Antiochus X. (called Eusebes,) son of the preceding, continued the war against Seleucus VI. He married Selene, the widow of Antiochus Grypus, and is supposed to have died about B. c. 75.

Antiochus XI. (surnamed Epiphanes and Philadelphus,) claimed the kingdom with Philip, on the death of their brother Seleucus VI. They were defeated by Antiochus X., and he died B. c. 93.

Antiochus XII. succeeded to Demetrius III. He was killed in war with the Arabs, about B. c. 85.

Antiochus XIII. (Asiaticus,) son of Antiochus X. and Selene, was sent to Rome, by her, to claim the kingdom of Egypt, and in returning he was plundered by Verres in Sicily. He was restored to the throne of Syria by Lucullus, but deprived of his sovereignty by Pompey, B. c. 64, when Syria became a Roman province.

ANTIOCHUS, king of Commagene, in Asia, was an ally of Tigranes, against the Romans. He concluded peace with Lucullus, B. c. 69, but was afterwards engaged in war, and defeated by Pompey; and again by Ventidius, one of Mark Antony's generals.

ANTIOCHUS II., son of the preceding, was put to death at Rome by order of Augustus, B. c. 29.

ANTIOCHUS.-1. Of Syracuse, was the son of Xenophanes, and an historian of Sicily and Italy, anterior to the time of Timæus. His narrative was brought down to Ol. 87, and extended through nine books. The last is quoted by Clemens Alex. Protrept. p. 22.-2. Of Ascalon, was a philosopher, who seems to have partially mixed up the dogmas of the Academy with those of the Porch. He attended Lucullus in his expedition against Tigridates, and wrote an account of it, quoted by Plutarch, i. p. 178, Xyl. Attracted by the grace and fluency of his style, Cicero was not only led to the study of philosophy, but at his suggestion, after the death of Sylla, took part in public affairs, as we learn from Plutarch, i. p. 442. His philosophical work, Ilept Twv KakonKwv, is mentioned by Sext. Empiric. Pyrrhon. i. p. 33.-3. Of Alexandria, wrote a work on the poets who were ridiculed by the writers of the new comedy at Athens. To the same individual, Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. attributes the work on the Mythological Stories connected with different cities, mentioned in Photius, Biblioth. cod. 190.-4. Of Cilicia, a sophist, whose Ayopa, probably a kind of

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ANTIOCHUS, (St.) was born of an equestrian family in Mauritania; and after some years spent in the acquisition of both sacred and profane learning, he finally gave his attention to the study of medicine, not with a view to enrich himself, but merely that he might be useful to mankind. He passed some time in Asia Minor, exercising his profession gratuitously, and converting his patients to Christianity. During the persecution under the emperor Adrian, A. D. 118, he was seized in the island of Sardinia, and it is reported by tradition, that after being tortured and miraculously delivered, he was at last taken up into heaven. The Romish church celebrates his memory on the 13th of December. (Martyrologium Romanum. Bzovius, Nomenclator Sanctorum Professione Medicorum.)

ANTIOCHUS, a saint and martyr, by profession a physician, was born at Sebaste in Armenia, and was put to death during the persecution under the emperor Diocletian, A. D. 303. After being tortured, by command of the præfect Adrianus, and thrown among wild beasts, that are said to have spared his life, he was at last beheaded. The tradition adds, that milk instead of blood issued from his neck, and that Cyriacus, the executioner, struck with admiration at the fortitude of the saint, and at the miracle, immediately professed himself a Christian, and suffered martyrdom with him. The 15th of July is the day on which his memory is celebrated. (Acta Sanctorum. Martyrologium Romanum.)

