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ANS ANSON, (Pierre Hubert, 1744-1810,) she was married to his serene highness. a French writer, and an able financier. On that prince selling his territorial rights After having practised some time as an to the king of Prussia, he and the margraadvocate, he was taken into the office vine came to reside in England, until of the comptroller-general of finance, and the death of the former in 1806 ; after occupied, successively, several posts con- which event the margravine went again nected with that department. He wrote abroad, and died at Naples. The folsome historical memoirs; and translated lowing works are from her pen :-A Lady M. W. Montague's Letters, and Journey through Crimea to England, Anacreon; besides being the author of 4to, 1789; the Princess of Georgia; the several short poems and songs. (Biog. Twins of Smyrna ; Nourjahad; and MeUniv.)
moirs of the Margravine of Anspach, ANSPACH and BAREITH, (the formerly Lady Craven, published in 1825. Margrave Christian Frederick Charles She also composed several pieces of Alexander of, born 1736,) was nephew music, principally for the theatrical pieces of Caroline, queen of George the Second. she had written. It has been judiciously In 1769 he united to his previous pos- observed, that “the margravine of Anssessions of Anspach, those of Bareith, on pach claims attention rather from cithe death of his cousin Frederick. In cumstances than talent. She was a light 1790, alarmed at the prospects of war in and vivacious woman, of a school which Germany, which seemed likely to inter- is rapidly going by, and which it is of the fere with his life of amusement and least possible consequence to renovate.” pleasure, and having no one to succeed ANSPRAND, king of the Lombards, him, he resigned to Frederick William, guardian of Lieubert, son of Canibert, in for an annual consideration of 400,000 700. After defeating the army of Aririx-dollars, his sovereignty—which, at bert, son of the usurper Ragimbert, he any rate, would have fallen to the crown became king, and reigned for three of Prussia at his death. He died in months. His son Liutprand, who sucEngland in 1806. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)! ceeded him, was one of the greatest of
ANSPACH, (Elizabeth, margravine of, the Lombard kings. (Biog. Univ.) 1750—1828.) This lady, known as a ANSTEY, (Christopher,) the son of writer, was the youngest daughter of the Rev. Christopher Anstey, was born Augustus, fourth earl of Berkeley, and 1724. He was of King's college, Camwas first married to Mr. William Craven, bridge, and made himself remarkable who afterwards succeeded to the title of there by his resistance to an attempt, on earl of Craven. After having been mar- the part of the university, to infringe ried many years, a separation took place, upon the peculiar privileges of that coland Lady Craven visited Italy, Austria, lege in taking degrees. He was a fellow, Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Greece. and continued to reside at college till his She lived for some years at Anspach, mother's death, in 1754, which put him where she became the principal lady of in possession of some family estates; and the court, established a theatre, and wrote he resigned his fellowship to become a several dramatic pieces for the stage. country gentleman. He often amused On the death of the margravine she vi- himself with writing small pieces of poesited Spain and Portugal, in company try, and in 1766 published the New with the margrave of Anspach; and on Bath Guide, which established his poetical the subsequent decease of Lord Craven, talent, and his peculiar and original VOL. II.
