it not being considered what Aristotle himself did, pass, hold much more of imagination and belief than upon whom the philosophy that now is chiefly de- of sense and demonstration. But to use the poet's pendeth, who came with a professed contradiction language, men ought to have remembered, that to all the world, and did put all his opinions upon although Ixion of a cloud in the likeness of Juno his own authority and argument, and never so much begat Centaurs and Chimæras, yet Jupiter also of as nameth an author but to confute and reprove him; the true Juno begat Vulcan and Hebe. Neither and yet his success well fulfilled the observation is it just to deny credit to the greatness of the acts of Him that said, “If a man come in his own of Alexander, because the like or more strange name, him will you receive.” Men think, like have been feigned of an Amadis or an Arthur, or wise, that if they should give themselves to the other fabulous worthies. But though this in true liberty of invention and travail of inquiry, that reason should be, and that men ought not to make they shall light again upon some conceits and a confusion of unbelief; yet he saw well it could contemplations which have been formerly offered not otherwise be in event, but that experience of to the world, and have been put down by the bet-untruth had made access to truth more difficult, and ter, which have prevailed and brought them to that the ignominy of vanity had abated all greatoblivion; not seeing, that howsoever the property ness of mind. and breeding of knowledges is in great and excel- 10. He thought also, there was found in the lent wits, yet the estimation and price of them mind of man an affection naturally bred and fortiis in the multitude, or in the inclinations of princes fied, and furthered by discourse and doctrine, which and great persons meanly learned. So as those did pervert the true proceeding towards active and knowledges are like to be received and honoured, operative knowledge. This was a false estimawhich have their foundation in the subtilty or tion, that it should be as a diminution to the mind finest trial of common sense, or such as fill the of man to be much conversant in experiences and imagination, and not such knowledge as is digged particulars, subject to sense, and bound in matter, out of the hard mine of history and experience, and which are laborious to search, ignoble to mediand falleth out to be in some points as adverse to tate, harsh to deliver, illiberal to practise, infinite as common sense, or popular reason, as religion, or is supposed in number, and noways accommodate more. Which kind of knowledge, except it be to the glory of arts. This opinion or state of mind delivered with strange advantages of eloquence received much credit and strength by the school and power, may be likely to appear and disclose of Plato, who thinking that particulars rather rea little to the world, and straight to vanish and vived the notions, or excited the faculties of the shut again. So that time seemeth to be of the na-mind, than merely informed : and having mingled ture of a river or flood, that bringeth down to us his philosophy with superstition, which never that which is light and blown up, and sinketh and favoureth the sense, extolleth too much the underdrowneth that which is solid and grave. So he standing of man in the inward light thereof. And saw well, that both in the state of religion, and in again, Aristotle's school, which giveth the due to the administration of learning, and in common the sense in assertion, denieth it in practice much opinion, there were many and continual stops and more than that of Plato. For we see the schooltraverses to the course of invention.

men, Aristotle's successors, which were utterly 9. He thought also, that the invention of works ignorant of history, rested only upon agitation of and further possibility was prejudiced in a more wit; whereas Plato giveth good example of inspecial manner than that of speculative truth; for quiry by induction and view of particulars: though besides the impediments common to both, it hath in such a wandering manner as is of no force or by itself been notably hurt and discredited by the fruit. So that he saw well, that the supposition of vain promises and pretences of alchemy, magic, the sufficiency of man's mind hath lost the means astrology, and such other arts, which, as they now thereof.







Charta suggestionis, sive memoria fixa.

The sunbeams hot to sense.

The sun noted to be hotter when it shineth forth The moonbeams not hot, but rather conceived to between clouds, than when the sky is open and have a quality of cold, for that the greatest colds serene. are noted to be about the full, and the greatest The middle region of the air hath manifest heats about the change. Query.

effects of cold, notwithstanding locally it be nearer The beams of the stars have no sensible heat by the sun, commonly imputed to antiperistasis, themselves; but are conceived to have an augmen- assuming that the beams of the sun are hot either tative heat of the sunbeams by the instance follow- by approach or by reflection, and that falleth in ing. The same climate arctic and antarctic are the middle term between both; or if, as some observed to differ in cold, viz. that the antarctic is conceive, it be only by reflection, then the cold of the more cold, and it is manifest the antarctic hemi- that region resteth chiefly upon distance. The sphere is thinner planted with stars.

instances showing the cold of that region, are the The heats observed to be greater in July than in snows which descend, the hails which descend, June ; at which time the sun is nearest the great- and the snows and extreme colds which are upon est fixed stars, viz. Cor Leonis, Cauda Leonis, high mountains. Spica, Virginis, Sirius, Canicula.

