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operation to discredit learning, even with vul- truth and unwearied travail of wit, had joined gar capacities, when they see learned men's variety and universality of reading and conworks like the first letter of a patent or limned templation, they had proved excellent lights, book ; which though it hath large flourishes, to the great advancement of all learning and yet it is but a letter? It seems to me that knowledge; but as they are, they are great unPygmalion's frenzy is a good emblem or por- dertakers indeed, and fierce with dark keeping. traiture of this vanity, for words are but the
Fantastical Learning. images of matter; and except they have life of reason and invention, to fall in love with 1. It is falsehood, and is the foulest of all the distemthem is all one as to fall in love with a pic
pers of Icarning. ture.
2. Different sorts, and their connection. 2. Origin of the prevalence of delicate learning in late
1. Imposture. times ......
2. Credulity. 3. Delicate learning exists more or less in all times 170
1. In matters of fact. 4. Attention to style ought not to be neglected .. 170
1. In ecclesiastical history.
2. In natural history. But yet, notwithstanding, it is a thing not
2. In arts and sciences.
1. In arts and sciences.
Surely to alchymy this right is due, that it
may be compared to the husbandman whereof tible, that as Hercules, when he saw the image
Æsop makes the fable ; that, when he died, of Adonis, Venus's minion, in u temple, said
told his sons, that he had left unto them gold in disdain, “Nil sacri es ;" so there is none
buried under ground in his vineyard; and of Hercules's followers in learning, that is, the
they digged over all the ground, and gold they more severe and laborious sort of inquirers into
found none ; but by reason of their stirring truth, but will despise those delicacies and af
and digging the mould about the roots of their fectations, as indeed capable of no divineness.
vines, they had a great vintage the year follow
ing: so assuredly the search and stir to make Contentious Learning.
gold hath brought to light a great number of 1. It is vanity of matter, useless knowledge, and is good and fruitful inventions and experiments, worse than vanity of words ....
170 as well for the disclosing of nature, as for the As many substances in nature, which are use of man's life. solid, do putrefy and corrupt into worms: 80
2. Authors. it is the property of good and sound know
Authors should be as consuls to advise, not
to discover truth.
1. The extreme affecting either of antiquity or no2. Strictness of positions.
172 3. Contentious learning reigned chiefly amongst the
" State super vias antiquas, et videte quæschoolmen..
nam sit via recta et bona, et ambulate in ea." The wit and mind of man, if it work upon
Antiquitus sæculi juventus mundi.” These matter, which is the contemplation of the crea
times are the ancient times, when the world is tures of God, worketh according to the stuff,
ancient, and not those which we account anand iš limited thereby; but if it work upon
cient “ordine retrogrado,” by a computation itself, as the spider worketh his web, then it is 2. A suspicion that there is nothing new.
backward from ourselves.2 endless, and bring forth indeed cobwebs of, 3. A conceit that of former opinions or sects, after barning, admirable for the fineness of thread and work, but of no substance or profit.
variety and examination, the best hath prevailed....
173 171 4. Unprofitable curiosity is of two sorts 1. Fruitless speculation.
The truth is, that time seemeth to be of the 2. Erroneous modes of investigation.
nature of a river or stream, which carrieth Were it not better for a man in a fair room
down to us that which is light and blown up,
and sinketh and drowneth that which is to set up one great light, or branching candlestick of lights, than to go about with a small
weighty and solid. watch candle into every corner?
4. The over early and peremptory reduction of know
ledge into arts and methods The generality of the schoolmen are for a
... 173 while good and proportionable ; but then, when
As young men, when they knit and shape you descend into their distinctions and deci
perfectly, do seldom grow to a further stature ; sions, instead of a fruitful womb, for the use
so knowledge, while it is in aphorisms and oband benefit of man's life, they end in monstrous
servations, it is in growth ; but when it once altercations and barking questions.
is comprehended in exact methods, it may, per, 5. It is to be lamented that the learning of the school
chance be further polished and illustrated, and men was so confined ...
accommodated for use and practice ; but it inthose schoolmen, to their great thirst of
creaseth no more in bulk and substance.3
3 See note (C) at the end of this Treatise. 1 See note (B) at the end of this Treatiso.
a See note (D) at the end of this Treatise.
