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191 5. Division of poesy. 1. A mixture of selected pieces of history.
1. Common—the same as in history, 2. Cosmography.
2. Proper division. Ecclesiastical History............191
1. Narrative or heroical.
2. Representative or dramatical. 1. It has a common division analogous to the division
3. Allusive or parabolical.
Parabolical Poesy. 3. Relations of synods. 2. Proper division ....
1. It was never common in ancient times. ..191
2. Its uses. 1. History of the church.
1. To elucidate truths. 2. History of prophecy.
2. To concert truths.2 3. History of providence.
3. Of the interpretation of mysteries, paraboliHistory of the Church. 1. It describes the state of the church in persecution, In poesy there is no deficience ; for, being as in remove, and in peace.
a plant that cometh of the lust of the earth, The ark in the deluge: the ark in the wil
without a formal seed, it hath sprung up and derness : and the ark in the temple.
spread abroad more than any other kind: but 2. It is more wanting in sincerity than in quantity.
to ascribe unto it that which is due, for the History of Prophecy.
expressing of affections, passions, corruptions,
and customs, we are beholding to poets more 1. It is the history of the prophecy and of the accom
than to the philosopher's works ; and for wit plishment
and eloquence, not much less than to orators' 2. Every prophecy should be sorted with the event.
harangues. But it is not good to stay too 3. It is deficient.
long in the theatre. Let us now pass on to History of Providence.
the judicial place or palace of the mind, which 1. It is the history of the correspondence between
we are to approach and view with more reve
ence and attention. God's revealed will and his secret will. 2. It is not deficient.
193 1. Division. Appendices to History.
1. From the light of nature. 1. Different sorts. 1. Orations.
1. Divine, or natural religion. 2. Epistles.
2. Natural, the knowledge of nature. 3. Apophthegms.
3. Human, the knowledge of man. 2. Relative advantages of orations, epistles, and apoph
2. From divine inspiration or revealed religion. thegms.
PRIMITIVE OR GENERAL PHILOSOPHY. 3. They are not deficient.
It is a receptacle for all such profitable observa. Poesy..
192 tions and axioms as fall not within the compass of any 1. Division.
of the special parts of philosophy or sciences, but are 1. As it refers to words.
more common and of a higher stage. 2. As it refers to matter.
Is not the precept of a musician, to fall from 2. Poetry as it refers to words is but a character of a discord or harsh accord upon a concord, or style, and is not pertinent to this place.
sweet accord, alike true in affection? Is not 3. Poetry as it refers to the matter.
the trope of music, to avoid or slide from the 1. It is fiction, and relates to the imagination.
close or cadence, common with the trope of 2. It is in words restrained: in matter un- rhetoric of deceiving expectation? Is not licensed.
the delight of the quavering upon a stop in The imagination not being tied to the laws music the same with the playing of light of matter, may at pleasure join that which upon the water? nuture hath severed, and sever that which na
"Splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus." ture hath joined; and so make unlawful Because the distributions and partitions of matches and divorces of things.
knowledge are not like several lines that meet in Pictoribus atque poetis,
one angle, and so touch but in a point ; but are Quidlibet audendi, semper fuit æqua potestas.
like branches of a tree, that meet in a stem, which 4. Its use is to satisfy the mind in these points where hath a dimension and quantity of entireness nature does not satisfy it.
and continuance, before it come to discontinue It was ever thought to have some partici
and break itself into arms and boughs; therepation of divineness, because it doth raise and fore it is good, before we enter into the former erect the mind, by submitting the shows of
distribution, to erect and constitute one unithings to the desires of the mind; whereas
versal science, by the name of “ Philosophia reason doth buckle and bow the mind into the Prima," primitive or summary philosophy, nature of things.!
as the main and common way, before we come Poesy joined with music hath had access where the ways part and divide themselves. and estimation in rude times and barbarous
This science is as a common parent, like regions, where other learning stood excluded. unto Berecynthia, which had so much heavenly
issue. 1 Sir Philip Sidney says, poesy, the sweet food of sweetly
« Omnes cæliclas, omnes super alta tenentes." uttered knowledge, lifts the mind from the dungeon of the body to the enjoying its own divine essence.
