Libellus, ac nunc primum impressus de sell his property and distribute it to the præcellentiâ Potestatis Imperatoriæ, &c. poor, read in the church, he returned home 1502. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

and imitated it literally, reserving only ANTHIPPUS. Of this comic writer a small portion of his riches for the supnothing is known, except a long fragment port of his sister. Monks were at this quoted by Athenæus, ix. p. 404.

time few and scattered. But in a solitary ANTHOINE, (Nicolas,) a fanatic, spot in the neighbourhood of Heraclea, who was burnt at Geneva in 1632. Edu- an old man led the life of an anchorite, cated in the faith of the Roman Catholic and Anthony resolved to imitate him. church, he afterwards embraced Calvin- He accordingly sought a convenient ism, and ended in professing Judaism. place in the neighbourhood of his native However, for a time he concealed his town, where he adopted an austere course apostasy, and officiated as protestant of discipline, and devoted his time to minister at Divonne, in Gex, until suspi- prayer and the study of the Scripture. Afcion was aroused by his constant neglect ter residing at this place some time, he left of the New Testament. The fear of be- it to seek a still more lonely asylum ing, denounced drove him completely among the dead in the catacombs. At mad; and in this state he broke away, and the age of thirty-five, he quitted the arrived at Geneva, where notwithstand- tombs, and retired still further into the ing the representations of his friends, he desert, where he took up his residence was sentenced to death._ (Suppl. Biog. among the ruins of a deserted castle on Univ.) See life of Paul Ferri. a mountain. Here he remained during

ANTHOINE, (Antoine Ignace, baron twenty years ; and the fame of his sancde St. Joseph,) an eminent merchant of tity drew around him crowds of devotees, Marseilles, was born in 1749. For some whom he collected together into monastime he was at the head of a commercial teries. When the persecution under Maxihouse in Constantinople; and during the minus raged in Egypt, Anthony quitted years 1781-2-3, was engaged in arrang- the desert to encourage the martyrs by ing the terms of commercial intercourse his presence and exhortations. When between France and Russia, in which he returned, he left his former abode, his views were readily taken up and ap- which had become populous, to seek preciated by the courts of Versailles and solitude, and advancing still further into St. Petersburg. He founded an esta- the desert, settled on another mountain ; blishment at Cherson, and contributed but wherever he went, he was followed mainly to the present facilities enjoyed by by crowds of people, until the whole France in her commercial relations with desert was covered with monasteries; the countries on the Black Sea. In 1781 and at the death of the saint, the numhe was rewarded by Louis XVI. with ber of monks who had adopted his rule letters of nobility. He filled some offices of life, are said to have amounted to connected with public trade under the di- fifteen thousand. During his life St. Anrectory; and after the eighteenth Bru- thony directed all these foundations, and maire, was admitted into the legion of visited them frequently, either in person honour. He was mayor of Marseilles from or by his letters. In 355, he was per1805 to 1813, and effected great improve- suaded a second time to quit the desert, ments in that town. He died in 1826. and repair to Alexandria, by the prayers An Essai Historique sur le Commerce et la of St. Athanasius, in order to clear Navigation de la Mer Noire, reprinted in himself from the imputation which the 1820, is by him. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.) Arians had cast upon him of being of

ANTHONY, (St.) one of the most their creed. He lived to the great age celebrated personages of the Eastern and of one hundred and five years, and died Romish calendars; was born at Hera- A. D. 356, on his return from this visit. clea, in Upper Egypt, in a. D. 251. His His festival is celebrated on the 17th parents were noble and rich; and while of January. young he was left, with his sister, pos- St. Anthony is regarded as the patrisessed of their whole property. Accord- arch of the monks. He is known popuing to his biographer, he had shown larly for the numerous contests which he little inclination to letters; but he had is said to have sustained against the evil been early imbued with the piety which one, many of them more fantastic than characterised his parents, and his zeal terrible, and all too trivial to be repeated; increased with his age; so that when still but they have frequently furnished matlittle more than a youth, on hearing the ter to the imagination of the artist. His exhortation of Christ to the young man to body was transferred from its first resting



place to Alexandria in 561, and from This excited new adversaries, and the thence to Constantinople about a century controversy about Aurum Potabile grew later. At the end of the tenth century it very warm ; increasing the hostility of was again removed, and was deposited in a the faculty towards the doctor, and at the Benedictine priory near Vienne, in France. same time, his practice. His character

