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supposed it would then recognize the limits which either individuals or bodies in communion had attempted to place to the exercise of its Sovereign will. We are therefore under the necessity, as far as it may be desirable for us to become acquainted with the claims of the Church of Rome, to seek them, not from private opinions, but from its own authoritative and deliberate acts.
"We are also bound to consider," adds this writer, "that the dogmas of the Church of Rome are not subjects of mere speculation. She has always claimed a divine right to impose them on the minds of men, and has at different times, attained to a power of enforcing these claims, unexampled in the history of mankind.With those religious dogmas by which she still subjugates the souls of her votaries, we, who after two centuries of conflict have withdrawn from her dominion, have no concern, any further than she is amenable for them to the bar of reason and truth; but, besides the control which she exercises over those of her own communion, she has ever maintained certain rights towards those whom she is pleased to designate as heretics, and as often exercised those rights with a severity, for which no authority is to be found, except in her own traditions. We have, therefore, on our part, a right to demand a renunciation of those claims, as public and authoritative as the exercise of them has ever been, or to guard ourselves against their repetition, by such prudential and cautionary measures, as the circumstances of the times may require."*
These sentiments receive a strong corroboration from a document not alluded to by the editor of the above extracts from M. Sismondi, but which occurs in the appendix to a treatise by M. Aignan of the French Academy,† the second edition of which was published at Paris in 1818. "Passing," says he, "to the 10th article of the Concordat, in which it is said that His Most Christian Majesty shall employ in concert with the Holy Father, all the means in his power to cause to cease, as soon as possible, all the disorders and obstacles which obstruct the welfare of religion, and the execution of the laws of the Church were [the Protestants] to ask, although the profuse shedding of their blood might have informed them, what are the laws of the Church? The acts of Pius VII. himself, and the writings on which the Church rests her authority would answer,
THE EXTERMINATION OF HERETICS, THE CONFISCATION OF THEIR GOODS, AND THEIR PRIVATIONS OF EVERY CIVIL PRIVILEGE." Το this the author subjoins in a note: "Certain portions of real estate, which had belonged to ecclesiastics, had passed into the hands
*See pp. vi. and vii. of the Introductory Essay to the "History of the Crusades against the Albigenses in the Thirteenth Century, from the French of J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi," 8vo. London, 1826. It were to be wished that some of our enterprising booksellers would give this valuable, single volume to the American public by a timely reprint.
"On the condition of the Protestants in France, from the 16th century to our own times, with notes and historical illustrations." 8vo.
of Protestant princes. Pius VII., in 1805, complained of it to his nuncio residing at Vienna; and reminded him that according to the laws of the Church, not only could not heretics possess ecclesiastical property, but that also they could not possess any property whatever,. since the crime of heresy ought to be punished by the confiscation of goods. He added, that the subjects of a prince who is a heretic should be released from every duty to him, freed from all obligation and all homage. In truth,' said he, 'we have fallen on times so calamitous, and so humiliating to the Spouse of Jesus Christ, that it is not possible for her to practice, nor expedient, to recall so holy maxims; and she is forced to interrupt the course of her just severities against the enemies of the faith. But if she cannot exercise her right to depose the partisans of heresy from their principalities, and declare that they have forfeited all their goods; can she ever permit that, to enrich themselves, they should despoil her of her own proper dominions? What a subject of derision would she not present to these very heretics and unbelievers, who, while they insulted her grief, would say they had discovered the method of rendering her tolerant ?"* (To be concluded in the next number.)
*His Holiness" perhaps recollecting that this was the very method proposed in the celebrated book of Du Moulin, published in 1670, which he calls "Jugulum Causa"-exhorting the princes of Europe to carry his project into effect. At one period of his career, Bona. parte seemed likely to do it.
Sketch of the Life of the Rev. DAVID JACOBS.
Seldom has it fallen to the lot of the periodical press to deplore the death of one, who departed so early from the scene of his future promise, and from whom more could have been expected by our Lutheran Zion, than from the subjects of this obituary notice.
In him were exhibited even in early youth, the traits of a noble soul, and the promise of a future greatness; and these expectations. he honourably sustained, even until death. He stands (and especially to those more closely associated with him in life) as a beacon to all, and reminds us "that it is appointed unto man once to die, but after this the judgment." "Oh! may we die the death of the righteous, and may our end be like unto his."
Rev. DAVID JACOBS, was born on the 22d of November 1805 of respectable parents in Franklin County Pennsylvania. He commenced his studies in Hagerstown Academy on the 15th of June 1822, where he maintained a very respectable standing for talents and scholarship. In October 1823, he entered Jefferson College at Cannonsburg Pennsylvania. Throughout the whole course,
he acquitted himself to the full satisfaction of his teachers; was beloved by his fellow students, and much esteemed by all his acquaintances. He graduated about the close of September, 1825, and distinguished himseli particularly as a Linguist. Believing himself called to the gospel ministry, he soon after commenced the study of Theology under the care of the Rev. Mr. Kurtz, of Hagerstown Maryland. Some time after this, the Theological Seminary located at Gettysburg Pennsylvania, commenced its operations, and as it offered many facilities for young men preparing for the ministry, he entered it, as a student about the 8th of September, 1826. On June 25th, 1827, he took charge of the classical department (now the Gettysburg Gymnasium) which is connected with the Theological Seminary, in which he faithfully and honorably discharged the duties of his station, enjoying in a high degree, the respect and affection of all who were under his charge.