powers of lively and satirical humour. V. H. xiv. 26, that he was in the habit Few poems have ever been so popular; of abusing the philosopher Arcesilaus, and Dodsley, the bookseller, who pur- who treated him as he deserved, by leadchased the copyright, acknowledged that ing him to the most frequented places, the profits on the sale were greater than in order that the greatest number of he had ever made by any other book persons might become acquainted with during the same period, and generously the intemperance of his language and returned it to its author in 1777. He conduct. The Greek biographer of Aradied in 1805, in his eighty-first year. He tus has attributed to Antagoras a poem, wrote several other pieces, which were under the title of Thebais, which, accordcollected and published in 1808. ing to Hemsterhuis on Callimach. p. 590,
ANSTIS, (John,) a learned heraldic belongs rather to Antimachus. Schneider, writer, and garter king-at-arms. He was however, in Analect. p. 3, agrees with born in 1669, at St. Neot's, in Cornwall, the biographer; while Schellenberg on and was educated at Oxford and at the Antimachus, p. 27, ed. Giles, leaves the Middle Temple. As à gentleman of question as he found it—in uncertainty ; good fortune, he became known in his although he confesses that the story told county, (Cornwall,) and sat in parliament by Cicero, in Brut. 51, that Antimachus, in the reigns of Anne and George I. for while reading his Thebais at Athens, was St. Germains and Launceston. Anne deserted by all his auditors but Plato, is gave him a reversionary patent for the very similar to the one related by Stobæus place of garter; but on its becoming of Antagoras, who was left in like manner vacant, he was in prison, under suspicion by a circle of Bæotians, assembled to hear of being a jacobite. He claimed the an epic on the national theme of the office, and having cleared himself from Thebais. In one respect, however, the the charge brought against him, suc stories do not tally ; for while Antimaceeded in obtaining it against the nomi- chus consoled himself with having an nation of the Earl Marshal, and in 1718 auditor, whose single judgment could be was created garter. He died in 1745. opposed to the rest, Antagoras exhibited He was a most able and indefatigable much less of the philosopher in abusing officer at arms; and published a Letter the Baotians, who he said were rightly concerning the Honour of Earl Marshal, called by that name, for they had the 1706; the form of the Installation of ears of kine; a pun that turns in Greek the Garter, 1720; the Register of the upon the similarity of Bouwrot and Most Noble Order of the Garter, 1724; Bowy wra. Observations introductory to an Histori- ANTALCIDAS, a Spartan, famous cal Essay on the Knighthood of the Bath, in history for the disadvantageous peace 1725; besides other laborious works in which the Lacedæmonians, jealous of MS. on Topography, Antiquities, Gene- their neighbours at home, employed him alogies, &c. which were dispersed after to negotiate with the Persians, and by the death of his eldest son, John Anstis, which the Greeks yielded their footing in LL.D., who succeeded him as garter, by Asia. This treaty, concluded B. c. 387 virtue of a grant passed in 1727. The (Ol. 98, 2) was, from him, termed the son died in 1754.
peace of Antalcidas.
On his returi, ANSTRUTHER, (Sir John,) a distin- Antalcidas was made ephorus. The flat. guished member of the English parlia- tering marks of distinction which had ment; born 1753, died 1811. He was been shown to Antalcidas by King Arappointed chief justice of Bengal in 1798. taxerxes, encouraged the Lacedæmonians At first a partisan of Fox, after the to send him on a second mission, the breaking out of the French revolution object of which was a loan of money. he joined the opposite party, and was But the Spartans had lost their influcreated a baronet shortly before his de- ence in Greece ; Artaxerxes treated their parture for India.
envoy with coldness, and denied their ANTAGORAS, of Rhodes, was a request. Antalcidas returned to Lacewriter of Greek epigrams, of which only dæmon, became the derision of his two have been preserved. He was con- enemies, and in the fear, as it is said, of temporary with Antigonus I. as we learn being pursued by the ephori, starved from Plutarch Apophth. ii. p. 182, and himself to death. Sympos. iv. 4; and such a gourmand ANTANDER, the brother of Agathat he would not suffer any hands but thocles, tyrant of Syracuse, and comhis own to dress his favourite dish of mander of the troops which he sent to conger-eels. It appears too, from Ælian, the aid of the Crotoniates. After his
brother's death, he is said to have written Giovanni Pisano." He worked in 1178 his history.
