city peculiar to his species. The fury of the elements appears to rouse him from his ordinary stillness. During the nights of heavy rain, thunder and lightning, he is particularly active; advances upon his prey with less than usual caution, and is not at once driven off by the barking of dogs, and the sound of muskets. It is related by a traveller, that "the lion came steadily forward, and stood still to look at us." We felt our situation not free from danger, as the animal scemed preparing to spring upon us. We were standing on the bank at the distance of only a few yards from him, most of us being on foot and unarmed, without any visible possibility of escaping. I had given up my horse to the hunters, and was on foot myself, but there was no time for fear, and it was useless to attempt to avoid him. I stood well upon my guard, holding my pistols in my hands, with my finger on the trigger, and those who had muskets kept themselves prepared in the same manner. At this instant, the dogs boldly flew in between us and the lion, and surrounding him, kept him at bay by their violent and resolute looking. They advanced up to the side of the huge beast, and stood making the greatest clamour in his face, without the least appearance of fear. The lion, conscious of his strength, remained unmoved at their noisy attempts, and kept his head turned towards us. At one moment, the dogs seemed as if they would actually seize hold of him, and without discomposing the majestic attitude in which he stood fixed, he merely moved his paw, and at the next instant, two laid dead. We fired upon him; one of the balls went through his side between the short ribs, and the blood began to flow, but the animal still remained standing in the same position. Every gun was instantly re-loaded, and we had no doubt he would spring upon us; but we were not sorry to see him move quietly away."

It seems to be a fact well established, that the lion prefers the flesh of a Hottentot to any other creature. Mr. Barrow tells us of the escape of a Hottentot from a lion, which pursued him from a pool of water where he was driving his cattle to drink, to an aloe tree, in which the man remained for twenty four hours, while the lion laid himself down at the foot. The perseverance of the beast was at length worn out by his desire to drink; and in his temporary absence to satisfy his thirst, the Hottentot fled to his home about a mile off. The lion, however, returned to the aloe tree, and tracked the man within three hundred paces of his house.

A relation of a lion hunt, in 1822, by Mr. Pringle, a settler on the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony, is peculiarly interesting.

"One night, a lion that had previously purloined a few sheep out of my kraal, came down and killed my riding horse, about a hundred yards from the door of my cabin. Knowing that the lion, when he does not carry off his prey, usually conceals himself in the vicinity, and is very apt to be dangerous by prowling about the place in search of more game, I resolved to have him destroyed or dislodged without delay. I therefore sent a messenger round the location, to invite all who were willing to assist in the enterprise, to repair to the place of rendezvous as speedily as possible. In an hour, every man of the

party, but two appeared ready mounted and armed, with about a dozen Bastard's or mulatto Hottentots. Commencing from the spot where the horse was killed, we tracked him into a large bosch, or straggling thicket of brushwood, about a mile distant. Finding that the few indifferent hounds we had, made little impression on the enemy, they divided themselves into two or three parties, and frode round the jungle, firing into the spot where the dogs were barking round him, but without effect. At length three of the men went to within fifteen or twenty paces of the spot where the animal lay_concealed. He was couched among the roots of a large evergreen bush, with a small space of open ground on one side of it; they fired but missed the lion; he growled furiously, and bolted from the bush, and in a twinkling, dashed the nearest to the ground, and with his foot on his prostrate foe, looked round in conscious power and pride, upon the bands of his assailants, and with a port the most noble and imposing that can be conceived. We expected every instant to see one or more of them torn in pieces; and though the rest of the party were standing within fifty paces with their guns cocked and levelled, they durst not fire. One lying under the lion's paw, and the other two crawling towards us, but in a way to intercept our aim at him. Luckily, the lion after surveying us for a few seconds, seemed willing to depart, and with a fortunate forbearance, turned calmly away; and the man on whom he had placed his paw; had sustained no other injury than a slight scratch on the face, and a severe bruise on the ribs, from the force the animal had dashed him to the ground. It seems these relentless beings could not appreciate the forbearance of the magnanimous conduct of this noble animal. He bounded over the plain into a glen by the side of a river, under a mi mosa tree, whither they followed him; the bastards went to the top of a precipice, overlooking the place where the creature stood, and the other people separating into two parties, the one to the one side, and the other to the other of the glen. He strongly evinced his pro vocation at such ingratitude, but his merciless foes all fired at him; with their different positions, he was confounded; and battering at him simultaneously, he was at length overcome; he proved to be full grown of the yellow variety, five or six years of age, measuring twelve from the nose to the tip of the tail, with forelegs below the knee, eighteen inches thick. When skinned, his neck, breast, and limbs, were complete congeries of sinews."

