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tible of growth and reformation. For the unlearned man knows not what it is to descend into himself, or to call himself to account; nor the pleasure of that "suavissima vita, indies sentire se fieri meliorem." The good parts he hath he will learn to show to the full, and use them dexterously, but not much to increase them; the faults he hath he will learn how to hide and colour them, but not much to amend them: like an ill mower, that mows on still, and never whets his scythe. Whereas with the learned man it fares otherwise, that he doth ever intermix the correction and amendment of his mind with the use and employment thereof. Nay further, in general and in sum, certain it is that "veritas" and "bonitas" differ but as the seal and the print: for truth prints goodness; and they be the clouds of error which descend in the storms of passions and perturbations.
It taketh away the wildness and barbarism and fierceness of men's minds: but indeed the accent had need be upon "fideliter:" for a little superficial learning doth rather work a contrary effect. It taketh away all levity, temerity, and insolency, by copious suggestion of all doubts and difficulties, and acquainting the mind to balance reasons on both sides, and to turn back the first offers and conceits of the mind, and to accept of nothing but examined and tried. It taketh away vain admiration of any thing, which is the root of all weakness for all things are admired, either because they are new, or because they are great. For novelty, no man that wadeth in learning or contemplation throughly, but will find that printed in his heart, "Nil novi super terram." Neither can any man marvel at the play of puppets, that goeth behind the curtain, and adviseth well of the motion. And for magnitude, as Alexander the Great, after that he was used to great armies, and the great From moral virtue let us pass on to matter of conquests of the spacious provinces in Asia, power and commandment, and consider whether when he received letters out of Greece, of some in right reason there be any comparable with fights and services there, which were commonly that wherewith knowledge investeth and crownfor a passage or a fort, or some walled town at the eth man's nature. We see the dignity of the most, he said, "It seemed to him, that he was commandment is according to the dignity of the advertised of the battle of the frogs and the mice, commanded: to have commandment over beasts, that the old tales went of." So certainly, if a man as herdsmen have, is a thing contemptible; to meditate much upon the universal frame of na- | have commandment over children, as schoolmasture, the earth with men upon it, (the divineness of souls except,) will not seem much other than an ant-hill, where as some ants carry corn, and some carry their young, and some go empty, and all to-and-fro a little heap of dust. It taketh away or mitigateth fear of death, or adverse fortune; which is one of the greatest impediments of virtue, and imperfections of manners. For if a man's mind be deeply seasoned with the consideration of the mortality and corruptible nature of things, he will easily concur with Epictetus, who went forth one day and saw a woman weeping for her pitcher of earth that was broken; and went forth the next day and saw a woman weeping for her "victorque volentes son that was dead: and thereupon said, "Heri Per populos dat jura, viamque affectat Olympo." vidi fragilem frangi, hodie vidi mortalen mori." But the commandment of knowledge is yet higher And therefore Virgil did excellently and profound- than the commandment over the will; for it is a ly couple the knowledge of causes and the con- commandment over the reason, belief, and underquest of all fears together, as "concomitantia :" standing of man, which is the highest part of the "Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, mind, and giveth law to the will itself: for there Quique metus omnes, et inexorabile fatum is no power on earth which setteth up a throne or Subjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari." chair of state in the spirits and souls of men, and It were too long to go over the particular reme- in their cogitations, imaginations, opinions, and dies which learning doth minister to all the dis- beliefs, but knowledge and learning. And thereeases of the mind; sometimes purging the ill-fore we see the detestable and extreme pleasure humours, sometimes opening the obstructions, that arch-heretics, and false prophets, and impos sometimes helping digestion, sometimes increas- tors are transported with, when they once find 1. ing appetite, sometimes healing the wounds and exulcerations thereof, and the like; and therefore I will conclude with that which hath "rationem totius," which is, that it disposeth the constitution of the mind not to be fixed or settled in the defects thereof, but still to be capable and suscep
ters have, is a matter of small honour; to have commandment over galley-slaves is a disparagement rather than an honour. Neither is the commandment of tyrants much better, over people which have put off the generosity of their minds: and therefore it was ever holden that honours in free monarchies and commonwealths had a sweetness more than in tyrannies; because the commandment extendeth more over the wills of men, and not only over their deeds and services. And therefore, when Virgil putteth himself forth to attribute to Augustus Cæsar the best of human honours, he doth it in these words:
themselves that they have a superiority in the faith and conscience of men; so great, that, it they have once tasted of it, it is seldom seen that any torture or persecution can make them relinquish or abandon it. But as this is that which the author of the "Revelation" calleth the depth
or profoundness" of Satan;" so by argument of contraries, the just and lawful sovereignty over men's understanding, by force of truth rightly interpreted, is that which approacheth nearest to the similitude of the divine rule.