But Qu. of such mountains as adjoin to sandy The conjunction of any two of the three highest vales, and not to fruitful vales, which minister planets noted to cause great heats.

no vapours: or of mountains above the region Comets conceived by some to be as well causes of vapours, as is reported of Olympus, where any as effects of heat, much more the stars.

inscription upon the ashes of the altar remained The sunbeams have greater heat when they are untouched of wind or dew. And note, it is also more perpendicular than when they are more reported that men carry up sponges with vinegar oblique: as appeareth in difference of regions, and to thicken their breath, the air growing too fine the difference of the times of summer and winter for respiration, which seemeth not to stand with in the same region; and chiefly in the difference of coldness. the hours of mid-day, mornings, evenings, in the The clouds make a mitigation of the heat of the same day.

So doth the interposition of any body, which The heats more extreme in July and August than we term shades : but yet the nights in summer are in May or June, commonly imputed to the stay and many times as hot to the feeling of men's bodies as continuance of heat.

the days are within doors, where the beams of the The heats more extreme under the tropics than sun actually beat not. under the line : commonly imputed to the stay and There is no other nature of heat known from the continuance of heat, because the sun there doth as celestial bodies or from the air, but that which it were double a cape.

cometh by the sunbeams. For in the countries The heats more about three or four of clock than near the pole, we see the extreme colds end in at noon; commonly imputed to the stay and conti- the summer nionths, as in the voyage of Nova nuance of heat.

Zembla, where they could not disengage their


barks from the ice, no, not in July, and met with The heat or beams of the sun doth take away great mountains of ice, some floating, some fixed, the smell of flowers, specially such as are of a at that time of the year, being the heart of summer. milder odour.

The caves under the earth noted to be warmer The beams of the sun do disclose summer in winter than in summer, and so the waters that flowers, as the pimpernel, marigold, and almost spring from within the earth.

all flowers else, for they close commonly morning Great quantity of sulphur, and sometimes natu- and evening, or in overcast weather, and open in rally burning after the manner of Ætna, in Iceland; the brightness of the sun : which is but imputed the like written of Groenland, and divers others the to dryness and moisture, which doth make the cold countries. *

beams heavy or erect, and ndt to any other proThe trees in the cold countries are such as are priety in the sunbearas; so they report noi oniy fuller of rosin, pitch, tar, which are matters apt a closing, but a bending or inclining in the for fire, and the woods themselves more combus-“ heliotropium" and "calendula.? Qu. tible than those in much hotter countries; as, for The sunbeams do ripen all fruits, and addeth example, fir, pineapple, juniper. Qu. Whether to them a sweetness or fatness; and yet some their trees of the same kind that ours are, as oak sultry hot days overcast, are noted to ripen more and ash, bear not, in the more cold countries, a than bright days. wood more brittle and ready to take fire than the The sunbeams are thought to mend distilled same kinds with us?

waters, the glasses being well-stopped, and to The sunbeams heat manifestly by reflection, as make them more virtuous and fragrant. in countries pent in with hills, upon walls or The sunbeams do turn wine into vinegar; but buildings, upon pavements, upon gravel more than Qu. whether they would not sweeten verjuice ? earth, upon arable more than grass, upon rivers The sunbeams do pall any wine or beer that is if they be not very open, &c.

set in them. The uniting or collection of the sunbeams mul- The sunbeams do take away the lustre of any tiplieth heat, as in burning-glasses, which are silks or arras. made thinner in the middle than on the sides, as There is almost no mine but lieth some depth I take it, contrary to spectacles; and the opera- in the earth ; gold is conceived to lie highest, and tion of them is, as I remember, first to place them in the hottest countries; yet Thracia and Hunbetween the sun and the body to be fired, and then gary are cold, and the hills of Scotland have to draw them upward towards the sun, which it is yielded gold, but in small grains or quantity. true maketh the angle of the cone sharper. But then If you set a root of a tree too deep in the I take it if the glass had been first placed at the ground, that root will perish, and the stock will put same distance to which it is after drawn, it would forth a new root nearer the superficies of the earth. not have had that force, and yet that had been all Some trees and plants prosper best in the shade; one to the sharpness of the angle. Qu.