The character of this "king of beasts" has been a good deal aspersed by some modern travellers; but as his name is so repeatedly connected with Holy Writ, in a way to show that in the former ages of the world, by people, whose location afforded them good opportunities of judging, he was selected as the emblem of strength, majasty, wisdom and courage, who did not perceive in him any trait like that of treachery; and to this day, no action of his is recorded, that will fairly bear that construction. I have deemed it proper to make a few remarks on the subject.

It is true, that since the period fire-arms were put into the hands of his hunters, he has acted with a greater degree of caution than

he was wont to do; this, however, is a proof of his sagacity. It is said that he lurks in copices and thickets, bouncing on his prey without facing it; this is neither a mark of cowardice nor of treachery, but only of his sagacity. He seldom preys until impelled by hunger; he does not, like the creature man, take life from a spirit of wantonness, nor does he give more fear to his victim than he can help. He does not, like him, hunt and put in terror for hours together, the victim he at last destroys, but without any warning, without giving more torment than what is actually necessary for the accomplishment of his purpose, in the order of nature, he slays and eats. He is created-is in existence, and consequently enjoined to make use of such means as to him are the most natural for obtaining a subsistence. He cannot, like man, sow and reap, plant and dig up, and if he could, the food supplied by such operations would not be of a nature adapted to his support. To him it would be useless. Not so with his vilifier man. He cannot only live upon it with comfort, but it is more congenial with his system, than many other things he obtains by means which are often cruel and oppressive, and things too frequently of a quality so deleterious, as to degrade him beneath the level of brutes, with which the noble lion would scorn a comparison.

In the words of Micah, we shall conclude our remarks.-"The church is likened to a lion strengthened of God; she overcomes, and is terrible to all that oppose her."-Philadelphia Recorder.


Our readers will have noticed, that the name of Schwartz, is frequently introduced, when faithful and devoted servants of Jesus, are spoken of. Hence we cannot doubt, but that a brief sketch of his life, and close of his earthly career, will be interesting. Never was there a more faithful and successful missionary than Schwartz, who spent the greater part of his life among heathens, with no other object in view, than to be instrumental, in converting them to Jesus Christ. It is to us a most pleasing fact, that all who are interested for the cause of Christ, admit, that this servant of our Lord, ranks among the stars of the first magnitude. He drank the first milk of the Gospel in the Evangelical Lutheran Church.

We have in our possession a number of his letters, in the German language, which we shall endeavor to translate for the Intelligencer.


The Rev. Mr. SCHWARTZ was born in Germany, in the year 1726. On the 17th of July, 1750, he arrived at Madras, at the age of

twenty-four, to preach "to the Gentiles" of Hindoostan, "the unscearchable riches of Christ." That he might be more extensively useful, he made himself master of four different languages. His labors were various and immense. He preached much, very often several times in a day. He frequently visited the different churches planted on the southeast coast of India. He instructed the schools of the Malabar children. He visited the sick; and he was often employed in secular transactions of a difficult and confidential nature for the government and for individuals. Even in his sixty eighth year, when on a visit to the churches of Cuddalore and Negapatnam, he commonly preached three times every day, in English, Portuguese, and Malabar. In this "labor of love," he was actuated by the purest motives. Salvation by grace, through the atonement of Christ, embraced by faith, and evidenced by a life of holiness and devotedness to God, was the theme on which he dwelt with peculiar pleasure, energy, and effect. He was himself a shining example of primitive Christianity, and might justly have said, "Be ye followers of me as I am of Christ." So established was his character for integrity, that he was honored with the confidence, not only of the Europeans within his extensive sphere, but also of the native Princes and their subjects. When Tanjore was beseiged, and the garrison perishing with hunger, and when the Rajah solicited and promised in vain; Mr, Schwartz, by merely giving his own personal promise of payment to the country people, prevailed on them to bring in corn by night, and thus saved that important fortress. The late Rajah of Tanjore, though a heathen, frequently consulted Mr. Schwartz on affairs of magnitude; and also committed to the care of Mr. Schwartz his adopted son, the present Rajah; a young prince who favors the Christians in consequence of the impressions made upon his mind by his reverend guardian.

