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lid that flew open for artillery, or generally his shop, but only work as he is bespoken, he
Our Saviour, speaking of divine knowledge,
3. This subject is more fully investigated under the Who taught the raven in a drought to throw head of rhetoric. pebbles into a hollow tree, where she espied
209 water, that the water might rise so as she might come to it? Who taught the bee to sail 1. It directs the mind to certain marks, as a mode of through such a vast sea of air, and to find the exciting it to the production of acquired knowway from a field in flower, a great way off,
1. Its uses are to furnish arguments to dispute probapounds is defective.
bly : 10 minister to our judgments: to conclude To conclude upon an enumeration of par
right, and to direct our inquiries. ticulars, without instance contradictory, is no
A faculty of wise interrogating is half a conclusion, but a conjecture ; for who can as
knowledge. For as Plato saith, “Whosoever
seeketh, knoweth that which he seeketh for in sure, in many subjects upon those particulars which appear of a side, that there are not
a general notion ; else how shall he know it
when he hath found it?"
2. Ars inveniendi adolescit cum inventis. 3. Allowing some axioms to be rightly in
In going of a way, we do not only gain duced, middle propositions cannot be
that part of the way which is passed, but we inferred from them in subject of nature gain the better sight of that part of the way by syllogism.
Judgment............... 210 judgment, notwithstanding all their cavilla- 1. It relates to the nature of proofs and demonstrations. tions, are very sufficient to certify and report 2. Different modes of judging: 1. By induction, truth, though not always immediately, yet by
which is referred to the Novum Organum. 2. comparison, by help of instrument, and by By syllogism. producing and urging such things as are too
been much laboured.
The nature of man doth extremely covet to
have somewhai in his understanding fixed upon the manner of collecting and concluding
and immoveable, and as a rest and support of upon the reports of the senses. 4. Bacon's intention to propound the art of inventing
the mind. And therefore as Aristotle endeaarts and sciences by two modes: 1st. Experi
voureth to prove, that in all motion there is entia literata. 2d. Interpretatio naturæ.!
some point quiescent; and as he elegantly expoundeth the ancient fable of Atlas, that
stood fixed, and bare INVENTION OF SPEECH OR ARGUMENT .. 209
the heaven from fall
ing, to be meant of the poles or axle-tree of 1. It is more properly memory with application than
heaven, whereupon the conversion is accominvention.
plished; so assuredly men have a desire to We do account it a chase, as well of deer in have an Atlas or axle-tree within, to keep them an enclosed park as in a forest at large.
from fluctuation. 2. Modes of producing this recollection : 1st. Prepa- 2. The art of judging by syllogism is the reduction of ration. 2d. Suggestion.
propositions to principles by an agreed middle
3. Syllogisms are direct, or ex absurdo. 1. It is the storing arguments on such things as are 4. Division of the art of judgment: 1st. The analytic frequently discussed.
art. 2. The doctrine of elenches, 2. It consists chiefly of diligence.
The Analytic Art. Aristotle, said the sophists, “ did as if one that professed the art of shoemaking should 5. It is for direction. not teach how to make a shoe, but only exhibit, 6. It sets down the true form of arguments, from which in a readiness, a number of shoes of all fash
any deviation leads to error. ions and sizes.” But yet a man might reply,
The Doctrine of Elenches..... 210 that if a shoemaker should have no shoes in 7. It is for caution to detect fallacies. 1 The Experientia Literata is contained in the Treatise De
In the more gross sorts of fallacies it hapAugmentis; and his Interpretatio Naturæ constitutes his peneth, as Seneca maketh the comparison well, Novum Organum.
as in juggling feats, which though we know
not how they are done, yet we know well it is
3. Sophism. not as it seemeth to be.
4. Congruity 8. Elenches are well laboured by Plato and Aristotle.
The rigour and curiosity in requiring the 9. The virtuous use of this knowledge is to redargue more severe proofs in some things, and chiefly
sophisms : the corrupt use for caption and con- the facility in contenting ourselves with the tradiction.
more remiss proofs in others, hath been The difference is good which was made be- amongst the greutest causes of delriment and tween orators and sophisters that the one is as hinderance to knowledge. the greyhound, which hath his advantage in 21. This is deficient. the race, and the other as the hare, which hath
212 her advantage in the turn. 10. Elenches extend to divers parts of knowledge.