PECCANT HUMOURS OF LEARNING.
5. The abandoning universality.....
173 2. After the creation. No perfect discovery can be made upon a
1. Before the flood. flat or a level: neither is it possible to discover
2. After the food. the more remote and deeper parts of any
1. Before Christianity .... 175 science, if you stand but upon
the level of the In the law of the leprosy, it is said, " If the same science, and ascend not to a higher whiteness have overspread the flesh, the patient science.
may pass abroad for clean; but if there be any 6. The having too much reverence for the human whole flesh remaining, he is to be shut up for mind ...
173 unclean;" one of them noteth a principle of Upon these intellectualists, which are, not- nature, that putrefaction is more contagious withstanding, commonly, taken for the most before maturity than after : and another sublime and divine philosophers, Heraclitus noteth a position of moral philosophy, that gave a just censure, saying, “ Men sought men abandoned to vice do not so much corrupt truth in their own little worlds, and not in manners, as those that are half good and half the great and common world.”
evil. 7. The tainting doctrines with favourite opinions,
2. After Christianity. 8. Impatience of doubt, and haste to assertion.2 2. Human proofs ...
..... 177 9. The delivering knowledge too peremptorily.3 1. Learning relieves man's afflictions which arise from 10. Being content to work on the labours of others
..... 177 instead of inventing...
Founders and uniters of states and cities, 11. The mistaking the furthest end of knowledge. 173 lawgivers, extirpers of tyrants, fathers of the
Men have entered into a desire of learning, people, and other eminent persons in civil and knowledge, sometimes upon a natural merit, were honoured but with the titles of curiosity, and inquisitive appetite ; sometimes worthies or demi-gods, such as were Hercules, to entertain their minds with variety and de- Theseus, Minos, Romulus, and the like : on light; sometimes for ornament and reputation; the other side, such as were inventors and auand sometimes to enable them to victory of wit thors of new arts, endowments, and commoand contradiction; and most times for lucre dities towards man's life, were ever consecrated and profession; and seldom sincerely to give amongst the gods themselves : as were Ceres, a true account of their gift of reason, to the Bacchus, Mercurius, Apollo, and others : and benefit and use of man: as if there were justly; for the merit of the former is confined sought in knowledge a couch, whereupon to within the circle of an age or a nation, and is rest a searching and restless spirit ; or a ter- like fruitful showers, which though they be rasse for a wandering and variable mind to profitable and good, yet serve but for that seawalk up and down with a fair prospect ; or a son, and for a latitude of ground where they tower of state, for a proud mind to raise itself fall; but the other is indeed like the benefits upon ; or a fort or commanding ground, for of heaven, which are permanent and universal. strife and contention; or a shop, for profit or The former, again, is mixed with strife and sale ; and not a rich storehouse, for the glory perturbation , but the latter hath the true cha. of the Creator, and the relief of man's estate. racter of divine presence, coming “in aura
leni,” without noise or agitation. ADVANTAGES OF LEARNING....... 174
2. Learning represses the inconveniences which grow I have no purpose to enter into a laudative
from man to man
177 of learning, or to make a hymn to the muses ;
In Orpheus's theatre, all beasts and birds (though I am of opinion that it is long since
assembled ; and forgetting their several appe. their rites were duly celebrated :) but my
tites, some of prey, some of game, some of is, without varnish or amplification, justly to quarrel, stood all sociably together listening to weigh the dignity of knowledge in the balance
the airs and accords of the harp; the sound with other things, to take the true value there
whereof no sooner ceased, or was drowned by of by testimonies and arguments divine and some louder noise, but every beast returned to human.
his own nature : wherein is aptly described Different proofs of the advantages of knowledge.
the nature and condition of men, who are full 1. Divine proofs ........
of savage and unreclaimed desires of profit, of 1. Before the creation.5
lust, of revenge; which as long as they give · See note (E) at the end of this Treatise.
ear to precepts, to laws, to religion, sweetly . See note (F) at the end of this Treatise.
touched with eloquence and persuasion of books, 3 See note (G) at the end of this Treatise.
of sermons, of harangues, so long is society and • See note (H) at the end of this Treatise.
peace maintained; but if these instruments be • The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, be- silent, or sedition and tumult make them not fore his works of old.
audible, all things dissolve into anarchy and I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever
confusion. the earth was.