* This is much expanded in the Treatise De Augmentis.
... 194 2. Plato discovered that forms were the true 1. It is
objects of knowledge. That knowledge or rudiment of knowledge Plato beheld all things as from a cliff. concerning God, which may be obtained by %. By keeping a watchful and severe eye upon action the contemplation of his creatures.
and use, forms may be discovered ...... 197 2. The proper limits of this knowledge are that it suf- 3. The forms of nature in her more simple existficeth to convince atheism....
ence are first to be determined. ......... 197 3. It is not safe from contemplations of nature to judge 4. Physic makes inquiry of the same natures as upon questions of faith
195 metaphysic, but only as to efficient causes. 197 Men and gods were not able to draw Ju- 5. This part of metaphysic is defective. piter down to the earth; but contrariwise, 6. The use of this part of metaphysic. Jupiter was able to draw them up to heaven.
1. To abridge the infinity of individual ex4. This is not deficient, but not restrained within pro
perience. per limits.
That knowledge is worthiest, which is 5. Of angels.
charged with least multiplicity; which ap; It is no more unlawful to inquire the na- peareth to be Metaphysic; as that which ture of evil spirits, than to inquire the force considereth the simple forms or differences of of poisons in nature, or the nature of sin and things, which are few in number, and the device in morality.
grees and co-ordinations whereof make all 6. Inquiries respecting angels are not deficient.
tating the production of effects.
Of Final Causes............ 198 2. Operative or production of effects .... 195 1. The inquiry of final causes is not deficient, but has
If then, it be true that Democritus said, been misplaced. “That the truth of nature lieth hid in certain 1. The investigating final causes in physics deep mines and caves :" and if it be true like
has intercepted the true inquiry of real wise that the alchymists do so much inculcate,
physical causes. that Vulcan is a second nature, and imitateth
To say that the hairs of the eyelids are for that dexterously and compendiously, which a quickset and fence about the sight; or that nature worketh by ambages and length of the firmness of the skins and hides of living time, it were good to divide natural philosophy creatures is to defend them from the extremiinto the mine and the furnace; and to make ties of heat or cold ; or that the bones are for two professions or occupations of natural phi- the columns or beams, whereupon the frames losophers, some to be pioneers and some smiths ; of the bodies of living creatures are built ; or
some to dig, and some to refine and hammer. that the leaves of trees are for protecting of 2. Connection between cause and effect .. ..... 195
the fruit ; or that the clouds are for the watering of the earth; or that the solidness of
the earth is for the station and mansion of 1. Division.
living creatures, and the like, is well inquired 1. Physic.
and collected in Metaphysic; but in Phy2. Metaphysic.
sic_they are impertinent. Nay, they are 2. Of the impropriety of using new words for new indeed but remoras and hinderances to stay ideas.
and slug the ship from further sailing ; and 3. Of the meaning of the words physic and meta- have brought this to pass, that the search of physic.....
the physical causes hath been neglected, and PHYSIC.
passed in silence.
2. Of the errors in ancient philosophy from 1. Physic contemplates the efficient cause what is inherent in matter and transitory......
mixing formal and final causes.. 198
196 2. Physic is situate between natural history and meta
Not because those final causes are not true, physic.....
and worthy to be inquired, being kept within
... 196 3. Division of physic.
their own province ; but because their excur
sions into the limits of physical causes hath 1. As it respects nature united ......... 196 1. The doctrine of the contexture or 2. There is no repugnance between formal and final
bred a vastness and solitude in that track. configuration of things.
198 2. The doctrine concerning the princi- 3. These opinions confirm divine providence,
ples of things.
Mathematic .............. 198 4. It is not deficienti ...
1. Reason for classing it as a part of metaphysic.
2. From the nature of the mind to wander in geneFormal Causes.
ralities, mathematics have more laboured than
any other form. It inquires into formal and final causes.....
..... 196 3. There is no difference in mathematics....... 198 1. Inquiry whether forms are discoverable.