Retaining knowledge is by writing or memory. 11. The references touching the common adjuncts of
Writing essences is an elench. 12. Seducements that work by the strength of im- The nature of the character is referred to grammar.
The disposition of our knowledge depends upon compression are elenches....
211 13. Elenches of idols.
Because it is but a counterfeit thing in
knowledges to be forward and pregnant, extaineth most to rectify judgment: the force
cept a man be deep and full, I hold the entry whereof is such, as it doth not dazzle or snare
of common-places, to be a matter of great use
and essence in studying, as that which asthe understanding in some particulars, but doth more generally and inwardly infect and
sureth “copia" of invention, and contracteth corrupt the state thereof. For the mind of The mode of common-placing is defective.
judgment to a strength.
Memory...... ... 212
I make no more estimate of repeating a 14. The mind is more affected by affirmatives than
great number of names or words upon once negatives.
hearing, or the pouring forth of a number of As was well answered by Diagoras to him
verses or rhymes ex tempore, or the making of that showed him in Neptune's temple the a satirical simile of every thing, or the turngreater number of pictures of such as had es- ing of every thing to a jest, or the fulsifying caped shipwreck and had paid their vows to or contradicting of every thing by cavil, or the Neptune, saying, “ Advise now, you that think like, (whereof in the faculties of the mind it folly to invocate Neptune in tempest:” there is great "copia," and such as by device “ Yea, but,” said Diagoras, “where are they and practice may be exalted to an extreme depainted that are drowned ?".
gree of wonder,) than I do of the tricks of 15. The mind supposes a greater equality then exists.? tumblers, funambuloes, baladines; the one
The mathematicians cannot satisfy them- being the same in the mind that the other is in selves, except they reduce the motions of the
the body, matters of strangeness without celestial bodies to perfect circles, rejecting worthiness. spiral lines, and labouring to be discharged Art of memory is built upon prenotion and emblem. of eccentrics.
Prenotion is a limitation of an indefinite seeking by 16 The mind is prejudiced by the false appearances directing us to seek in a narrow compass.
imposed by every man's own individual nature Emblem reduces conceits intellectual to images senand custom"..
sible. (mynbot) (esanpe) If a child were continued in a grot or cave
212 under the earth until maturity of age, and came suddenly abroad, he would have strange It is the transferring our knowledge to others. and absurd imaginations. So in like manner,
Division of the subject. although our persons live in the view of hea- 1. The organ of speech. ven, yet our spirits are included in the caves
2. The method of speech.
3. The ornament of speech
Whatever is capable of sufficient differences and per17. The mind is misled by words.
ception by the sense is competent to express 18. The cautions against these idols are defective. 211
thought. :9. The application of the different kinds of proofs to
Different Signs of Thought. different subjects. 20. Different kinds of demonstrations.
1. Having similitude with the notion. 1. Immediate consent.
2. Not having similitude or words.
Gestures are as transitory hieroglyphics.
See note (U) at the end of this Treatise.
TIE ORGAN OF SPEECH.
THE METHOD OF SPEECH.
Periander, being consulted with how to , Second Method. A concealed or revealed style. 214 preserve a tyranny newly usurped, bid the Third Method. Method or aphorisms. messenger attend and report what he saw him 1. Delivery by aphorisms is a test of the do; and went into his garden and topped all
knowledge of the writer. the highest flowers.
2. Methodical delivery is better to procure conHypotheses respecting the origin of words.... 213
sent than to generate action.