and 1196. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iv. 52.) ANTAR, or ANTARAH, a celebrated ANTELMI, (Joseph,) a French eccleArabian warrior and poet, who flourished siastic and antiquary, born in 1648, at about the end of the sixth century of our Frejus, of which place he was a canon. era, contemporary with Nushirwan, king In 1684, he was appointed grand-vicar of Persia. He was son of Sheddad, of the and official to J. B. de Verthamon, the tribe of Abs, a race eminent among the bishop of Pamiers, and succeeded in redescendants of Adnan, (the generations storing peace to that diocese, which had from whom to Antar are given in a table been much disturbed by the régale, by prefixed by Sir William Jones to his ver- which the king claimed the temporalities sion of the Moallakat); — but as his and ecclesiastical patronage of a see, mother was an Ethiopian slave, and his during a vacancy. Antelmi's principal birth consequently illegitimate, his father works are-A Treatise de Periculis Calong refused to allow him to assume the nonicorum; a History of the Church of rank of a free-born Arab. But the asto- Frejus, 1680; De veris Operibus, &c.; a nishing deeds of valour performed by Disquisition on the genuine works of Antar, joined to the remonstrances of Leo the Great and Prosper Aquitanus, in the other chiefs of the tribe, at length 1689; Nova de Symbolo Athanasii Disovercame his scruples, and Antar re- quisitio, 1693; and some others. He ceived a place among the warriors of died at Frejus in 1697, leaving the chaAbs, and soon after, the hand of his racter of a man of acuteness, learning, cousin Ibla, the object of his early affec- and integrity ; but credulous, and too tions. The whole life of Antar, as nar- fond of dealing in conjecture. (Biog. rated in the romance compiled by Asmaï Univ.) (vide Asmaï), and bearing the title of ANTELMI, (Nicolas,) canon and Antarîyah, appears a continual succession vicar-general of the church of Frejus, in of martial achievements. Not only hostile the earlier part of the seventeenth century, Arabs, but Greeks, Persians, and Ethio- and the friend of Peiresc. He wrote pians, feel the almost superhuman force some Adversaria, mentioned by Joseph of his invincible arm : his sword Dhami, Antelmi. and his horse Abjer, share in romance ANTELMI, (Pierre,) nephew of Nicothe celebrity of their owner: and the las, was born at Frejus, and studied at title of Abu'l-Faouris (the Father of Paris theology and jurisprudence, taking Horsemen,) conferred on him by common his doctor's degree in both faculties. He consent, testifies the supremacy of his continued for some time a sort of rivalry valour. After much opposition from the in the collection of a cabinet of antiKoreish, he succeeded in placing one of quities, which had been commenced by his compositions in the sanctuary of the his uncle, against Peiresc; and on his Kaaba, as one of the seven Moallakat, or uncle's death, succeeded' him in his suspended poems ; and by Sir William canonry. He died in 1668. (Biog. Jones's translation of this poem, the Univ.) name of Antar first became known in ANTELMY, (Pierre Thomas,) Europe : but his exploits have since been French mathematician, born in 1730, rendered more familiar by the publication, died in 1783. He was a professor at the in 1820, of an English version of the first Ecole Militaire, where he made some part of the romance bearing his name, astronomical observations, inserted in the by Mr. Terrick Hamilton. He is said to Memoirs of the Academy. He also transhave fallen in battle, by the hand of a lated Agensi's work from the Italian, pardoned enemy, shortly after the birth and Lessing's Fables and Klopstock's of Mohammed, and of his descendants, Messiah from the German. (Biog. Univ.) no details appear to have been pre
ANTENOR, or AGENOR, a sculptor served.
who lived at Athens in the seventy-sixth ANTELAMI, or ANTELMI, (Bene- Olympiad. He is celebrated for executing detto,) a sculptor who flourished at Parma the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, in the latter part of the twelfth century. designed to replace those in bronze, Lanzi says that he executed " a basso- which had been taken away by Xerxes. relievo, representing the Crucifixion of Alexander the Great restored the original our Lord, in the cathedral, which, though statues to the Athenians. Pliny (lib. the production of a rude age, had nothing xxxiv. c. 8) attributes these to Praxiteles, in sculpture equal to it, that I have been which is evidently a mistake, since able to meet with, until the period of Xerxes captured Athens in 480 B.C. ;
and Praxiteles did not flourish till eighty prefect of the East, was in 405 consul years later. This sculptor is mentioned and prefect under Arcadius. On the by Pausanias. Winkelmann calls him death of Arcadius, Anthemius managed Agenor.