When there were no depths I was brought forth; when 3. Proof of this position, by showing the conjunction there were no fountains abounding with water.
between learning in the prince and happiness Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I
in the people ....
177 brought forth.
But for a tablet, or picture of smaller While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world.
not pass his commandment: when he appointed the founda. When he prepared the heavens I was there: when he set tions of the earth: a compass upon the face of the depth :
Then I was by him, as one brought up with him: and I was When he established the clouds above: when he strengthen- daily his delight, rejoicing always before him. ed the fountains of the deep:
PROVERBS, chap. viii. When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should . See note (I) at the end of this Treatise,
volume, (not presuming to speak of your ma- 4. It mitigates the fear of death or adverse for-
Virgil did excellently and profoundly couple
“Felir qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, think, to find for her a parallel amongst
Quique metus omnes, et inexorabile fatum This lady was endued with learning Subjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari.” in her sex singular, and rare even amongst masculine princes; whether we speak of learn. 5. It disposes the mind not to be fixed in its deing, language, or of science, modern or ancient, fects...
182 divinity or humanity: and unto the very last
The unlearned man knows not what it is to year of her life she was accustomed to appoint descend into himself, or to call himself to acset hours for reading, scarcely any young stu- count ; nor the pleasure of that “suavissima dent in a university more daily, or
vita, indies sentire se fieri meliorem." duly. As for her government, I assure my
Certain it is that "veritas” and “ bonitas" self, I shall not exceed, if I do affirm that this differ but as the seal and the print: for truth part of the island never had forty-five years prints goodness ; and they be the clouds of er. of better times ; and yet not through the calm- ror which descend in the storms of passions ness of the season, but through the wisdom of and perturbations. her regimen. For if there be considered of 5. Learning is power.2 the one side, the truth of religion established, 6. Learning advances fortune ..
183 the constant peace and security, the good ad- 7. The pleasure of knowledge is the greatest of pleaministration of justice, the temperate use of
183 the prerogative, not slackened, nor much strain
We see in all other pleasures there is satiety, ed, the flourishing state of learning, sortable and after they be used, their verdure departeth; to so excellent a patroness, the convenient estate which showeih well they be but deceits of pleaof wealth and means, both of crown and sub- sure, and not pleasures ; and that it was the ject, the habit of obedience, and the moderation novelty which pleased, and not the quality : of discontents, and there be considered, on the and therefore we see that voluptuous men turn other side, the differences of religion, the trou- friars, and ambitious princes turn melancholy. bles of neighbour countries, the ambition of But of knowledge there is no satiety, but Spain, and opposition of Rome, and then, that satisfaction and appetite are perpetually in. she was solitary and of herself : these things, terchangeable. I say, considered, as I could not have chosen an It is a view of delight, to stand or walk instance so recent and so proper, 80, I suppose, upon the shore side, and to see a ship tossed I could not have chosen one more remarkable with tempest upon the sea ; or to be in a foror eminent to the purpose now in hand, which tified tower, and to see two battles join upon a is concerning the conjunction of learning in plain ; but it is a pleasure incomparable, for
the prince with felicity in the people.'.. 178 the mind of man to be settled, landed, and for3. There is a concurrence between learning and mi- tified in the certainty of truth; and from litary virtue
181 thence to descry and behold the errors, perturWhen Cæsar, after war declared, did possess bations, labours, and wanderings up and down himself of the city of Rome ; at which time of other men. entering into the inner treasury to take the 8. Learning insures immortality..
183 money there accumulated, Metellus, being tri
If the invention of the ship was thought 80 bune, forbade him: whereto Cæsar said, “That noble, which carrieth riches and commodities if he did not desist, he would lay him dead in from place to place, and consociateth the most the place.” And presently taking himself up, remote regions in participation of their fruits, he added, “ Adolescens, durius est mihi hoc di- how much more are letters to be magnified, cere quum facere.” Young man, it is harder which, as ships, pass through the vast seas of for me to speak than to do it. A speech com- time, and make ages so distant to participate pounded of the greatest terror and greatest of the wisdom, illuminations, and inventions, clemency that could proceed out of the mouth the one of the other? of man.