3. Aphorisms invite to augment knowledge. Of Grammar.
Fourth Method. Delivery by assertions with their Man still striveth to reintegrate himself in proofs or interrogations. those benedictions, from which by his fault he 4. Delivery by interrogations should be used hath been deprived; and as he hath striven
only to remove stray prejudices. against the first general curse by the invention If it be immoderately followed, is as pre. of all other arts, so hath he sought to come judicial to the proceeding of learning, as it forth of the second general curse, which was is to the proceeding of an army to go about the confusion of tongues, by the art of gram- to besiege every litīle fort or hold. For if the
whereof the use in a mother tongue is field be kept, and the sum of the enterprise small, in a foreign tongue more ; but most in pursued, those smaller things will come in of such foreign tongues as have ceased to be vul- themselves. gar longues, and are turned only to learned Fifth Method. Accommodation of delivery according tongues.
to the matter which is to be treated. The accidents of words, as measure, sound, &c. is an Sixth Method. Delivery according to the anticipation appendix to grammar.
in the minds of the hearers. There are various sorts of ciphers.
1. Those whose conceits are seated in poAs there be many of great account in their
pular opinions need only to dispute countries and provinces, which, when they
or to prove. come up to the seat of the estate, ure but of
2. Those whose conceits are beyond pomean rank and scarcely regarded; so these
pular opinions have a double labour. arts, being here placed with the principal and
1st. That they may be conceited. supreme sciences, seem petty things; yet to
2d. That they may prove. such as have chosen them to spend their la
3. Science not consonant to presupposi. bours and studies in them, they seem great
tions must bring in aid similitudes. matters.
Method considers the disposition of the work, and the limitation of propositions ....
It belongeth to architecture to consider not It is deficient.
only the whole frame of a work, but the seveImpatience of method.
ral beams and columns. Different sorts of methods.
Observations upon the limits of propositions. The use of grammar is small in mother tongues—is of the method of imposture. greater in foreign living tongues; but greatest
A mass of words of all arts, to give men in dead languages..
countenance, that those which use the terms Duties of grammar are two.
might be thought to understand the art ; 1. Popular.
which collections are much like a fripper's or 2. Philosophical.
broker's shop, that hath ends of every thing Popular grammar is for the learning and speaking lan- but nothing of worth. guages.
215 Philosophical grammar examines the power of words
as they are the footsteps of reason...... 213 1. Eloquence is in reality inferior to wisdom; but in First Method. Magistral which teaches, or initiative popular opinions superior to it. which insinuates..
It is said by God to Moses, when he disabled He that delivereth knowledge, desireth to de- himself for want of this fuculty, Aaron shall liver it in such form as may be best believed, be thy speaker, and thou shali be to him as and not as may be best examined; and he
God. that receiveth knowledge, desireth rather pre- 2. The deficiences in eloquence are rather in some sent satisfaction, than expectant inquiry; collections than in the art itself. and so rather not to doubt, than not to err. 3. The office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagina
Knowledge that is delivered as a thread to tion for the better moving of the will. be spun on, ought to be delivered and inti- 4. The disturbers of reason are fallacies of arguments: mated, it were possible, in the same method assiduity of impression, and violence of paswherein it was invented ; and so is it possible sion. of knowledge induced.
5. The counteractors of these disturbers are logic, moIt is in knowledge as it is in plants ; if you rality and rhetoric. mean to use the plant, it is no matter for the 6. Speech is more conversant in adorning what is roots ; but if you mean to remove it to grow, good than in colouring evil. then it is more assured to rest upon roots than “Virtue, if she could be seen, would more slips : so the delivery of knowledges, as it is great love and affection ;" so seeing that she now used, is as of fair bodies of trees without cannot be showed to the sense by corporul shape, the roots ; good for the carpenter, but not for the next degree is to show her to the imaginathe planter. But if you will have sciences tion in lively representation. grow, it is less matter for the shaft or body of 7. The affections not being pliant to reason, rhetoric the tree, so you look well to the taking up of is necessary. the roots.
8. Difference between logic and rhetoric.
ILLUSTRATIVE OF SPEECH........
9. Deficiences of rhetoric ...
216 part or member of a greater body; whereof 1. Want of a collection of the popular signs the latter is in degree the greater and the wor
of good and evil; of the defects of thier, because it tendeth to the conservation of Aristotle's collection.
a more general form. Therefore we see the 2. Want of a collection of commonplaces. 217 iron in particular sympathy moveth to the 10. Appendices to the art of delivery.
loadstone ; but yet if it exceed a certain quan1. The art critical.
tity, it forsaketh the affection to the loadstone, 2. The art of instruction.
and like a good patriot moveth to the earth,
which is the region and country of massy The Art Critical.....
bodies. Rules of criticism.