4. Division of mathematics : 1st, pure; 2d, mixed. 1. Their discovery is of the utmost importance. They are ill discoverers that think there is
Pure Mathematics. no land, when they can see nothing but sea.
1. It is that science which handles quantity deter1 In the Treatise De Augmentis there is in this place, a
minate, merely severed from axioms of natural considerable addition.
philosophy, and is geometry or arithmetic. 199 Vol. 1.-19
SPECULATIVE NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
OPERATIVE NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
2. Pure mathematics cure many intellectual defects. “Radius directus,” which is referred to nature,
If the wit be too dull, they sharpen it ; if “Radius refractus,” which is referred to God;
HUMAN PHILOSOPHY, OR THE KNOWLEDGE OF
1. The knowledge of men deserves more accurate in
vestigation, because it touches us more nearly. Mixed Mathematics ..... ... 199 2. The knowledge of man is to man the end of all 1. Its subject is some axioms or points of natural phi- knowledge: but of nature herself a portion
losophy, and considers quantity determined, as only.
cepted rather for lines and veins, than for 2. They will increase as nature is more disclosed.
sections and separations; that the continuance
and entireness of knowledge be preserved.
3. Division of human philosophy. 1. It is the production of effects.
1. Man as an individual. 2. Division.
2. Man as a member of society.
MAN AS AN INDIVIDUAL.
1. Division. 3. Of the analogy between this division and the divi
1. The undivided state of man. sion of speculative natural philosophy... 199
1. Discovery. 4. The knowledge of physical causes will lead to new
2. Impression. particulars.
2. The divided state of man. Magical
Discovery. 1. Natural magic is defective...
1. The art of ascertaining the state of the mind from the 2 Appendices hereto are,
appearance of the body, as physiognomy, &c. Ist. A calendar of inventions.
2. The art of ascertaining the state of the body from 2d. A calendar of discoveries which may
the appearance of the mind, as exposition of lead to other inventions..... 199
dreams, &c. The invention of the mariner's needle, which
201 giveth the direction, is of no less benefit for 1. The discovery of the mind from the appearance of navigation than the invention of the sails,
the body. which give the motion.
2. Aristotle has laboured physiognomy as far as relates 3 Conclusion
of natural philosophy, speculative and to the countenance at rest; but not when in operative.
motion. The voice of nature will consent, whether 3. The lineaments of the body disclose the general inthe voice of man do or not. And as Alexan- clinations of the mind: the motions its present der Borgia was wont to say of the expedition
dispositions. uch for Naples, that they came with
A number of subtle persons, whose eyes do chalk in their hands to mark up their
lodgings, dwell upon the faces and fashions of men, do and not with weapons to fight : 80 I like bet
well know the advantage of this observation, ter that entry of truth which cometh peace
as being most part of their ability.
and mind upon each other. Of Doubts.
2. Of the action of the body on the mind.
1. This has been inquired as a part of medicine. 1. Division of doubts.
2. The doctrine that the body acts upon the 1. Particular,
mind does not derogate from the soul's 2. Total.
dignity. 2. Particular doubts.
The infant in the mother's womb is com 1. Uses of registering doubts.
patible with the mother and yet separable, 2. Of the evil of continuing doubts.
and the most absolute monarch is sometimes That use of wit and knowledge is to be allowed, which laboureth to make doubtful 3. The action of the mind on the body.
led by his servants and yet without subjection. things certain, and not those which labour to make certain things doubtful.
1. Physicians have ever considered “ acciden
tia animi," as of great importance. Of a Calendar of Popular Errors.
2. The power of imagination as well to help
as to hurt is a subject neglected, but deGeneral doubts, or those differences of opinions, touch
serving inquiry. ing the principles of nature which have caused
It cannot be concluded that because there be the diversities of sects....
200 Thus have we now dealt with two of the
pestilent airs, able suddenly to kill a man in three beams of man's knowledge, that is
See note (P) at the end of this Treatise.
of the F
health, therefore there should be sovereign airs,
4. A neglect to mitigate the pains of death. able suddenly to cure a man in sickness.
5. A neglect of acknowledged medi3. There should be an inquiry of the seats and
204 domiciles which the several faculties of
6. A neglect of artificial mineral baths. the mind occupy in the body and the
7. The prescripts in use are too compen. organs thereof.
dious to attain their end.