Nevertheless, I do not pretend, and I know 4. Learning improves private virtues.... 181 it will be impossible for me, by any pleading
1. It takes away the barbarism of men's minds. of mine, to reverse the judgment, either of Scilicet ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes,
Æsop's cock, that preferred the burleycorn beEmollit mores, nec sinit esse feros."
fore the gem; or of Midas, that being chosen
judge between Apollo president of the Muses, 2. It takes away levity, temerity, and insolency. and Pan god of the flocks, judged for plenty : 3. It takes away vain admiration.......... 182 or of Paris, that judged for beauty and love
If a man meditate much upon the universal against wisdom and power ; nor of Agrippiframe of nature, the earth with men upon it, na, “occidat matrem, modo imperet,” that prethe divineness of souls excepted, will not seem ferred empire with conditions never so detesta. much other than an ant hill, where as some ble ; or of Ulyssus, " qui vetulam prætulit ants carry corn, and some carry their young, immortalitati," being a figure of those which and some go empty, and all to and fro a little prefer custom and habit before all excellency ; heap of dust.
or of a number of the like popular judgments. · This beautiful passage is omitted in the Treatise De Augmentis.
See note (L) at the end of this Treatise.
For these things continue as they have been : 1. For readers in sciences extant.
.185 If men judge that learning should be referred to action, they judge well; but in this
they fall into the error described in the ancient BOOK II.
fable, in which the other parts of the body did
suppose the stomach had been idle, because it WHAT HAS BEEN DONE
neither performed the office of motion, as the limbs do; nor of sense, as the head doth ; but
yet, notwithstanding, it is the stomach' that THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,
digesteth and distributeth to all the rest : 80 if any man think philosophy and universality
to be idle studies, he doth not consider that all WHAT IS OMITTED.
professions are from thence served and supplied. And this I take to be a great cause tnat hath hindered the progression of learn
ing, because these fundamental knowledges 1. Dedication to the king..
have been studied in passage. For if you 2. Preliminary considerations.
will have a tree bear more fruit than it hath 1. Modes by which difficulties are overcome.
used to do, it is not any thing you can do to 1. Amplitude of reward to encourage ex- the boughs, but it is the stirring of the earth, ertion.
and putting new mould about the roots, that 2. Soundness of direction to prevent con- must work it. fusion.
It is injurious to government that there is 3. Conjunction of labours to supply the
not any collegiate education for statesmen 185 frailty of man.
Second defect. The salaries of lecturers are too 2. The objects about which the acts of merit small
.185 towards learning are conversant. ... 184
If you will have sciences flourish, you must 1. The places of learning.
observe David's military law, which was, 2. The books of learning.
“ That those which stayed with the carriage 3. The persons of the learned
should have equal part with those which were
in the action." I. THE PLACES OF LEARNING.
Third defect. There are not sufficient funds for As water, whether it be the dew of heaven, providing models, instruments, experiments, or the springs of the earth, doth scatter and &c.'..
186 lose itself in the ground, except it be collected Fourth defect. There is a neglect in the goverinto some receptacle, where it may by union nors of consultation, and, in superiors of visicomfort and sustain itself, (and for that cause tation as to the propriety of continuing or the industry of man hath made and framed amending the established courses of study 186 springheads, "conduits, cisterns, and pools, 1. Scholars study logic and rhetoric 2
186 which men have accustomed likewise to beau
For minds empty and unfraught with tify and adorn with accomplishments of, matter, and which have not gathered that magnificence and state, as well as of use and which Cicero calleth “sylva” and “supellex," necessity,) so this excellent liquor of know
stuff and variety, to begin with those arts, ledge, whether it descend from divine inspira- (as if one should learn to weigh, or to menttion, or spring from human sense, would soon
sure, or to paint the wind,) doth work but perish and vanish to oblivion, if it were not this effect, that the wisdom of those arts, preserved in books, traditions, conferences, and which is great and universal, is almost made places appointed, as universities, colleges, and
contemptible, and is degenerate into childish schools, for the receipt and comforting of the sophistry and ridiculous affectation.2
2. There is too great a divorce between invention and 1. Works relating to places of learning.
186 1, Foundations and buildings.
