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ANSON, (Pierre Hubert, 1744-1810,) a French writer, and an able financier. After having practised some time as an advocate, he was taken into the office of the comptroller-general of finance, and occupied, successively, several posts connected with that department. He wrote some historical memoirs; and translated Lady M. W. Montague's Letters, and Anacreon; besides being the author of several short poems and songs. (Biog. Univ.)

ANSPACH and BAREITH, (the Margrave Christian Frederick Charles Alexander of, born 1736,) was nephew of Caroline, queen of George the Second. In 1769 he united to his previous possessions of Anspach, those of Bareith, on the death of his cousin Frederick. In 1790, alarmed at the prospects of war in Germany, which seemed likely to interfere with his life of amusement and pleasure, and having no one to succeed him, he resigned to Frederick William, for an annual consideration of 400,000 rix-dollars, his sovereignty-which, at any rate, would have fallen to the crown of Prussia at his death. He died in England in 1806. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)


ANSPACH, (Elizabeth, margravine of, 1750-1828.) This lady, known as a writer, was the youngest daughter of Augustus, fourth earl of Berkeley, and was first married to Mr. William Craven, who afterwards succeeded to the title of earl of Craven. After having been married many years, a separation took place, and Lady Craven visited Italy, Austria, Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Greece. She lived for some years at Anspach, where she became the principal lady of the court, established a theatre, and wrote several dramatic pieces for the stage. On the death of the margravine she visited Spain and Portugal, in company with the margrave of Anspach; and on the subsequent decease of Lord Craven,




she was married to his serene highness. On that prince selling his territorial rights to the king of Prussia, he and the margravine came to reside in England, until the death of the former in 1806; after which event the margravine went again abroad, and died at Naples. The following works are from her pen-A Journey through Crimea to England, 4to, 1789; the Princess of Georgia; the Twins of Smyrna; Nourjahad; and Memoirs of the Margravine of Anspach, formerly Lady Craven, published in 1825. She also composed several pieces of music, principally for the theatrical pieces she had written. It has been judiciously observed, that "the margravine of Anspach claims attention rather from cicumstances than talent. She was a light and vivacious woman, of a school which is rapidly going by, and which it is of the least possible consequence to renovate."

ANSPRAND, king of the Lombards, guardian of Lieubert, son of Canibert, in 700. After defeating the army of Aribert, son of the usurper Ragimbert, he became king, and reigned for three months. His son Liutprand, who succeeded him, was one of the greatest of the Lombard kings. (Biog. Univ.)

ANSTEY, (Christopher,) the son of the Rev. Christopher Anstey, was born 1724. He was of King's college, Cambridge, and made himself remarkable there by his resistance to an attempt, on the part of the university, to infringe upon the peculiar privileges of that college in taking degrees. He was a fellow, and continued to reside at college till his mother's death, in 1754, which put him in possession of some family estates; and he resigned his fellowship to become a country gentleman. He often amused himself with writing small pieces of poetry, and in 1766 published the New Bath Guide, which established his poetical talent, and his peculiar and original


powers of lively and satirical humour. Few poems have ever been so popular; and Dodsley, the bookseller, who purchased the copyright, acknowledged that the profits on the sale were greater than he had ever made by any other book during the same period, and generously returned it to its author in 1777. He died in 1805, in his eighty-first year. He wrote several other pieces, which were collected and published in 1808.

ANSTIS, (John,) a learned heraldic writer, and garter king-at-arms. He was born in 1669, at St. Neot's, in Cornwall, and was educated at Oxford and at the Middle Temple. As a gentleman of good fortune, he became known in his county, (Cornwall,) and sat in parliament in the reigns of Anne and George I. for St. Germains and Launceston. Anne gave him a reversionary patent for the place of garter; but on its becoming vacant, he was in prison, under suspicion of being a jacobite. He claimed the office, and having cleared himself from the charge brought against him, succeeded in obtaining it against the nomination of the Earl Marshal, and in 1718 was created garter. He died in 1745. He was a most able and indefatigable officer at arms; and published a Letter concerning the Honour of Earl Marshal, 1706; the Form of the Installation of the Garter, 1720; the Register of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, 1724; Observations introductory to an Historical Essay on the Knighthood of the Bath, 1725; besides other laborious works in MS. on Topography, Antiquities, Genealogies, &c. which were dispersed after the death of his eldest son, John Anstis, LL.D., who succeeded him as garter, by virtue of a grant passed in 1727. The son died in 1754.