5. Public is more worthy than private good.
Pompeius Magnus, when being in commisThe Art of Instruction ......... 217
sion of purveyance for a famine at Rome,
and being dissuaded with great vehemency 1. It contains that difference of tradition which is
and instance by his friends about him, that proper for youth.
he should not hazard himself to sea in an ex2. Different considerations.
tremity of weather, he said only to them, 1. The timing and seasoning of knowledges.
“ Necesse est ut eam, non ut vivam."
The Degrees of Good.
Christianity disclosed. heavy shoes.
6. An active is to be preferred to contemplative life. 3. The application of learning according to
Pythagoras being asked what he was, anthe mind to be instructed.
swered, “That if Hiero were ever at the OlymThere is no defect in the faculties intellectual, but seemeth to have a proper cure con
pian games, he knew the manner, that some tained in some studies : as, for example, if a
came to try their fortune for the prizes, and
some came as merchants to utter their commochild be bird-witted, that is, hath not the fa
dities, and some came to make good cheer and culty of attention, the mathematics giveth a
meet their friends, and some came to look on ; remedy thereunto; for in them, if the wit be
and that he was one of them that came to look caught away but a moment, one is to begin
on.” But men must know, that in this thea4. The continuance and intermission of ex
tre of man's life it is reserved only for God
and angels to be lookers on. ercises
For contemplation which should be finished As the wronging or cherishing of seeds or
in itself, without casting beams upon socidy, young plants is that that is most important to their thriving: so the culture and manu- 7. The ascendency of public good terminates many
assuredly divinity knoweth it not. rance of minds in youth hath such a forcible,
disputes of the ancient philosophers..... 220 though unseen, operation, as hardly any
1. It decides the controversies between Zeno length of time or contention of labour can
and Socrates, and the Cyrenaics and countervail it afterwards.
Epicureans, whether felicity consisted
in virtue or pleasure, or serenity of 218 mind ...
220 1. Writers on this subject have described virtues with
2. It censures the philosophy of Epictetus, out pointing out the mode of attaining them.
which placed felicity in things within Those which have written seem to me to have
our power. done as if a man, that professeth to teach to
Gonsalvo said to his soldiers, showing them write, did only exhibit fair copies of alphabets and letters joined, without giving any
Naples, and protesting, “He had rather die
one foot forwards, than to have his life seprecepts or directions for the carriage of the
cured for long by one foot of retreat." hand and framing of the letters.
The conscience of good intentions, howsoThese Georgics of the mind, concerning the
ever succeeding, is a more continual joy to nahusbandry and tillage thereof, are no less
ture, than all the provision which can be made worthy than the heroical descriptions of vir
for security and repose. tue, duty, and felicity.
3. It censures the abuse of philosophy in 2. Division of moral philosophy
Epictetus's time, in converting it into 1. The image of good.
an occupation or profession...... 220 2. The culture of the mind.
This philosophy introduces such a health of mind, as was that of Herodicus in body,
who did nothing all his life, but intend his 1. Describes the nature of good.
health. 2. Division.
* Sustine,' and not · Abstine,' was the com1. The kinds of good.
OF THE WILL....
THE IMAGE OF GOOD.
mendation of Diogenes. 2. The degrees of good.
4. It censures the hasty retiring from busi3 The ancients were defective in not examining the springs of good and evil.
The resolution of men truly moral ought to 4. Good is: 1. Private. 2. Public.
be such as the same Gonsalvo said the honour There is formed in every thing a double na- of a soldier should be, “e telâ crassiore," and ture of good : the one, as every thing is a total not so fine as that every thing should catch in or substantive in itself; the other, as it is a it and endanger it.
221 | 3. Duties are: 1st. Common to all men. 2d. Peculiar 1. It is: Ist. Active, 2d. Passive.
to professions or particular pursuits...... 222
4. The duties common to all men has been excellently Active Private Good.
laboured. 2. Active is preferable to passive private good. 5. The duties respecting particular professions have, of Vita sine proposito languida et vaga est.
necessity, been investigated diffusedly. 3. Active private good has not an identity with the 6. A knowledge of the impostures of professions is
incident to the knowledge of professional dugood of society...
ties, and is deficient. Passive Private Good.