ANTIOCHUS, an old physician, mentioned by Galen as an example of the good effects produced by paying attention to diet, &c., without the aid of medicines. He lived to nearly the age of a hundred, always enjoyed good health, and even when upwards of eighty years old was able to visit his patients on foot. He appears to have been a contemporary of Galen, who gives a detailed account of his diet and mode of living, De Sanit. tuendâ, lib. v. cap. 4. Perhaps he is

the same person as the Antiochus quoted by Aëtius, Tetrab. i. serm. iii. cap. 114; and by Paulus Ægineta, lib. vii. cap. 8. ANTIOCHUS, a monk of Seba, in Palestine, lived early in the seventh century. He wrote one hundred and ninety homilies, under the collective title of Pandecta Divinæ Scripturæ, and a poem on the loss of the real cross, at the taking of Jerusalem by the Persians, which is inserted in the Supplement to the Bibliotheca Patrum. (Biog. Univ.)

ANTIPATER, son of Cassandra, contested the crown of Macedon with his brother Alexander, on the death of Philip his elder brother, about B. c. 290.

ANTIPATER, or ANTIPAS, was governor of Idumea, under Alexander Jannes, and Alexandra his widow. He rendered Julius Cæsar considerable assistance in the Alexandrine war, and was appointed by him procurator of Judæa. He died of poison, B. c. 49. He was the father of Herod.

ANTIPATER. Of the other different persons who bore this name, the following alone merit the least notice.

1. The son of Iolaus. He was born at Paliura, a city of Macedonia; and after being the pupil of Aristotle, became first the friend, and then prime minister, to Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, by whom such was the opinion formed of his talents, that when the monarch rose one day later than usual, he said, "he had slept, only because he knew Antipater was awake." After the death of Philip, he was appointed by Alexander to rule in conjunction with Olympias over Macedonia. But as his best plans were frustrated or foiled by the ambition or perverseness of the widowed queen, Antipater on his death-bed is said to have cautioned all states against permitting a woman to take the least part in public affairs. During the absence of Alexander, he performed the part of viceroy in a manner at once honourable to himself and the empire, by defeating the Peloponnesian forces under Agis, on the same day that Alexander routed the army of Darius-an event that led the latter to say, that the battle which took place in Arcadia was, when compared with the one on the banks of the Granicus, a contest of mice, as we learn from Plutarch.

Upon the death of Alexander, Antipater was compelled to oppose the united powers of Greece, bent on recovering the liberty they had lost in the time of Philip. Defeated in the neighbourhood of Lamia,


he was obliged to shut himself up in that town, and would have been taken there, had not Leonatus come to his assistance from Asia; where, after forcing the enemy to raise the siege, he appeared again in the field, and with the aid of Craterus, defeated the Greeks at Cranon; from whence he marched to Athens, and compelled the Athenians to adopt a less popular form of government; and he would probably have destroyed the place, as Philip did Thebes, had he not been restrained by a regard for the native land of Phocion. On his return to Macedonia, he continued to be occupied in the affairs of his country to such an advanced that the orator Demades, when writing to Antigonus, requested the latter to appear as a god in Greece, which as Plutarch, in Phocion, ss. 30, observes, was hanging by an old and rotten thread. He died about B. c. 317. Justin (xii. 14) assigns various reasons for supposing that Antipater was implicated in the murder of Alexander, by sending to his sons Philip and Iolas, the cup-bearers of the prince, a poison called Styx-water, and obtained from Nonacris in Arcadia, and the knowledge of which Pliny (H. N. xxx. 16) would lead us to believe was obtained from Aristotle; and was said to be of so corrosive a nature, as to eat through every substance, but the hoof of a horse, ass or mule, according to Justin, Ælian, and Arrian respectively. He appears to have left a collection of letters in two books, Eudocia says twenty, relating to Alexander the Great; from which, says Fabricius, both Pliny and Plutarch, in all probability, derived their information. He was the only one of the successors of Alexander who refused to call the hero of Macedon a god. He wrote likewise the history of the campaigns of Perdiccas, to whom he was occasionally opposed.