The life of St. Anthony was written in private life seems to have been irreby his friend Athanasius, and was trans- proachable. Unaffected piety, untainted lated into Latin by Evagrius. Both the probity, great modesty, and boundless original and the translation are given in charity, procured him many friends, and the Benedictine edition of Athanasius, enabled him to sustain the animosity of tom. i. p. 793. The Latin of Evagrius, the regular members of the medical prowith a collection of collateral documents, fession. He died in 1623. (Biog. Brit.) and accounts of the different translations of ANTHONY, (John,) son of the precedthe body of the saint, will be found in the ing, continued his father's practice, and Acta Sanct. of the Bollandists, Mens. Jan. made a handsome living by the sale of the vol. ii. p. 121, &c. Many of St. An- Aurum Potabile. He was author of thony's letters, addressed to the different Lucas Redivivus, or the Gospel Physimonasteries of the Thebaid, and written cian, (printed in 1656.) He died in 1655. in Coptic, are preserved. Some were ANTHROPOGRAPHUS. See Dionytranslated into Greek and Latin, and a few have been printed in the Bibliotheca ANTIBOUL, (Charles Louis,) a Patrum. Seven only of those printed by French lawyer, and member of the Abraham Echellensis in 1641, are said Gironde party, was deputy to the nato be genuine. Two of the originals, in tional convention for the department of the language of the Thebaid, were in- the Var. He was executed in 1793. serted by Mingarelli in his Ægyptiorum (Biog. Univ.) Codicum Reliquiæ, in 1785.

ANTIC. See Bosc. ANTHONY, (Derick,) whom Wal- ANTICLIDES, of Athens, was the pole, in the Anecdotes of Painting, ed. author of the Nootoi, a prose work, 1782, vol. i. p. 205, calls Anthony Deric, founded upon an older poetical one, but was the chief graver of the mint and with this difference, that while the lastseals to King Edward the Sixth, and the mentioned related to the events which queens Mary and Elizabeth. His father, befel the Grecian chiefs on their return William Anthony, was a native of Co- from Troy, the work of Anticlides had logne, and may also have had an office reference to the fortunes of other leaders in the Mint, as this his son was born at of other expeditions : amongst which St. Catherine's, by the Tower. His ap- those of the generals that served under pointment, by letters patent, to his office, Alexander held a prominent place. The is noticed by Walpole. See for the other work must have been a voluminous one, particulars here given, Harl. MS. 5810, for the sixteenth book is quoted by Athef. 17, b.

næus, xi. p. 466. He compiled likeANTHONY, (Dr. Francis,) a fa- wise an archæological glossary for the mous empiric and chemist, born 1550, purpose of explaining words connected was the son of an eminent goldsmith with particular customs, and half forgotin London. He took the degree of ten traditions. To this author, and not M.A. in the university of Cambridge, to Anticles, Plutarch probably alludes in and afterwards applied himself with ii. p. 1136. great industry to the theory and prac- ANTICO, (Lorenzo,) in Latin, Antice of chemistry. He went to Lon- tiquus. An Italian grammarian of the don, and in 1598 published his first beginning of the seventeenth century, treatise on a medicine drawn from gold. who taught grammar at Padua. His Not having obtained a license to practise works are, De Eloquentiâ compendiarii medicine from the College of Physicians, libri tres. Venice, 1594. De Institutione he was summoned by them, and fined, Grammaticæ Commentarii tres. Padua, and on refusing to pay his tine, was com- 1601. (Biog. Univ.) mitted to prison, from which, however, ANTIDAMAS, of Heraclea, is he was discharged in 1602. Neverthe- known only from a reference in Fulgenless he continued his practice with great tius, who says that he wrote a history of reputation ; but was attacked by Dr. Alexander, and some treatises on morals. Gwenne, and other antagonists, whom ANTIDOTUS, a Greek painter, pupil he answered by publishing a defence of of Euphranor, lived in the 104th Olymhimself and his Aurum Potabile, in 1610. piad, 364 years B. c. He was more


remarkable for the laborious finishing of ANTIGONUS, one of Alexander's his pictures, than for invention. His most celebrated generals. In the divicolouring was cold, and his outline hardsion of the provinces, after the king's and dry. Among the few pictures of his death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and which have been noticed, were a Warrior Phrygia; but he afterwards increased his ready for Combat; a Wrestler ; and a power, and during his life was master of Man playing on the Flute. He is most all Asia Minor, as far as Syria. After celebrated for having been the master of the naval battle near the island of CyNicias of Athens. He is mentioned in prus, in which Demetrius, his son, dePliny, lib. xxxv. ch. 11. (Bryan's Dict. feated Ptolemy's fleet, Antigonus assumed Biog. Univ. Lemprière's Clas. Dict.) the title of king. His power was now