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V. H. xiv. 26, that he was in the habit of abusing the philosopher Arcesilaus, who treated him as he deserved, by leading him to the most frequented places, in order that the greatest number of persons might become acquainted with the intemperance of his language and conduct. The Greek biographer of Aratus has attributed to Antagoras a poem, under the title of Thebais, which, according to Hemsterhuis on Callimach. p. 590, belongs rather to Antimachus. Schneider, however, in Analect. p. 3, agrees with the biographer; while Schellenberg on Antimachus, p. 27, ed. Giles, leaves the question as he found it-in uncertainty; although he confesses that the story told by Cicero, in Brut. 51, that Antimachus, while reading his Thebais at Athens, was deserted by all his auditors but Plato, is very similar to the one related by Stobæus of Antagoras, who was left in like manner by a circle of Boeotians, assembled to hear an epic on the national theme of the Thebais. In one respect, however, the stories do not tally; for while Antimachus consoled himself with having an auditor, whose single judgment could be opposed to the rest, Antagoras exhibited much less of the philosopher in abusing the Boeotians, who he said were rightly called by that name, for they had the ears of kine; a pun that turns in Greek upon the similarity of Boiro and Bowy wra.

ANTALCIDAS, a Spartan, famous in history for the disadvantageous peace which the Lacedæmonians, jealous of their neighbours at home, employed him to negotiate with the Persians, and by which the Greeks yielded their footing in Asia. This treaty, concluded B. c. 387 (Ol. 98, 2) was, from him, termed the peace of Antalcidas. On his return, Antalcidas was made ephorus. The flattering marks of distinction which had been shown to Antalcidas by King Artaxerxes, encouraged the Lacedæmonians to send him on a second mission, the object of which was a loan of money. But the Spartans had lost their influence in Greece; Artaxerxes treated their envoy with coldness, and denied their request. Antalcidas returned to Lacedæmon, became the derision of his enemies, and in the fear, as it is said, of being pursued by the ephori, starved himself to death.

ANTANDER, the brother of Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, and commander of the troops which he sent to the aid of the Crotoniates. After his

brother's death, he is said to have written Giovanni Pisano." He worked in 1178 his history. and 1196. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iv. 52.)

ANTELMI, (Joseph,) a French ecclesiastic and antiquary, born in 1648, at Frejus, of which place he was a canon. In 1684, he was appointed grand-vicar and official to J. B. de Verthamon, the bishop of Pamiers, and succeeded in restoring peace to that diocese, which had been much disturbed by the régale, by which the king claimed the temporalities and ecclesiastical patronage of a see, during a vacancy. Antelmi's principal works are-A Treatise de Periculis Ĉanonicorum; a History of the Church of Frejus, 1680; De veris Operibus, &c.; a Disquisition on the genuine works of Leo the Great and Prosper Aquitanus, in 1689; Nova de Symbolo Athanasii Disquisitio, 1693; and some others. He died at Frejus in 1697, leaving the character of a man of acuteness, learning, and integrity; but credulous, and too fond of dealing in conjecture. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTAR, or ANTARAH, a celebrated Arabian warrior and poet, who flourished about the end of the sixth century of our era, contemporary with Nushirwan, king of Persia. He was son of Sheddad, of the tribe of Abs, a race eminent among the descendants of Adnan, (the generations from whom to Antar are given in a table prefixed by Sir William Jones to his version of the Moallakat); - but as his mother was an Ethiopian slave, and his birth consequently illegitimate, his father long refused to allow him to assume the rank of a free-born Arab. But the astonishing deeds of valour performed by Antar, joined to the remonstrances of the other chiefs of the tribe, at length overcame his scruples, and Antar received a place among the warriors of Abs, and soon after, the hand of his cousin Ibla, the object of his early affections. The whole life of Antar, as narrated in the romance compiled by Asmaï (vide AsмAï), and bearing the title of Antarîyah, appears a continual succession of martial achievements. Not only hostile Arabs, but Greeks, Persians, and Ethiopians, feel the almost superhuman force of his invincible arm: his sword Dhami, and his horse Abjer, share in romance the celebrity of their owner: and the title of Abu'l-Faouris (the Father of Horsemen,) conferred on him by common consent, testifies the supremacy of his valour. After much opposition from the Koreish, he succeeded in placing one of his compositions in the sanctuary of the Kaaba, as one of the seven Moallakat, or suspended poems; and by Sir William Jones's translation of this poem, the name of Antar first became known in Europe: but his exploits have since been rendered more familiar by the publication, in 1820, of an English version of the first part of the romance bearing his name, by Mr. Terrick Hamilton. He is said to have fallen in battle, by the hand of a pardoned enemy, shortly after the birth of Mohammed; and of his descendants, no details appear to have been preserved.

ANTELAMI, or ANTELMI, (Benedetto,) a sculptor who flourished at Parma in the latter part of the twelfth century. Lanzi says that he executed "a bassorelievo, representing the Crucifixion of our Lord, in the cathedral, which, though the production of a rude age, had nothing in sculpture equal to it, that I have been able to meet with, until the period of

ANTELMI, (Nicolas,) canon and vicar-general of the church of Frejus, in the earlier part of the seventeenth century, and the friend of Peiresc. He wrote some Adversaria, mentioned by Joseph Antelmi.