2. A philosopher of Tarsus, who, (says Plutarch, in Marius, ss. 46) when he was reckoning up at the close of life the good things that had happened to him, did not forget his having sailed to Athens in safety. Being asked to dispute with Carneades, he refused to do so; but said he would talk with a reed (pen), and hence he was called kaλaμoßoas, “reedbrawler." He was the pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, and the master of Panatius, and is placed by Seneca and Arrian amongst the Stoics. Of his works, little more than the titles have been preserved, with the exception of a fragment on Marriage, quoted by Stobæus, (Tit. 67 and 70.)

3. L. Calius, born about B. c. 128, wrote a history of Rome, which, says Cicero (Epist. Attic, xiii. 8), M. Brutus abridged. Only a few fragments of a work, that the emperor Adrian, as stated by Spartianus, in his life, preferred to Sallust, as he did Ennius to Virgil, and Cato to Cæsar, have been preserved and printed at the end of Havercamp's Sallust, and more recently by Krause, in Vitæ et Fragmenta Veterum Hist. Romanor. Berolin. 1833. According to Livy, (xxvii. 27,) Antipater's history was tripartite; for one portion detailed what was the common rumour; another what his son had witnessed, probably in the second Punic war; and the third, what his researches in other quarters enabled him to state.

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9. Antipater, the father of Nicolaus Damascenus, the historian, was celebrated (says Suidas) no less for his wealth than virtues. At his death, he strictly enjoined his son Nicolaus not to forget to

procure the incense-cup he had vowed to Jupiter.

10. The rhetorician and pupil of Adrian, mentioned by Eudocia (in Violet. p. 57), and perhaps the same as the grammarian quoted by Diogenes Laertius and the Scholiast on Aristophanes.

11. The sophist of Hierapolis, and the secretary of the emperor Severus, whose history he wrote, and composed some Olynthiac and Panathenaic speeches, probably in imitation of Demosthenes and Isocrates: at least to some such writer, we must attribute the spurious orations attributed to the great Athenian speaker.

12. The historian of the life of Aureolus Tyrannus, whom he appears to have flattered so extravagantly as to be considered by Trebellius Pollio (in Claudian, ss. 5) the disgrace of historians.

13. An historian of Rhodes, known only by a quotation of Stephan. Byzant.

ANTIPATER, a physician at Rome in the second century, belonging to the Methodic sect, (Galen, tom. xiv. p. 684, ed. Kühn.) He is several times mentioned by Galen, and his medical formulæ frequently quoted, (tom. xiii. pp.136, 931, 983, &c.); and a very interesting account of his death (which Galen had prognosticated from the inequality and irregularity of his pulse) is given, De Locis Affectis, lib. iv. cap. 11; (tom. viii. p. 293, &c.)

ANTIPHANES, the comic writer, flourished a little antecedent to the time of Alexander the Great; who was not much pleased with the then favourite of the Athenian people, by whose suffrages he carried off eleven prizes in the dramatic contests; although he might have fairly calculated upon a greater number, as he is said to have written 280 plays, and to have lived seventy-four years. Of his parentage little is known. Some say he was the son of Demophanes, others of Stephanus, which is the more probable, as he had a son called Stephanus, and grand-children, we know, were accustomed to take the name of the grandfather; and as he was descended from slaves, it is probable that his mother's master was Demophanes. Equally uncertain is the place of his birth, whether Smyrna, or Rhodes, according to Dionysius. All this uncertainty would, however, in all probability have been cleared up, had the work of Dorotheus of Ascalon upon Antiphanes, which is mentioned by Athenæus, (xiv. p. 662, F.) come down to us. Amongst the more modern critics, Koppiers, a pupil of Valckenaer, has

written a good deal upon Antiphanes in Observat. Philolog. Lugd. Bat. 1771; and more recently, Fynes Clinton has printed some of the fragments in the Philological Museum, No. iii. p. 35.

2. Suidas makes mention of a second Antiphanes, a comic writer, who was junior to Panatius, and a third of Carystus in Euboea, who was said to be contemporary with Thespis.