ANTIDOTUS, a comic writer, of so great that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, whose plays only three fragments have and Lysimachus, united to destroy him, been preserved by Athenæus.

and he died of wounds received in battle ANTIGENES, one of Alexander's 301 B. c. in his eightieth year. generals. He was put to death by Anti- ANTIGONUS, (commonly called Cagonus, about 315 B.C. (Q. Curt. v.c. 14.) rystius, to distinguish him from others of

ANTIGENES. One of this name is the same name,) was born at Carystus in found amongst the historians of Alex- Eubea, and is supposed to have flouander, mentioned by Plutarch ; and rished during the reign of Ptolemy Phianother is the grammarian quoted in ladelphus, about B. c. 250, Ol. 132, 3. Apollon. Lex. Homer, where, however, (See h. Dodwell, Dissert. de Ætate Villoison has edited Apxnyevns, because Peripli Hannonis, $ 21. Vossius, de he says in Prolegom. p. 20, that the lat- Histor. Græc. lib. i. cap. 12.) Nothing ter name is found in Eustathius.

is known of his life, except that he ANTIGENIDAS,a musician of Thebes, wrote - 1. 'loropiwy IIapadowv Suvathe pupil of Philoxenus, and the master ywyn, Historiarum Mirabilium Collectio. of Ismenias, whom he taught to despise 2. Biol; or, Lives of the Philosophers, the applause of the populace, as often quoted by Athenæus and Diogenes learn from Cicero, Brut. 11. Either he Laertius. 3. Tepe Zwwy, De Animalibus, or another Theban musician of the same (Hesych. in Ilcoi.) 4. Slepi Recews, De name was the master of Alcibiades. Dictione. (Athenæus, Deipnos. lib. iii.

ANTIGNAC, (Antoine,) a French song p. 88; lib. vii. pp. 297, 303.) 5. An writer of some reputation, born 1772, died Epic Poem, called Avrin arpos, of which 1823. He left-Chansons et Poësies two lines are quoted by Athenæus, Diverses. Paris, 1809. L'Epicurien Fran- Deipnos. lib. iii. p.

82. Of these, the çais, ou les Diners du Caveau Moderne. first only is still extant, and consists of (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)

one hundred and eighty-nine chapters, of ANTIGONUS, (Gonatas,) son of De- which a great part is taken from the metrius Poliorcetes, was king of Macedon. work, De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, In 272 B. c. he was expelled from his attributed to Aristotle, and also from that kingdom by Pyrrhus; but on his death, by Callimachus (of which only a few Antigonus regained it, and died, after fragments remain) entitled, OavuatWV TWV reigning thirty-four years, B. c. 243, leav- εις άπασαν την Γην κατα Τοπους οντων ing his son Demetrius to succeed him. Συναγωγη, Miraculorum quae sunt in

ANTIGONUS, (surnamed Dôson,) be- singulis totius Orbis Terrarum Locis Colcause he promised much and never gave, lectio. As might be expected from the was son of Demetrius II., the son of De- title, the work contains a great many metrius Poliorcetes. He was king of fables and absurdities, together with Macedon B. c. 231, and died B. c. 221, much that is curious and worth reading. leaving the throne to Philip, who was He tells us that bees are generated by afterwards at war with the Romans. the putrid carcase of an ox, wasps by a

ANTIGONUS, son of Aristobulus, horse, scorpions by a crocodile (cap. 23), king of Judæa, was taken prisoner by and snakes by the spinal marrow of a Pompey, b.c. 61. He was afterwards man (cap. 96); that horses have a bony put to death by order of Mark Antony, heart (cap. 75); that all animals, except B. c. 35, when Herod was placed on the man, when bitten by a mad dog, become throne. (Joseph. 14.)

mad themselves (cap. 102); that the ANTIGONUS, (Sochæus,) a Jew, born chamelion assumes the colour of the at Socho, lived 300 b. c. He was the ground, tree, leaves, &c., on which it founder of the sect of the Sadducees. happens to be walking (cap. 30); that (Brucker.)