It were a strange speech, which, spoken, or The divided State of Man....... 202
spoken oft, should reclaim a man from a vice Division.
to which he were by nature subject: it is 1. The body.
order, pursuit, sequence, and interchange of 2. The mind.
application, which is mighty in nature. OF THE BODY.
1. Cleanliness was ever esteemed to proceed from a 1. Health.
due reverence to God, to society, and to our2. Beauty.
selves. 3. Strength.
2. Artificial decoration is neither fine enough to de4. Pleasure.
ceive, nor handsome to please, nor wholesome Health.
to use. 1. Man's body is of all things most susceptible of re
205 medy, but this remedy most susceptible of error. | 1. It means any ability of body to which the body of 2. No body is so variously compounded as the body of man.
man may be brought.
1. Strength. distempered.
2. Swiftness. The poets did well to conjoin music and
2. Patience. medicine in Apollo : because the office of me
1. Hardness against want. dicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's
2. Endurance of pain. body and to reduce it to harmony.
1. General receptacle for acts of great bodily endu2. The variety in the composition of man's
body has made the art of medicine 2. The philosophy of athletics is not much investimore conjectural; and so given scope
gated. to error and imposture.
3. The mediocrity of athletics is for use; the excess The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his
205 recting his course aright, and not by the for- Their chief deficience is in laws to repress them. tune of the voyage. But the physician, and
It hath been well observed, that the arts perhaps the politician, hath no particular acts demonstrative of his ability, but is judged
which flourish in times while virtue is in most by the event.
growth, are military; and while virtue is in
state, are liberal ; and while virtue is in de3. The quack is often prized before the regular physi
clination, are voluptuary.? cian, 4. Physicians often prefer other pursuits to their own
1 In the Treatise De Augmentis, this passage is thus al. professions.
tered: You shall have of them antiquities, poets,
Adulterate decoration by painting and cerusse, is humanists, statesmen, merchants, divines, and
well worthy of the imperfections which attend it; being in every of these better seen than in their pro- neither fine enough to deceive, nor handsome to please, fession; and no doubt
this ground, that nor wholesome to use. they find that mediocrity and excellency in
We read of Jezabel that she painted her face: but their art maketh no difference in profit or re
there is no such report of Esther or Judith.
' In Bacon's Essay on Vicissitude of Things, he says, putation towards their fortune ; for the weak
In the youth of a state, arms do flourish ; in the ness of patients, and sweetness of life, and
middle age of a state, learning ; and then both of them nature of hope, maketh men depend upon together for a time: in the declining age of a state, physicians with all their defects.
mechanical arts and merchandise. 5. Diseases may be subdued.
Lloyd, in his life of Sir Edward Howard, says, almost in the If we will excite and awake our observa- same words,
In the youth of this state, as of all others, arms did tion, we shall see in familiar instances what
flourish; in the middle state of it, learning; and in a predominant faculty the subtilty of spirit
the declining (as covetousness and theft attend old age) hath over the variety of matter or form.
mechanic arts and merchandise. ú. Medicine has been more laboured than advanced.
Q. 1. Is this observation founded on fact? 7. Deficiencies of medicine.
Q. 2. Supposing it to be founded on fact; what are the 1. Want of medical reports.
causes ?-Does commerce lower the character ? Is the ser2. Defective anatomies.
vice of mammon at variance with the service of God? 3. Hasty conclusions that diseases are in
Q. 3. Supposing the mechanical arts and merchandise
hitherto to have accompanied the decline of states, may they curable.
not both be traced to excess of civilization, instead of being Sylla and the triumvirs never proscribed supposed to flow from each other? so many men to die, as they do by their igno
Q. 4. Supposing the opinion to be founded on fact; wi rant edicts.
not the evil now be prevented by the art of printing?
2. Of the erroneous opinions upon fascination. 1. Division : Ist. As to the origin of the mind. 24. 3. Inquiry how to fortify the imagination. As to its faculties.