as the bays, strawberries, some wood-flowers. So in that the sun's beams are hotter perpendi- Almost all flies love the sunbeams, so do cularly than obliquely, it may be imputed to the snakes; toads and worms the contrary. union of the beams, which in case of perpendicu- The sunbeams tanneth the skin of man; and in larity reflect into the very same lines with the some places turneth it to black. direct; and the further from perpendicularity the The sunbeams are hardly endured by many, more obtuse the angle, and the greater distance but cause headache, faintness, and with many between the direct beam and the reflected beam. they cause rheums; yet to aged men they are

The sunbeams raise vapours out of the earth, comfortable. and when they withdraw they fall back in dews. The sun causes pestilence, which with us rages

The sunbeams do many times scatter the mists about autumn: but it is reported in Barbary they which are in the mornings.

break about June, and rage most in the winter. The sunbeams cause the divers returns of the The heat of the sun, and of fire, and living herbs, plants, and fruits of the earth; for we see creatures, agree in some things which pertain to in lemon-trees and the like, that there is coming vivification; as the back of a chimney will set on at once fruit ripe, fruit unripe, and blossoms; forward an apricot-tree as well as the sun; the which may show that the plant worketh to put fire will raise a dead butterfly as well as the sun; forth continually, were it not for the variations of and so will the heat of a living creature. The the excesses and recesses of the sun, which call heat of the sun in sand will hatch an egg. Qu. forth, and put back.

The heat of the sun in the hottest countries The excessive heat of the sun doth wither and nothing so violent as that of fire, no not scarcely destroy vegetables, as well as the cold doth nip so hot to the sense as that of a living creature. and blast them.

The sun, a fountain of light as well as heat.

The other celestial bodies manifest in light, ana * No doubt but infinite power the heat of the sun in cold countries, though it be not to the analogy of men and fruits, I the moon, but obscure in heat.

onstat” whether all borrowed, as in yet “non




The southern and western wind with us is the Cold breaketh glasses, if they be close stopped, warmest, thereof the one bloweth from the sun, in frost, when the liquor freezeth within. the other from the sea : the northern and eastern Cold in extreme maketh metals, that are dry the more cold. Qu. Whether in the coast of Flo- and brittle, cleft and crack,“ Æraque dissiliunt;" rida, or at Brasil, the east wind be not the warm- so of pots of earth and glass. est, and the west the coldest; and so beyond the Cold maketh bones of living creatures more antarctic tropic, the southern wind the coldest. fragile.

The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders. Cold maketh living creatures to swell in the

"The sea and air ambierit, appeareth to be hotter joints, and the blood to clot, and turn more blue. than that aland; for in the northern voyages

Bitter frosts do make all drinks to taste more iwu or idree degrees farther at the open sea, they dead and flat. find less ice than two or three degrees more south

Cold maketh the arteries and flesh more asper near land; but Qu. for that may be by reason of and rough. the shores and shallows.

Cold causes rheums and distillations by comThe snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts, pressing the brain, and laxes by like reason. yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the Cold increases appetite in the stomach, and sea, and such as trees will bend from. Qu. willingness to stir.

The streams or clouds of brightness which ap- Cold maketh the fire to scald and sparkle. pear in the firmament, being such through which Paracelsus reporteth, that if a glass of wine be the stars may be seen, and shoot not, but rest, set upon a terras in a bitter frost, it will leave are signs of heat.

some liquor unfrozen in the centre of the glass, The pillars of light, which are so upright, and which excelleth “spiritus vini” drawn by fire. do commonly shoot and vary, are signs of cold; Cold in Muscovy, and the like countries, but both these are signs of drought.

causes those parts which are voidest of blood, as The air when it is moved is to the sense colder; the nose, the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify as in winds, fannings, ventilabra.