the crocodile is the only animal that moves its upper jaw (cap. 70); that eu. He was the pupil of Paryasis, the aunuchs never become bald (cap. 117); thor of the epic poem on Hercules, and that fire is extinguished by a salamander of Stesimbrotus. From the elegy of (cap. 91); that the lioness brings forth Hermesianax, preserved in Athenæus, it only once during her life ; and that the appears that he fell in love with Lyde, young vipers eat their way through the and wrote an elegy on her early death. uterus of the mother (cap. 25). The of his interminable epic, the Thebais, work was first published, Basil

, 8vo, which probably served as a model for 1568, together with Antoninus Libe- the Dionysiacs of Nonnus, twenty-four ralis, Phlegon Trallianus, Apollonii Hist. books were taken up in describing the Mirab., and M. Antoninus de Vitâ suâ, events which took place previous to the Gr. and Lat., edited by Xylander. The arrival of the seven chiefs at Thebes; at last and best edition is that by Breckmann, least if any reliance can be placed on Lips. 1791, 4to, Gr. and Lat., with very Porphyrion's Commentary on Horace, copious and learned notes, some addi- A. P. 146. He wrote likewise an Encotions to which were published in Marbod. mium on Lysander, according to Plutarch, Lib. Lapidum, 8vo, Gott. 1799. i. p. 443, which, however, he destroyed

Of the other writers who bore the same because the prize of a gold crown was name Fabricius has given the list follow- awarded to his competitor, Nicostratus of ing. 1. The Cumæan, a writer on agri- Heraclea. To the same Antimachus have culture, mentioned by Varro, Pliny, and been attributed by some, though denied Columella.—2. The painter, and a writer by Wolf and others, an edition of Homer, on painting.–3. The carver and statuary. and a. few of his various readings have -4. The mathematician, known by the been preserved to this day, in the VeScholiast on the Tetrabilon of Ptolemy.- netian Scholia, published by Villoison. 5. The historian of Italy, to whom The fragments of the Thebais and Lyde Dionysius and Festus allude. 6. The were first collected by Schellenberg, a physician, whose recipe for a head-ache, pupil of Wolf, whose work has been and an ointment for the eye, have been reprinted by Giles, Lond. 1838, together preserved by Galen and Marcellus the with the Notes of Bishop Blomfield, empiric; and he is perhaps the indivi- which appeared in the Classical Journal, dual mentioned in the preface to the and a few additional fragments recently lexicon of Erotian, and by the Scholiast discovered by Bekker and Cramer in vaon Nicander.

rious MS. grammatical treatises. The ANTILLON, (Isidore,) a Spanish pa- whole number amount to only one huntriot, who, previous to the invasion by dred and thirty, but they afford sufficient the French'in 1808, was professor of evidence to verify the judgment of Quinastronomy, geography, and history, at tilian, who placed Antimachus only in the Royal College for the young nobility the second class of epic poets. at Madrid. He was active in the cause 2. Antimachus of Teos was an epic poet, of his country during the whole period of who, says Plutarch in Romul. 1. p. 49, the peninsular wars, and was co-editor Xyl., was thought to have witnessed of various journals, the object of which the eclipse of the sun that took place in was to sustain the spirit of the Spanish Ol. 6, 3. One of his verses was imitated, people. After the restoration of Ferdi- according to Clemens Alex. Strom. vi. nand to his throne, the liberal principles p. 622, by Augias, an obscure comic advocated by Antillon made him ob- writer of Athens. It was to this efnoxious to the government, and he was fect" Presents will cozen hearts and on the point of being brought to trial, hands." when he died, in 1820. He was the au- ANTIMACO, (Marco Antonio,) one thor of various maps, and treatises on of the most celebrated Greek professors geography and science, as well as politics. of Italy during the sixteenth century, was (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

born at Mantua, about 1473. He resided ANTIMĂCHUS, the son of Hypar- in Greece for five years, until he could chus, was born about 01. 83, at Colophon, write and speak the language as easily as or Clarus, although the latter is supposed Latin or Italian. In 1532 he became to owe its origin to the confusion of professor at Ferrara, where he died in Clarus and Clarius, in Cicero, Brut. 51. 1552. He translated Gemistus Plethon, He was one of the authors that ennobled and part of Dionysius, of Halicarnassus. his birth-place, and whose history was Bâle, 1540. Several epigrams by him, in written by their countryman Nicander, Greek and Latin, are in a collection of as we learn from the Schol. on Theriac, 3. letters addressed to Vettori, and pub


lished by Bandini, at Pavia, in 1758. (Ti- the execution of this design. Annibal raboschi.)

arrived at the court of Antiochus, and ANTIN, (d'.) See GONDRIN.