3. Antiphanes of Berge in Thrace wrote a work so little worthy of credit, that according to Strabo (i. p. 81), the very word, to Bergaize, became the nickname for a retailer of incredible stories, like that of the fictitious Munchausen; who copied an anecdote mentioned in Plutarch, (ii. p. 78. Xyl.) where Antiphanes is reported to have said that in a certain city the cold was so intense, as to freeze the very words in the moment of utterance, and which were only heard in the summer, when the frost had disappeared. Plutarch indeed attributes the story to the dramatist, but it seems more in character with the Bergean.

4. A writer of epigrams, a few of which are preserved in the Anthologia Græca. He was born at Megalopolis.

ANTIPHANES, an ingenious statuary of Argos, mentioned by Pausanias, whose statues of Erasus, Aphidas, and Elatus, were still seen and admired in the temple of Delphi, in the age of the Antonines. ANTIPHANES, a physician of Delos, whose age is unknown, who is mentioned by Clemens Alexandrinus as having said that "the only cause of diseases to man was the variety of his food." (2 Pædagogi, cap. 1. p. 140.) He is mentioned by Galen, (De Composit. Medicam. secundum Loca, lib. v. cap. 5 ;) and Cælius Aurelianus quotes (De Morb. Chron. lib. iv. cap. 8) a work of his called Panoptes.

ANTIPHILUS, a painter, the contemporary and rival of Apelles; was born in Egypt, and was pupil of Ctesidemus. He is distinguished by great facility of style; one of his most beautiful works represented a youth employed in blowing a fire, from which the whole house seemed to be illuminated. A satyr dressed in the skin of a panther, was also admired. Pliny, lib. xxxv. ch. 10, mentions many of this artist's works, and enumerates those he had seen. Antiphilus was the designer of a figure which he called Gryllus, a name that continued afterwards to be applied to that species of caricature. When at the court of Ptolemy, to which he was attached, his jealousy was excited by the arrival of Apelles, whom he ac

cused of having been implicated in the conspiracy of Theodotus, governor of Phoenicia, affirming that he had seen him at dinner with Theodotus, and that by the advice of Apelles, the city of Tyre had revolted, and Pelusium had been taken. The accusation was totally groundless, Apelles never having been at Tyre, and having no acquaintance with Theodotus. Ptolemy, however, in his resentment, without examining into the affair, concluded him guilty, and would have punished him with death, had not an accomplice of the conspirators declared his innocence, and proved that the accusation originated in the jealousy and malevolence of Antiphilus. Stung with confusion at having listened to so infamous a slander, Ptolemy restored Apelles to his favour, presented him with a hundred talents, to compensate the injury he had sustained, and Antiphilus was in his turn bound in chains, and condemned to slavery for life. Pausanias mentions a statuary of the same name, of whom he saw many works at Olympia, in the place called the Treasury. (Bryan's Dict. Lemprière's Clas. Dict. Biog. Univ.)

ANTIPHO, the son of Sophilus, a schoolmaster, was born Ol. 75, at Athens, in the borough of Rhamnus, and is reckoned amongst the ten orators, to which that city gave birth. Unwilling, however, to appear often as a public speaker, he chose rather to write speeches for those engaged in law-suits; and according to Philostratus, used to boast that "there was no sorrow so severe that his painless speeches could not root out from the mind." But though Antipho seldom appeared in public, yet when he did so, in the opinion of his pupil Thucydides, viii. he excelled all his contemporaries in the conception and expression of his thoughts; and as a moral character, was inferior to none. He was the first, says Quintilian, iii. 1, to compose a written speech, and amongst the first to publish a treatise on rhetoric, which consisted of at least three books, as may be inferred from Ammonius and Pseud-Apsines; and contained in all probability specimens of the manner in which a speech ought to commence; at least the Proems of Antipho are twice quoted by Suidas. According to the author, probably Cæcilius, whom Photius and Pseudo-Plutarch followed, Antipho was a very successful general, and served the office of hierarch so nobly as to fit out at his own expense sixty (in