and rot; especially if you come suddenly to fire, The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, &c. after you have been in the air abroad, they are warm; and those stuffs to the feeling warm. sure to moulder and dissolve. They use for re

The water to man's body seemeth colder than medy, as is said, washing in snow water. the air; and so in summer, in swimming it seem- If a man come out of a bitter cold suddenly to eth at the first going in; and yet after one hath the fire, he is ready to swoon, or be overcome. been in a while, at the coming forth again, the air So contrariwise at Nova Zembla, when they seemeth colder than the water.

opened their door at times to go forth, he that The snow more cold to the sense than water, opened the door was in danger to be overcome. and the ice than snow; and they have in Italy The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Nor. means to keep snow and ice for the cooling of


abundant. their drinks. Qu. Whether it be so in froth in re- The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs spect of the liquor ?


great abundance. Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going In Nova Zembla they found no beasts but bears in.

and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen The frost dew which we see in hoar-frost, and about September, and the foxes began. in the rimes upon trees or the like, accounted Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty more mortifying cold than snow; for snow che- weather, than at other times. risheth the ground, and any thing sowed in it: the In Iceland they keep fish, by exposing it to the other biteth and killeth.

cold, from putrifying without salt. Stone and metal exceeding cold to the feeling The nature of man endureth the colds in the more than wood: yea more than jet or amber, or countries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, horn, which are no less smooth.

Groenland; and that not by perpetual keeping in The snow is ever in the winter season, but the stoves in the winter time, as they do in Russia : hail, which is more of the nature of ice, is ever in but contrariwise, their chief fairs and intercourse the summer season; whereupon it is conceived, is written to be in the winter, because the ice that as the hollows of the earth are warmest in evens - and levelleth the passages of waters, the winter, so that region of the air is coldest in plashes, &c. the summer; as if they were a fugue of the na- A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and melture of either from the contrary, and a collecting low the ground. itself to an union, and so to a further strength. Extreme cold hurteth the eyes and causeth

So in the shades under trees, in the summer, blindness in many beasts, as is reported. which stand in an open field, the shade noted to The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, he colder than in a wood.

stone, metal, put to the flesh, to cleave to it, and Cold effecteth congelation in liquors, so as they pull the flesh after it, and so put to any

oth do consist and hold together, which before did run.that is moist.

way, &c.


Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick other countries, all being within three months or and long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, &c. thereabouts.

Cold maketh the pilage of most beasts incline Qu. It is said, that compositions of honey, as to grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and mead, do ripen, and are most pleasant in the great so the plumage of fowls; and maketh also the colds. crests of cocks and their feet white, as is re- The frosts with us are casual, and not tied to ported.

any months, so as they are not merely caused by Extreme cold will make nails leap out of the the recess of the sun, but mixed with some inferior walls, and out of locks, and the like.

In the inland of the northern countries, Extreme cold maketh leather to be stiff like as in Russia, the weather for the three or four horn.

months of November, December, January, FebIn frosty weather the stars appear clearest and ruary, is constant, viz. clear and perpetual frost, most sparkling.

without snows or rains. In the change from frost to open weather, or There is nothing in our region, which, by apfrom open weather to frosts, commonly great proach of a matter hot, will not take heat by transimists.

tion or excitation. In extreme colds any thing never so little There is nothing hot here with us but is in a which arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as kind of consumption, if it carry heat in itself; for we see in cobwebs in windows, which is one of all fired things are ready to consume; chafed the least and weakest threads that is, and yet things are ready to fire; and the heat of men's drops gather about it like chains of pearl. bodies needeth aliment to restore.

So in frosts, the inside of glass windows ga- The transition of heat is without any imparting thereth a dew; Qu. if not more without. of substance, and yet remaineth after the body

Qu. Whether the sweating of marble and stones heated is withdrawn; for it is not like smells, be in frost, or towards rain.

for they leave some airs or parts; not like light, Oil in time of frost gathereth to a substance, as for that abideth not when the first body is reof tallow; and it is said to sparkle some time, so moved; not unlike to the motion of the loadstone, as it giveth a light in the dark.

which is lent without adhesion of substance, for The countries which lie covered with snow if the iron be filed where it was rubbed, yet it have a hastier maturation of all grain than in I will draw or turn.


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