of houses and families; to this buildings, foundations, and monuments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, and celebration, and in effect the strength of all other human desires. We see then how far the monuments of wit and As for fortune and advancement, the beneficence learning are more durable than the monuments of of learning is not so confined to give fortune only power or of the hands. For have not the verses to states and commonwealths, as it doth not like- of Homer continued twenty-five hundred years, wise give fortune to particular persons. For it or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter; was well noted long ago, that Homer hath given during which time, infinite palaces, temples, casmore men their livings, than either Sylla, or tles, eities, have been decayed and demolished? Cæsar, or Augustus ever did, notwithstanding | It is not possible to have the true pictures or statheir great largesses and donatives, and distribu- tues of Cyrus, Alexander, Cæsar; no nor of the tions of lands to so many legions: and no doubt it is hard to say, whether arms or learning have advanced greater numbers. And in case of sovereignty we see, that if arms or descent have carried away the kingdom, yet learning hath carried the priesthood, which ever hath been in some competition with empire.
kings or great personages of much later years; for the originals cannot last, and the copies cannot but lose of the life and truth. But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages: so that, if the invention of the ship was thought so noble, which carrieth riches and commodities from place to place, and consociateth the most remote regions in participation of their fruits, how much more are letters to be magnified, which, as ships, pass through the vast seas of time, and make ages so distant to participate of the wisdom, illuminations, and inventions, the one of the other? Nay further, we see, some of the philosophers which were least divine, and
Again, for the pleasure and delight of knowledge and learning, it far surpasseth all other in nature: for, shall the pleasures of the affections so exceed the senses, as much as the obtaining of desire or victory exceedeth a song or a dinner; and must not, of consequence, the pleasures of the intellect or understanding exceed the pleasures of the affections? We see in all other pleasures there is satiety, and after they be used, their verdure departeth; which showeth well they be but deceits of pleasure, and not pleasures; and that it was the novelty which pleased, and not the quality and therefore we see that volup-most immersed in the senses, and denied genetuous men turn friars, and ambitious princes turn melancholy. But of knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfaction and appetite are perpetually interchangeable; and therefore appeareth to be good in itself simply, without fallacy or accident. Neither is that pleasure of small efficacy and contentment to the mind of man, which the poet Lucretius describeth elegantly,
rally the immortality of the soul, yet came to this point, that whatsoever motions the spirit of man could act and perform without the organs of the body, they thought, might remain after death, which were only those of the understanding, and not of the affections; so immortal and incorruptible a thing did knowledge seem unto them to be. But we, that know by divine revelation, that not only the understanding but the affections purified, "Suave mari magno, turbantibus æquora ventis," &c. not only the spirit but the body changed, shall be "It is a view of delight," saith he, "to stand advanced to immortality, do disclaim these rudior walk upon the shore side, and to see a shipments of the senses. But it must be remembered tossed with tempest upon the sea; or to be in a fortified tower, and to see two battles join upon a plain; but it is pleasure incomparable, for the mind of man to be settled, landed and fortified in the certainty of truth; and from thence to descry and behold the errors, perturbations, labours, and wanderings up and down of other men."
both in this last point, and so it may likewise be needful in other places, that in probation of the dignity of knowledge or learning, I did in the beginning separate divine testimony from human, which method I have pursued, and so handled them both apart.