ANTELMI, (Pierre,) nephew of Nicolas, was born at Frejus, and studied at Paris theology and jurisprudence, taking his doctor's degree in both faculties. He continued for some time a sort of rivalry in the collection of a cabinet of antiquities, which had been commenced by his uncle, against Peiresc; and on his uncle's death, succeeded him in his canonry. He died in 1668. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTELMY, (Pierre Thomas,) a French mathematician, born in 1730, died in 1783. He was a professor at the Ecole Militaire, where he made some astronomical observations, inserted in the Memoirs of the Academy. He also translated Agensi's work from the Italian, and Lessing's Fables and Klopstock's Messiah from the German. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTENOR, or AGENOR, a sculptor who lived at Athens in the seventy-sixth Olympiad. He is celebrated for executing the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, designed to replace those in bronze, which had been taken away by Xerxes. Alexander the Great restored the original statues to the Athenians. Pliny (lib. xxxiv. c. 8) attributes these to Praxiteles, which is evidently a mistake, since Xerxes captured Athens in 480 B. c.;

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ANTHAKI, (born in Antioch,) the surname of a christian bishop of Said, who wrote in defence of the doctrines of Christianity against the Mohammedan theologians. An answer was written by one of them, named Takieddin Ahmed Bin Abdalhalim Bin Taimiah, who entitled his work, The True Answer to him who pretends to justify the Religion of the Messiah. The two works appear to have been written at the end of the seventh or beginning of the eighth century.

ANTHEAS OF LINDUS, was, according to his own confession, (says Athenæus, x. p. 445,) a relation of Cleobulus, one of the wise men of Greece. His whole life was given rather to pleasure than philosophy, as a votary of Bacchus, in whose honour he seems to have composed some comedies. He was likewise the inventor of a kind of poetry, where compound words abounded, such as we find in the Dithyrambics of Pratinas, and in the last scene of the Ecclesiazusæ of Aristophanes.

ANTHELMÉ, called also Nauthelme, and sometimes Ancelin, descended from the lords of Chignin, in Savoy, after having been provost of the cathedral of Geneva, and sacristan of that of Belley, was in 1139 made prior of the great Carthusian convent of Portes. In 1161, or 1163, he was consecrated bishop of Belley by Pope Alexander III., whose cause he had sustained against the partisans of the anti-pope Octavian. He died on the 26th June, 1178. (Hist. Lit. de France, xiv. 613.) He is known as the author of some epistles printed by Duchesne, Mabillon, and Martene. His zeal in defence of the privileges of the church was so acceptable to the court of Rome, that after his death he was canonized.

ANTHEMIUS, grandson of Philip,

prefect of the East, was in 405 consul and prefect under Arcadius. On the death of Arcadius, Anthemius managed the affairs of the empire during the minority of Theodosius II. with great ability and integrity. In 414, he retired from his dignities, and passed the rest of his life in obscurity. (Biog. Univ. Gibbon.)

ANTHEMIUS, (Emperor of the West,) was grandson of the preceding. In 467, when Italy was suffering under the tyranny of Ricimer, Anthemius was received as emperor, giving to Ricimer his daughter in marriage. Ricimer, however, quarrelled with his father-inlaw, and appearing in arms against him, advanced against Rome, which he sacked, and put Anthemius to death in 472. (Gibbon.)

ANTHEMIUS, of TRALLES, in Lydia, a celebrated mathematician and architect, who flourished about A. c. 532. Procopius de Edific. ii. 3, says he designed the temple of S. Sophia, at Constantinople; but as he lived only to lay the foundation, it was completed by Isidorus of Miletus. A fragment of his work, Περι Παραδοξων Μηχανημάτων, was first published by Du Puy, in the Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences for 1777, accompanied with a French translation and notes. It describes the method of constructing hexagonic burning mirrors, and shows, as Buffon had asserted, and partially proved by experiments detailed in the same Mémoires for 1747, that the story of Archimedes burning the Roman fleet at Syracuse, was not altogether unfounded. Agathias, too, mentions the account of his frightening the rhetorician Zeno by means of an artificial earthquake, produced by the explosion of a steam boiler, or a composition similar to gunpowder.

ANTHERMUS, à Chian sculptor, son of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He and his brother Bupalus, according to Pliny, lib. xxxvi. ch. 5, made a statue of the poet Hipponax, who was remarkable for his ugliness, which caused universal laughter, on account of the deformity of its countenance. The poet was so incensed, and wrote with so much bitterness against the statuaries, that they are said to have hanged themselves.

ANTHEUNIS, (James,) a theologian of Middleburg, lived at the end of the fifteenth century. He was vicar-general at Brussels, in the diocese of Cambray, in the episcopacy of Henry de Bergher. He is author of a work entitled Elegans

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