The road between Trichinapally and Tanjore had formerly been very unsafe, the inhabitants being chiefly collaries, or professed thieves; but since the late Mr. Schwartz had been among them so of ten, and had formed congregations in those parts, they had heard nothing of robberies. These people thankfully accepted certain regulations made during the visit of the missionaries, which regulations had also been well received in the more southern congregations; but when they were proposed to the Christians at Tanjore, objections were made to them, as arrangements which Mr. Schwartz had not judged needful. To such objection they replied, that during Mr. Schwartz's time, his presence and word had been instead of all regu lations.

The labors of Mr. Schwartz were not confined to the instruction and conversion of the Hindoos; but with equal earnestness and fidelity he exhorted nominal Christians, whenever they came in his way; English, Portuguese, and German; to "repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ," in order to obtain forgiveness & salvation.

*See the Society's Report for 1795, and the testimony of the Mar quis Cornwallis, p. 114.

Vol. V. No. 2.


After near half a century of uninterrupted and excessive labors and self-denial in the service of Christ, I find him in a series of confiden tial letters, which are now before me, exulting, at the close of his days in the prospect of a happy eternity; not building, however, his hope of acceptance with God, upon his own labors and merits; but on the undeserved grace of God, and the meritorious sacrifice of his. beloved Son.

It must afford sincere gratification to the Christian, that whilst adventurers will cheerfully expose themselves to the multiplied dangers of distant voyages and unhealthy climates in pursuit of gain, men are not wanting, who are ready "to forsake all," and freely and voluntarily to encounter as great dangers and greater hardships, for Christ's sake and the Gospel's.

It is a great consolation, that whilst the conduct of many Europeans might induce the Gentoos to suspect, that the God whom Christians worship is Mammon, a Schwartz has been raised up there, the excellence and lustre of whose Christian character and conduct have subdued prejudice, and enforced conviction; have filled the people with love, the Bramins with admiration, and the Rajah with rever


From the beginning of January to the middle of October, 1797, he pursued his labors in his ministerial office, and in his studies, with great fervor under all the disadvantages of his advanced age. He preached every Sunday in the English and Tamulian languages by turns; and on Wednesday he preached a lecture in the Portuguese language, for the space of several weeks, and afterwards in the German language to the privates, who had been made prisoners on the island of Ceylon; and having taken to the service, were incorporated in his Majesty's 51st regiment, stationed in this place.

He made likewise a journey to Trichinapally, and several times visited Vellam, (a town six miles from Tanjore,) in order to preach the word of God to some companies of the 51st regiment, stationed at that place, and to invite the heathen to accept the blessings of the Gospel.

During the course of the week, he explained the New Testament in his usual order at morning and evening prayers, which was begun and concluded by singing some verses of an hymn; and he dedicated an hour every day for instructing the Malabar school children in the doctrines of Christianity. He was very solicitous for their improvement in knowledge and piety, and particularly for those whom he had chosen and was training up for the service of the church; for whose benefit he wrote, during the latter part of his life, an explanation of the principal doctrines of Christianity, an abridgement of Bishop Newton's Exposition of the Revelation, and some other books.

Though his strength and vigor were greatly impaired, yet his love to his flock constrained him to deny a great deal of that ease and repose which his great age required, and to exert all his remaining strength for their improvement in true religion. He took a particular delight in visiting the members of his congregation with whom he con

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