As the fable goeth of the basilisk, that if he 4. It is: 1st. Conversative. 2d. Perfective.
see you first, you die for it; but if you see
him first, he dieth : so is it with deceits and Good Perfective ..... ............ 221
evil arts; which, if they be first espied, they 5. Good perfective is of a higher nature than good
lose their life; but if they prevent, they enconversative.
danger. Man's approach or assumption to divine or
We are much beholden to Machiavel and angelical nature is the perfection of his form.
others, that write what men do, and not what 6. The imitation of perfection is the tempest of life. they ought to do. For it is not possible to
As those which are sick, and find no remedy, join serpentine wisdom with the columbine do tumble up and down and change place, as innocency, except men know exactly all the if by a remove local they could obtain a remove conditions of the serpent ; his baseness and internal; so is it with men in ambition, when, going upon his belly, his volubility and lubrifailing of the means to exalt their nature, city, his envy and sting, and the rest ; that is, they are in a perpetual estuation to exalt their all forms and natures of evil: for without place.
this, virtue lieth open and unfenced. Good Conversative...... 221
7. To this subject appertains the duties of husband
and wife, parent and child, friendship, grati7. It consists in the practice of that which is agree
tude, &c. able to our nature.
8. This knowledge concerning duties considers com8. It is the most simple, but lowest good.
parative duties. 9. Good conversative consists in the steadiness and intensity of the enjoyment.
We see in the proceeding of Lucius Brutus
against his own sons, which was so much ex10. Doubts whether felicity results most from the steadiness or intensity,
tolled; yet what was said ?
“Infelix, utcunque ferent ea fata minores." The sophist saying that Socrates's felicity was the felicity of a block or stone ; and So- Men must pursue the things which are just crates saying that the sophist's felicity was
in present, and leave the future to the Divine the felicity of one that had the itch, who did Providence. nothing but itch and scratch.
223 As we see, upon the lute or like instrument, a ground, though it be sweet and have show 1. Inquiry must be made not only of the nature of of many changes, yet breaketh not the hand virtue, but how it may be attained. to such strange and hard stops and passages,
An exhibition of the nature of good without as a set song or voluntary; much after the considering the culture of the mind, seemeth same manner was the diversity between a
to be no better than a fair image, or statue, philosophical and a civil life. And therefore
which is beautiful to contemplate, but is withmen are to imitate the wisdom of jewellers ;
out life and motion. who, if there be a grain, or a cloud, or an ice 2. Morality should be the handmaid of divinity. which may be ground forth without taking 3. We ought to cast up our account, what is in our
power and what not....
The husbandman cannot command, neither they will not meddle with it: so ought men
the nature of the earth, nor the seasons of the so to procure serenity as they destroy not mag
weather ; no more can the physician the connanimity.
stitution of the patient, nor the variety of acci
dents: so in the culture and cure of the mind 222
of man, two things are without our command; 1. It is duty, and relates to a mind well framed towards points of nature, and points of fortune ; for others.
to the basis of the one, and the conditions of 2. Error in confusing this science with politics.
the other, our work is limited and tied. As in architecture the direction of framing Of Men's Natures, or Inherent Dispositions. the posts, beams, and other parts of building, 4. The foundation of the culture of the mind is the is not the same with the manner of joining
knowledge of its nature. them and erecting the building; and in me
There are minds which are proportioned to chanicals, the direction how to frame an instrument or engine is not the same with the
great matters, and others to small. manner of setting it on work and employing
There are minds proportioned to intend it, so the doctrine of conjugation of men in
many matters, and others to few. society differeth from that of their conformity
Some minds are proportioned to that which thereunto.
may be despatched at once, or within a short
return of time; others to that which begins 1 Q. Is not this the difference between the love of excelling
afar off, and is to be won with length of purand the love of excellence ?
suit. Vol. 1.-20
THE CULTURE OF THE MIND......
PUBLIC GOOD ......