the affairs of the empire during the minoANTEROS, (St.) a Greek, was chosen rity of Theodosius II. with great abibishop of Rome in 235, during the per- lity and integrity. In 414, he retired secution of Maximinus, and died in 236. from his dignities, and passed the rest of
ANTESIGNAN, (Pierre,) a gramma- his life in obscurity. (Biog. Univ. rian in the sixteenth century, born at Gibbon.) Rabasteins in Languedoc, published a ANTHEMIUS, (Emperor of the West,) Greek grammar, which was often re- was grandson of the preceding. In 467, printed, and a work on Universal Gram- when Italy was suffering under the mar, an extensive but badly arranged tyranny of Ricimer, Anthemius was reproduction. He also edited Terence, with ceived as emperor, giving to Ricimer notes and other assistances for the student, his daughter in marriage. Ricimer, at Lyons in 1556.
however, quarrelled with his father-inANTHAKI, (born in Antioch,) the law, and appearing in arms against him, surname of a christian bishop of Said, advanced against Rome, which he sacked, who wrote in defence of the doctrines of and put Anthemius to death in 472. (GibChristianity against the Mohammedan bon.) theologians. An answer was written by ANTHEMIUS, of Tralles, in Lyone of them, named Takieddin Ahmed dia, a celebrated mathematician and Bin Abdalhalim Bin Taimiah, who en- architect
, who flourished about A. c. 532. titled his work, The True Answer to him Procopius de Ædific. ii. 3, says he dewho pretends to justify the Religion of signed the temple of S. Sophia, at Conthe Messiah. The two works appear to stantinople; but as he lived only to lay have been written at the end of the the foundation, it was completed by seventh or beginning of the eighth cen- Isidorus of Miletus. A fragment of his tury.
work, Περι Παραδοξων Μηχανηματων, ANTHEASOF LINDUS, was, accord- was first published by Du Puy, in the ing to his own confession, (says Athenæus, Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences x. p. 445,) a relation of Cleobulus, one of for 1777, accompanied with a French the wise men of Greece. His whole life translation and notes. It describes the was given rather to pleasure than philo- method of constructing hexagonic burning sophy, as a votary of Bacchus, in whose mirrors, and shows, as Buffon had ashonour he seems to have composed some serted, and partially proved by expericomedies. He was likewise the inventor ments detailed in the same Mémoires of a kind of poetry, where compound for 1747, that the story of Archimedes words abounded, such as we find in the burning the Roman fleet at Syracuse, was Dithyrambics of Pratinas, and in the not altogether unfounded. Agathias, too, last scene of the Ecclesiazusæ of Ari- mentions the account of his frightening stophanes.
the rhetorician Zeno by means of an ANTHELME, called also Nauthelme, artificial earthquake, produced by the and sometimes Ancelin, descended from explosion of a steam boiler, or a compothe lords of Chignin, in Savoy, after sition similar to gunpowder. having been provost of the cathedral of ANTHERMUS, a Chian sculptor, son Geneva, and sacristan of that of Belley, of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He was in 1139 made prior of the great and his brother Bupalus, according to Carthusian convent of Portes. In 1161, Pliny, lib. xxxvi. ch. 5, made a statue of or 1163, he was consecrated bishop of the poet Hipponax, who was remarkable Belley by Pope Alexander III., whose for his ugliness, which caused universal cause he had sustained against the parti, laughter, on account of the deformity of sans of the anti-pope Octavian. He died its countenance. The poet was so inon the 26th June, 1178. (Hist. Lit. de censed, and wrote with so much bitterFrance, xiv. 613.) He is known as the ness against the statuaries, that they are author of some epistles printed by Du- said to have hanged themselves. chesne, Mabillon, and Martene. His ANTHEUNIS, (James,) a theologian zeal in defence of the privileges of the of Middleburg, lived at the end of the church was so acceptable to the court fifteenth century. He was vicar-general of Rome, that after his death he was at Brussels, in the diocese of Cambray, canonized.
in the episcopacy of Henry de Bergher. ANTHEMIUS, grandson of Philip, He is author of a work entitled Elegans