Nevertheless, I do not pretend, and I know it Lastly, leaving the vulgar arguments, that by will be impossible for me, by any pleading of learning man excelleth man in that wherein man mine, to reverse the judgment, either of Æsop's excelleth beasts; that by learning man ascendeth cock, that preferred the barleycorn before the gem; to the heavens and their motions, where in body or of Midas, that being chosen judge between he cannot come, and the like; let us conclude Apollo president of the Muses, and Pan god of the with the dignity and excellency of knowledge and flocks, judged for plenty; or of Paris, that judged learning in that whereunto man's nature doth for beauty and love against wisdom and power; nor most aspire, which is, immortality or continu- of Agrippina, " occidat matrem, modo imperet," ance for to this tendeth generation, and raising that preferred empire with conditions never so de
testable; or of Ulysses, "qui vetulam prætulit im- | things continue as they have been: but so will that mortalitati," being a figure of those which prefer also continue whereupon learning hath ever relied, custom and habit before all excellency; or of a and which faileth not: "Justificata.est sapientia number of the like popular judgments. For these a filiis suis.”
THE SECOND BOOK
PROFICIENCE AND ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,
DIVINE AND HUMAN.
TO THE KING.
for the increase and advancement of learning: wherein I purpose to speak actively without digressing or dilating.
Let this ground therefore be laid, that all works are overcome by amplitude of reward, by soundness of direction, and by the conjunction of labours. The first multiplieth endeavour, the second preventeth error, and the third supplieth the frailty of man: but the principal of these is direction: for “claudus in via antevertit cursorem extra viam ;" and Solomon excellently setteth it down, "If the iron be not sharp, it requireth more strength; but wisdom is that which prevaileth;" signifying that the invention or election of the mean is more effectual than any enforcement or accumulation of endeavours. This I am induced to speak, for that (not derogating from the noble intention of any that have been deservers towards the state of learning) I do observe, nevertheless, that their works and acts are rather matters of magnificence and memory, than of progression and proficience; and tend rather to augment the mass of learning in the multitude of learned men, than to rectify or raise the sciences themselves.
It might seem to have more convenience, though | undertaken and performed by kings and others it come often otherwise to pass, excellent king, that those which are fruitful in their generations, and have in themselves the foresight of immortality in their descendants, should likewise be more careful of the good estate of future times, unto which they know they must transmit and commend over their dearest pledges. Queen Elizabeth was a sojourner in the world, in respect of her unmarried life, and was a blessing to her own times: and yet so as the impression of her good government, besides her happy memory, is not without some effect which doth survive her. But to your majesty, whom God hath already blessed with so much royal issue, worthy to continue and represent you forever; and whose youthful and fruitful bed doth yet promise many of the like renovations; it is proper and agreeable to be conversant, not only in the transitory parts of good government, but in those acts also which are in their nature permanent and perpetual: amongst the which, if affection do not transport me, there is not any more worthy than the further endowment of the world with sound and fruitful knowledge. For why should a few received authors stand up like Hercules's columns, beyond which there should be no sailing or discovering, since we have so bright and benign a star as your majesty to conduct and prosper us? To return therefore where we left, it remaineth to consider of what kind those acts are, which have been
The works or acts of merit towards learning are conversant about three objects: the places of learning, the books of learning, and the persons of the learned. For as water, whether it be the dew of heaven, or the springs of the earth, doth
scatter and lose itself in the ground, except it be collected into some receptacle, where it may by union comfort and sustain itself, (and for that cause the industry of man hath made and framed spring-heads, conduits, cisterns, and pools, which men have accustomed likewise to beautify and adorn with accomplishments of magnificence and state, as well as of use and necessity,) so this excellent liquor of knowledge, whether it descend from divine inspiration, or spring from human sense, would soon perish and vanish to oblivion, if it were not preserved in books, traditions, conferences, and places appointed, as universities, colleges, and schools, for the receipt and comforting of the same.