4. The only defect in this subject is as to not distin
guishing its extent. The Origin of the Mind......... 205 1. To this appertains the consideration of the origin THE USE AND OBJECT OF THE FACULTIES OF MAN 206 of the soul and its faculties.
1. Division of this knowledge: Ist. Relating to the 2. This subject may be more diligently inquired than understanding. 2d. Relating to the will.
it hath been in philosophy: but it is referable 2. The understanding produces decrees ; the will acto divinity.
tions. 3. Appendices to this knowledge: 1. Divination. 2. This Janus of imagination hath differing Fascination.
faces ; for the face towards reason hath the Divination
print of truth, but the face towards action 1. Division.
hath the print of good, which nevertheless 51. Rational.
“Quales decet esse sororum."
It was well said by Aristotle, “That the 22. By Influxion.
mind hath over the body that commandment Artificial Divination.
which the lord hath over a bondmun; but that 2. Artificial is a prediction by argument, concluding
reason hath over the imagination that com
mandment which a magistrate hath over a upon signs and tokens. 3. Division: Ist. Rational. 2d. Superstitious.
free citizen;" who may come also to rule in
is coupled with a derivation of causes.
Poesy is rather a pleasure or play of im
agination, than a work or duty thereof.
of the Understanding.
The politician hath his predictions ; wits the least delightful; and seems but a net “O urbem venalem, et cito perituram, si of subtlety and spinosity; but it is the key of emptorem invenerit !" which stayed not long all other arts. to be performed, in Sylla first, and after in As knowledge is " pabulum animi ;” so in Cæsar.
the nature of men's appetite to this food, 5. Superstitious artificial divination is when there is a
most men are of the taste and stomach of the mere casual coincidence of the event and pre- Israelites in the desert, that would fain have diction.
returned “ ad ollas carnium." Such as were the heathen observations upon 2. Division .....
207 the inspection of sacrifices, the flights of birds,
1. Invention. the swarming of bees ; and such as was the 2. Judgment. Chaldean astrology, and the like.
3. Memory. 6. Artificial divination is not proper to this place, but
4. Tradition. should be referred to the sciences to which it
207 appertains. Natural Divinations.
1. Of arts and sciences. 1. It is a prediction from the internal nature of the
2. Of arguments. soul.
2. The art of inventing arts and sciences is deficient. 2. Division: ist. Native. 2d. By influxion.
This is such a deficience as if, in the mak3. Native divination is grounded on the supposition
ing of an inventory touching the state of a that the mind, when withdrawn and collected
defunct, it should be set down, that there is no into itself, and not diffused into the organs of
ready money. For as money will fetch all the body, hath, from the natural power of its
other commodities, so this knowledge is that own essence, some prenotion of future things:
which should purchase all the rest. And like as in sleep, ecstacies, propinquity of death, as the West Indies had never been discovered, &c. .....
if the use of the mariner's needle had not 4. It is furthered: by abstinence.
been first discovered, though the one be vast 5. Divination by influxion is grounded upon the sup- regions, and the other a small motion ; so it position that the mind, as a mirror, takes illu
cannot be found strange if sciences be no mination from the foreknowledge of God and
further discovered, if the art itself of inven. spirits. 6. Divination of influxion' is furthered by abstinence. 3. Proofs that the art of inventing arts and sciences is
tion and discovery hath been passed over. 7. Native divination is accompanied by repose and
deficient. quiet : divination by influxion is fervent and 1. Their logic does not pretend to invent sciimpatient.
ences or axioms...
207 Fascination .... ... 206
Men are rather beholden to a wild goat for 1. It is the power of imagination upon other bodies surgery, or to a nightingale for music, or to than the body of the imaginant.
the ibis for some part of physie, or to the poš "Query, Whether divination by influxion is not descrip . Here, in the Treatise De Augmentis, is an extensive ad. tive of the feeling which influences the benevolent and or. dition upon Voluntary Motion-Sense and Sensibility-Perderly class of society called Quakers ?
ception and Sense—The Form of Light