Greek έnkovra,) triremes. But the story carries its own refutation on the face of it. He might indeed have equipped six or seven (en каι èπта,) vessels, and even this is not very likely, if it be true that he was ridiculed by Plato the dramatist for his love of money. Towards the close of his life, he was connected with Peisander and others in new modelling the form of government in favour of the Four Hundred; and as he was thus opposed to the democratic party, it was only natural for him to be accused of treason when he returned from an unsuccessful embassy to Sparta; and though his defence was an able one, yet it did not save him from being found guilty, when his goods were forfeited, his body denied burial, and his house razed to the ground, and a pole stuck up on the spot, with the inscription, "This was the ground of the traitor Antipho." The oration to which Thucydides alludes was extant in the time of Harpocration; and it was that perhaps which gave rise to his being called the Nestor of the bar. Respecting his style, however, there seems to be an equal disagreement amongst the critics of ancient and modern times. Dionysius says that his language was austere and antiquated, and by no means agreeable; while Cæcilius, on the other hand, speaks of him as possessing all the requisites of a finished orator. So too amongst the moderns, Jensius sets down all the extant orations as spurious; while Reiske considers only the first and last as connected with real events, and rejects the rest as merely sophistical exercises. Ruhnken, however, shows that the 4th, 5th, and 10th, are quoted as genuine by Harpocration; nor is the least hint thrown out respecting the spuriousness of the others; although it is true that in the time of Cæcilius, twenty-five of those attributed to Antipho were rejected as forgeries.

2. Contemporary with the orator, or rather a little posterior to him, was Antipho, the dream and miracle expounder, who wrote various treatises, of which little more than the titles have been preserved. According to Origen against Celsus, iv. p. 176, he denied in his work upon Truth the existence of a Providence, and thus anticipated the doctrines of Epicurus; while from his conversation with Socrates, as detailed in Xenophon's Memorab. i. 6, it appears that he was a sophist, or, as Suidas calls him, a word-cook; an appellation well suited to the individual, who was in the habit of

selling his words at the best market, and who considered happiness to centre in all that ministered to luxurious and ex pensive habits. Such was the similarity of his style with that of the orator, that Hermogenes confessed himself at a loss to decide between their respective productions.

3. The tragedian, who is said to have been beaten to death by Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse; for when asked, according to Plutarch, ii. p. 68, A. and p. 1051. C. what kind of copper was the best, he answered, that of which the Athenians made the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton. Of his plays, the titles of only two have been preserved, the Andromache and Meleager; for the Plexippus was not a play, but only one of the characters in the Meleager, as shown by Ruhnken.

4. The mathematician and natural philosopher, whose attempt to square the circle is mentioned by Aristotle in Soph. Elench. i. 10, and Physic. Auscult. i. 2. 5. A collector of anecdotes, quoted by Diogen. Laert. viii. 3.

6. A writer on husbandry, known only from Athenæus.

ANTIQUARIO, (Jacopo,) of Perugia, was a learned Italian, who lived at the end of the fifteenth, and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. He was secretary to Cardinal Savelli, legate at Bologna; and afterwards to Giovanni Galeozzo and Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan. He published the first, and perhaps only entire edition of the works of Campanus in 1495. As an author he is not much known, but he was an important person in the literary history of his times. He left, however, an Oratio, Milan, 1509; and a volume of Latin letters, printed at Perugia in 1519. He died at Milan in 1512.

ANTIQUUS, (John, October 11, 1702 -1750,) a painter of history, was born at Groningen, and learned the art of painting on glass from Gerard Vander Veen, which he practised for some years; but afterwards became a scholar of John Abel Wassenberg, a respectable painter of history and portraits. At twenty-three years of age, he went by sea with his brother Lambert, a landscape painter, to Genoa. During the voyage, John made a portrait of the captain, which was esteemed so much like, that he would not receive any money from the two artists for their passage. Arrived at Genoa, portraits were their resource; and after six months' sojourn, they went to Florence. The

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