Fifth defect. There is a want of mutual intelli2. Endowments with revenues.
gence between different universities ..... 186 3. Endowments with franchises.
Sixth defect. There is a want of proper rewards 4. Institutions for government.
for inquiries in new and unlaboured parts of learning
186 II. THE BOOKS OF LEARNING...... 185
The opinion of plenty is amongst the causes 1. Libraries.
of want, and the great quantity of books They are as the shrines where all the relics maketh a show rather of superfluity than of the ancient saints, full of true virtue, and lack : which surcharge, nevertheless, is not to that without delusion or imposture, are pre- be remedied by making no more books, but by served and reposed.
making more good books, which, as the ser. 2. New editions of authors.
pent of Moses, might devour the serpents of
the enchanters III. THE PERSONS OF THE LEARNED.., ... 185 1. Learned men should be countenanced.
1 See note (M) at the end of this Treatise. 2. There should be rewards.
9 See note (N) at the end of this Treatise.
I will now attempt to make a general and As a man's disposition is never well known faithful perambulation of learning, with an till he be crossed, nor Proteus ever changed inquiry what parts thereof lie fresh and shapes till he was straitened and held fast ; waste.....
so the passages and variations of nature can
not appear so fully in the liberty of nature, DIVISION OF LEARNING, HUMAN AND DIVINE. 187
as in the trials and vexations of art. 1. History relating to the memory. 2. Poetry relating to the imagination.
.... 189 3. Philosophy relating to the reason.
2. Perfect Histories. Division.
3. Antiquities. 1. Natural.
of pictures or images, we see, some are un2. Civil.
finished, some are perfect, and some are de3. Ecclesiastical.
1. Memorials are preparations for history.
2. Different sorts; commentaries, registers. memorials of particular sects and sciences. 3. The uses of literary history.
Antiquities. Natural History'...... 187 1. They are the remnant of history. Division.
They are as planks saved from the weluge 1. Of creatures.
of time. 2. Of marvels.
2. Epitomes should be abolished. 3. Of arts.
They are as the moths of history that have
fretted and corroded the sound bodies of many History of Creatures.
189 History of Marvels.
1. Chronicles. 1. It is the history of nature wandering.
2. Biography. 2. It is deficient.
3. Relations. 3. Its uses. 1. To correct the partiality of axioms.
It is, as it were, hounding Nature in her | 1. It is the most useful of all history.
190 to the same place again. 4 Different marvels,
One of the poets feigned that at the end of
the thread or web of every man's life there History of Arts ?...... .... 188 was a little medal containing the person's 1 It is in general deficient.
name, and that Time waited upon the shears ; 2 It is considered not elevating to inquire into mat- and as soon as the thread was cut, caught the ters mechanical .
188 medals, and carried them to the river of Lethe ; The truth is, they be not the highest in- and about the bank there were many birds stances that give the securest information ; as flying up and down, that would get the memay be well expressed in the tale so common dals and carry them in their beak a little of the philosopher, that while he gazed up
while, and then let them fall into the river ; wards to the stars fell into the water ; for if
only there were a few swans, which if they got
189 Aristotle noteth well, “ that the nature of 2. The heathen antiquities are deficient
189 every thing is best seen in its smallest portions." 3. Bacon recommends a history of England from the And for that cause he inquireth the nature of union of the roses to the union of the king. a commonwealth, first in a family, and the doms
190 simple conjugations of man and wife, parent and child, master and servant, which are in
Relations. every cottage.
The turning of iron touched with the load-1. They excel in verity and sincerity .......... 189 stone towards the north, was found out in 2. It is to be lamented that there is not more diligence
190 needles of iron, not in bars of iron.
The collection of such relations might be as The arrangement of this part is altered in the Treatise
a nursery garden, whereby to plant a fair De Augmentis.
and stately garden, when time should serve. See note (0) at the end of this Treatise.
3. Annals and journals.