The works which concern the seats and places of learning are four; foundations and buildings, endowments with revenues, endowments with franchises and privileges, institutions and ordinances for government; all tending to quietness and privateness of life, and discharge of cares and troubles; much like the stations which Virgil prescribeth for the hiving of bees:
"Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda,
The works touching books are two; first libraries, which are as the shrines where all the relics of the ancient saints, full of true virtue, and that without delusion or imposture, are preserved and reposed: secondly, new editions of authors, with more correct impressions, more faithful translations, more profitable glosses, more diligent annotations, and the like.
The works pertaining to the persons of learned men, besides the advancement and countenancing of them in general, are two: the reward and designation of readers in sciences already extant and invented; and the reward and designation of writers and inquirers concerning any parts of learning not sufficiently laboured and prosecuted. These are summarily the works and acts, wherein the merits of many excellent princes and other worthy personages have been conversant. As for any particular commemorations, I call to mind what Cicero said, when he gave general thanks; "Difficile non aliquem, ingratum, quenquam præterire." Let us rather, according to the Scriptures, look unto that part of the race which is before us, than look back to that which is already attained.
First, therefore, amongst so many great foundations of colleges in Europe, I find it strange that they are all dedicated to professions, and none left free to arts and sciences at large. For if men judge that learning should be referred to action, they judge well; but in this they fall into the error described in the ancient fable, in which the other parts of the body did suppose the stomach had been idle, because it neither performed the office of motion, as the limbs do, nor of sense, as VOL. I.-24
the head doth; but yet, notwithstanding, it is the stomach that digesteth and distributeth to all the rest: so if any man think philosophy and universality to be idle studies, he doth not consider that all professions are from thence served and supplied. And this I take to be a great cause that hath hindered the progression of learning, because these fundamental knowledges have been studied but in passage. For if you will have a tree bear more fruit than it hath used to do, it is not any thing you can do to the boughs, but it is the stirring of the earth, and putting new mould about the roots, that must work it. Neither is it to be forgotten, that this dedicating of foundations and donations to professory learning hath not only had a malign aspect and influence upon the growth of sciences, but hath also been prejudicial to states and governments. For hence it proceedeth that princes find a solitude in regard of able men to serve them in causes of state, because there is no education collegiate which is free; where such as were so disposed might give themselves to histories, modern languages, books of policy and civil discourse, and other the like enablements unto service of estate.
And because founders of colleges do plant, and founders of lectures do water, it followeth well in order to speak of the defect which is in public lectures; namely, in the smallness and meanness of the salary or reward which in most places is assigned unto them; whether they be lectures of arts, or of professions. For it is necessary to the progression of sciences that readers be of the most able and sufficient men; as those which are ordained for generating and propagating of sciences, and not for transitory use. This cannot be, except their condition and endowment be such as may content the ablest man to appropriate his whole labour, and continue his whole age in that function and attendance; and therefore must have a proportion answerable to that mediocrity or competency of advancement, which may be expected from a profession or the practice of a profession. So as, if you will have sciences flourish, you must observe David's military law, which was, "That those which stayed with the carriage should have equal part with those which were in the action;" else will the carriages be ill attended. So readers in sciences are indeed the guardians of the stores and provisions of sciences, whence men in active courses are furnished, and therefore ought to have equal entertainment with them; otherwise if the fathers in sciences be of the weakest sort, or be ill-maintained,
"Et patrum invalidi referent jejunia nati."