advised him to attack the Romans in ANTINE, (d'.) See D'ANTINE. Italy; he, however, carried the war into

ANTINORI, (Ludovico Antonio,) a Greece; but finally was obliged to make learned Italian antiquary, born about peace, on the terms of surrendering the 1720 at Aquila, the Abruzzi; was whole of Asia on one side of the Taurus, archbishop of Lanciano. Several me- and paying a large yearly tribute. He moirs by him were published by Mura- was killed, s.c. 187, in an attempt to tori in his Thesaurus. He had collected plunder the temple of Belas, in Lusiana. extensive materials for the history of the (Strab. 16. Liv. 34. Appian.) Abruzzi, but was prevented from pub- Antiochus IV., son of Antiochus the lishing any of them by his death in 1780. Great, was brought up at Rome as Four volumes

, however, of a work in- hostage. He was surnamed Epiphanes, tended to extend to fifteen, appeared at and afterwards, for his extravagances, Naples in 1781-2-3-4, under the title Epimanes. He reigned eleven years, Raccoltà di Memorie istoriche delle tre and practised such cruelties in Judæa as Provincie degli Abruzzi. (Biog. Univ. caused the revolt of the Maccabees. He Suppl.)

died in a fit of madness, B. C. 164, in ANTIOCHUS,

son of Phintas, king of returning from an attempt to plunder the the Messenians, who died B. c. 744, and temple of Elymais, in Media, which conwas succeeded by his son Euphaes. tained vast treasures. The Persians as

ANTIOCHUS, the name of various cribed his death to this impious act—the Syrian kings, whose history is connected Jews, to his profanation of the temple at with that of Greece and Rome :

Jerusalem. (Polyb. Justin. xxxiv. C. 3.) Antiochus I. (surnamed Soter,) was son Antiochus V. (surnained Eupator,) of Seleucus I. He fell in love with Stra- son of Antiochus IV.; became king in tonice, his step-mother, who was resigned B.C. 164, and was killed three years to him by his father. In 275 B.C. he “afterwards, at the age of twelve, by his conquered the Gauls, who were ravaging uncle Demetrius. (Justin. xxiv. JoAsia, in a great battle; and in B. c. 262, seph. xii.) was killed near Ephesus. (Val. Max. Antiochus VI. (surnamed Dionysius,) Polyb. Appian.)

son of Alexander Balas; was placed Antiochus II. surnamed Theos by the on the throne by Tryphon, in place Milesians, for ridding them of their tyrant of Demetrius Philadelphus, about B.C. Timarchus, was son and successor to 144, and after a reign of two years, was Antiochus I. He married Berenice, put to death by him. daughter of Ptolemy, and was poisoned Antiochus VII. (surnamed Euergetes, by Laodice his former wife, whom he or Sidetes) son of Demetrius Soter, had repudiated, B.c. 246. (Appian.) was proclaimed king B. c. 140, and ex

Antiochus, (surnamed Hierax,) son of pelled the usurper Tryphon. He reduced Antiochus II. and Laodice; was made the Jews to subjection, and afterwards king of Cilicia by Ptolemy Euergetes, made war against Phraates, king of Parin opposition to Seleucus Callinices his thia, in which he was defeated. He was brother. War was carried on for a long killed in the temple of Elymais, B. c. 127. time between the brothers, and ended in Antiochus VIII. (surnamed Grypus,) the entire defeat of Antiochus. He died son of Demetrius Nicanor and CleoB.c. 227.

patra. His brother Seleucus was deAntiochus III. (surnamed the Great,) stroyed by her, and he would have was brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, on shared the same fate, had he not discowhose death he was proclaimed king of vered his mother's design, and compelled Syria by the army. He was defeated by her to drink the poison prepared for himPtolemy Philopater, at Rhaphia. He had self. He was assassinated B. c. 97. afterward a long series of successes, Antiochus IX. (surnamed Cyzecemade war against Persia, took Sardis, and nus,) was son of Antiochus Sidetes and restored the kingdom of Syria to its an- Cleopatra. His brother Grypus disputed cient splendour of dominion. On the the kingdom with him, and they divided death of Ptolemy, Antiochus united with it between them—the one taking Syria Philip, king of Macedon, to deprive his and the other Cælo-Syria. Nevertheless infant son Ptolemy Epiphanes of his civil war continuing to rage, he was kingdom; but the Romans, to whom he defeated in a great battle by Seleucus VI. had been confided by his father, prevented on which he killed himself, B. c. 95.

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