar ways of observing earth,) there are to be found to every one parallel and uni- nature." form species. “As the northern part of the earth was supposed to be a

Note T. hemisphere, the southern part was assumed to be of the same

Referring to page 150. forin.

The prejudices from words are what Bacon calls, “idols of “Bacon says, “In the structure of the universe the motion the market,” which are fully explained in the Novum Orgaof living creatures is generally performed by quadruple limits num, where there is an expansion of the following doctrine. or flexures: as the fins of fish; the feet of quadrupeds; and

“There are also idols that have their rise, as it were, from the feet and wings of fowl.?- To which Aristotle adds, the compact, and the association of mankind; which, on account four wreaths of serpents.'

of the commerce and dealings that men have with one “That produce increases in an arithmetic and population another, we call idols of the market. For men associate by in a geometric ratio, is a position which seems to partake of discourse, but words are imposed according to the capacity the love of uniformity."

of the vulgar; whence a false and improper imposition of See Novum Organum, aph. 45.

words strangely possesses the understanding. Nor do the

definitions and explanations wherewith men of learning in NOTE S.

some cases defend and vindicate themselves, any way repair

the injury; for words absolutely force the understanding, put Referring to page 150.

all things in confusion, and lead men away to idle controverBacon's doctrine of idols of the understanding is more fully sies and subtleties without number.” explained in the beginning of the Novum Organum, where

This important subject is investigated in the Novum Orgathese idols or tendencies of the mind to be warped from the num, where the different defects of words are explained. truth are investigated and deprecated. He then explains, that if these idols once take root in the mind, truth will

Note U, hardly find entrance, or if it do, that it will be choked and

Referring to page 150. destroyed, and he warns us that “Idols are to be solemnly This important subject of memory is investigated in the and forever renounced, that the understanding may be Novum Organum, under the head of“ Constituent Instances," thereby purged and cleansed; for the kingdom of man, and may be thus exhibited. which is founded in the sciences, can scarce be entered

1. When the mind otherwise than the kingdom of God, that is, in the condition

1. The state of the

is free. of little children."

mind of the

2. When the mind And in his introduction to the just method of compiling 1. The art of mak

is agitated. history, he says; “If we have any humility towards the

ing strong im

1. Variety of im. Creator; if we have any reverence and esteem of his works; pressions.

pression. if we have any charity towards men, or any desire of reliev

2. By the conduct ing their miseries and necessities; if we have any love for

2. Slowness of im. of the agent.

pression. natural truths; any aversion to darkness; and any desire of

1. Order. purifying the understanding; mankind are to be most affectionately intreated, and beseeched to lay aside, at least for a while,

2. Places for artifi. II. The art of re1. Cutting off infi

cial memory. their preposterous, fantastic and hypothetical philosophies, calling a gi


3. Technical me which have led experience captive, and childishly triumphed ven impres


mory. over the works of God; and now at length condescend, with due submission and veneration, to approach and peruse the

2. Reducing intellectual to sensible volume of the Creation; dwell some time upon it; and,

things. bringing to the work a mind well purged of opinions, idols, That impressions are strongly made when the mind is free and and false notions, converse familiarly therein. This volume disengaged, may appear from the permanent impressions is the language which has gone out to all the ends of the made in early life, which often remain in old age, when all earth, unaffected by the confusion of Babel; this is the lan- intermediate impressions are forgotten. guage that men should thoroughly learn, and not disdain to That impressions may be strongly made when the mind is in. have its alphabet perpetually in their hands : and in the inter- fluenced by passion, may be illustrated by the following anec. pretation of this language they should spare no pains; but dote, from the Life of Benvenuto Cellini, who says, My strenuously proceed, persevere, and dwell upon it to the last.” father happened to be in a little room, in which they had

Bacon having explained the general nature of idols, and been washing, and where there was a good fire of oak burn. demonstrated the importance of destroying them, divides ing, with a fiddle in his hand he sang and played near the them into four sorts : but they seem to be reducible to two, fire; the weather being exceeding cold, he looked at this time which may be thius exhibited.

into the flames and saw a little animal resembling a lizard,



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