Another defect I note, wherein I shall need some alchymist to help me, who call upon men to sell their books, and to build furnaces; quitting and forsaking Minerva and the Muses as barren virgins, and relying upon Vulcan. But certain
versal, is almost made contemptible, and is degenerate into childish sophistry and ridiculous affectation. And further, the untimely learning of them hath drawn on, by consequence, the superficial and unprofitable teaching and writing of them, as fittest indeed to the capacity of children. Another is a lack I find in the exercises used in the universities, which do make too great a divorce between invention and memory; for their speeches are either premeditate, "in verbis conceptis," where nothing is left to invention; or merely extemporal, where little is left to memory: whereas in life and action there is least use of either of these, but rather of intermixtures of premeditation and invention, notes and memory; so as the exercise fitteth not the practice, nor the image the life: and it is ever a true rule in exercises, that they be framed as near as may be to the life of practice; for otherwise they do per
is, that unto the deep, fruitful, and operative study one should learn to weigh, or to measure, or to of many sciences, especially natural philosophy paint the wind,) doth work but this effect, that and physic, books be not the only instrumentals; the wisdom of those arts, which is great and uniwherein also the beneficence of men hath not been altogether wanting: for we see spheres, globes, astrolabes, maps, and the like, have been provided as appurtenances to astronomy and cosmography, as well as books: we see likewise, that some places instituted for physic have annexed the commodity of gardens for simples of all sorts, and do likewise command the use of dead bodies for anatomies. But these do respect but a few things. In general, there will hardly be any main proficience in the disclosing of nature, except there be some allowance for expenses about experiments; whether they may be experiments appertaining to Vulcanus or Dædalus, furnace or engine, or any other kind; and therefore as secretaries and spials of princes and states bring in bills for intelligence, so you must allow the spials and intelligencers of nature to bring in their bills; or else you shall be ill advertised. And if Alexander made such a liberal assigna-vert the motions and faculties of the mind, and tion to Aristotle of treasure for the allowance of not prepare them. The truth whereof is not obhunters, fowlers, fishers, and the like, that he scure, when scholars come to the practices of might compile an history of nature, much better professions, or other actions of civil life; which do they deserve it that travail in arts of nature. when they set into, this want is soon found by Another defect which I note, is an intermission themselves, and sooner by others. But this part, or neglect in those which are governors in uni- touching the amendment of the institutions and versities, of consultation; and in princes or su- orders of universities, I will conclude with the perior persons, of visitation: to enter into account clause of Caesar's letter to Oppius and Balbus, and consideration, whether the readings, exer- "Hoc quemadmodum fieri possit, nonnulla mihi cises, and other customs appertaining unto learn-in mentem veniunt, et multa reperiri possunt; de ing, anciently begun, and since continued, be well iis rebus rogo vos, ut cogitationem suscipiatis." instituted or not; and thereupon to ground an amendment or reformation in that which shall be found inconvenient. For it is one of your majesty's own most wise and princely maxims, "That in all usages and precedents, the times be considered wherein they first began; which, if they were weak or ignorant, it derogateth from the authority of the usage, and leaveth it for suspect." And therefore in as much as most of the usages and orders of the universities were derived from more obscure times, it is the more requisite they be re-examined. In this kind I will give an instance or two, for example sake, of things that are the most obvious and familiar: the one is a matter, which though it be ancient and general, yet I hold to be an error; which is, that scholars in universities come too soon and too unripe to logic and rhetoric, arts fitter for graduates than children and novices: for these two, rightly taken, are the gravest of sciences, being the art of arts; the one for judgment, the other for ornament: and they be the rules and directions how to set forth and dispose matter; and therefore for minds empty and unfraught with matter, and which have not gathered that which Cicero calleth "sylva" and "supellex," stuff and variety, to begin with those arts, (as if
Another defect, which I note, ascendeth a little higher than the preceding: for as the proficience of learning consisteth much in the orders and institutions of universities in the same states and kingdoms, so it would be yet more advanced, if there were more intelligence mutual between the universities of Europe than now there is. We see there be many orders and foundations, which though they be divided under several sovereignties and territories, yet they take themselves to have a kind of contract, fraternity, and correspondence one with the other; insomuch as they have provincials and generals. And surely, as nature createth brotherhood in families, and arts mechanical contract brotherhoods in commonal. ties, and the anointment of God superinduceth a brotherhood in kings and bishops; so in like manner there cannot but be a fraternity in learning and illumination, relating to that fraternity which is attributed to God, who is called the Father of illuminations or lights.
The last defect which I will note is, that there hath not been, or very rarely been, any public designation of writers or inquirers concerning such parts of knowledge as may appear not to have been already sufficiently laboured or undertaken; unto which point it is an inducement to