In this sphere of usefulness he continued, until the 3d of July, 1830, when he was compelled to relinquish his charge, by the delicate state of his health. His constitution naturally rather delicate, had for some time been sensibly affected by the arduous duties of his station. And although all his friends, and especially his students, who most needed his presence, united in urging him to travel for his health, yet no one thought him dangerously ill, much less for a moment yielded to the apprehension, that we should see his face no more in this world.
That we may learn with what conscientiousness he acted in all his undertakings, and with what christian submission he bore all his afflictions; we will make a few extracts from the journal, which he kept on his tour, and which was found among his baggage. Speaking of the considerations which influenced him to travel, he says:
"Having been in a delicate state of health for some months, I thought it prudent and necessary to travel for the improvement of my health. Endeavoring to commit myself to God-to the_guidance and protection of Providence, I left Gettysburg for Baltimore in company with Brother Wingard, (a Theological student from South Carolina,) on the 10th of September, 1830, expecting to go by water to Charlestown South Carolina, thence to Columbia, and return through North Carolina and Virginia home. I undertook the journey in order to accompany Brother Wingard (he being sick) and from a belief that it will be to my advantage to make a tour to the South. May the Lord be merciful to me, and grant me his protection and grace, and render efficient the means used for the restoration of my health.
May the Lord direct my steps throughout the vicissitudes and uncertainties of the residue of my appointed time upon earth; and whether it be long or short, may it he devoted to his service and to the best interests of immortal souls."
He had many trials to endure in his travels to the South-dangers stared him in the face-and his prospects appeared gloomy.
But amidst all his discouragements, he was perfectly resigned to the will of his Master. In consequence of being detained on the
way by accidents, he was eighteen days in reaching Lexington Courthouse South Carolina, the extreme southern point of his journey. His route was rather circuitous, amounting to a distance of seven hundred and forty eight miles; passing through the following places in his passage-Baltimore, Norfolk Va. Petersburg, Raleigh, North Carolina, Fayetteville, Cheraw S. Carolina, Camden and Columbia. On the night of the 7th September, the stage was upset. He however sustained little injury: but on the following day, he met with a more serious disaster, by the precipitation of the stage over the abutment of a bridge seven or eight on Fishing Creek Va. The stage was broken to pieces, he had his knee much hurt and Brother Wingard his arm fractured.
He was thus detained five days at the house of Col. Nicholson, who paid him every attention, until his leg was partially restored. In view of these accidents, he remarks;
"God moves in a mysterious way,
"Our plans have been changed and we have been interrupted in our progress have met with accidents and our prospects altogether discouraging, but we have reason to believe that all things work together for our good. We have been too ungrateful-too unmindful of the mercies and goodness of God; perhaps forgetting that our life and all its blessings and comforts are in his hands. Our Heavenly Father deals kindly and gently with us, if this prove ineffectual he sends us afflictions and shows us our danger. Thus we are called upon to prepare to meet our God, not knowing what day or hour we may be summoned hence. Oh! that all these things might have their desired effect-that we might become more faithful and more devoted to the service of God." Ah! he seems to approach near er to God in thought and feeling, little knowing how soon he was to be received into his blessed presence! On the 1st of October he turned his face homewards, and under the pressure of thought for home, and by a review of his misfortunes and mercies, he was led to remark : "In viewing the scenes through which we passed and the changes made in our plans, since leaving Gettysburg, I must say, great are the kindnesses and mercies of our God. At the time of our departure from Gettysburg, it was our design to proceed from Baltimore to Charleston S. Carolina by water. This plan was however frustrated for reasons then unknown to us, yet we supposed it to be the will of God. We then took the steam boat and stages,, and met with various disasters. Yet in these accidents great mercy was mixed with misfortune; not only in preventing a more serious injury, but in providing for us a person, who caused every attention to be paid us. After proceeding again a little distance, we heard of the yellow fever prevailing in Charleston, and thus we recognized the hand of God, in not permitting us to enter Charleston at this time. By our afflictions we are called upon to reflect, that our lives are altogether uncertain-that we are in the hands of God-that whether we experience affliction or prosperity, it is all designed for
our good. In the mercies of Providence, we are taught the character of him, who presides over our destinies. Oh! that we might be induced to show in our conduct a sense of dependence on him, and devotedness to his cause."
He designed to return to N. York by water, but finally abandoned this plan, and travelled on horseback in the interior of the country. He came on speedily to Woodstock Va. when through excessive fatigue, and exposure to continued rains, he became much indisposed, but still continued his journey to Shepherdstown Va. Unable to proceed any farther, he employed an able physician to attend him, but the art of Medicine could not restore him. He died on the 4th of November 1830, after an illness of several weeks, of a bilious inflammatory fever; aged 24 years 11 months and 12 days. During his illness, he was removed from the public inn, to the house of Mr. Smith, by whose family and a number of other friends, who called to lend their aid, he was treated with all the kindness and attention which could be desired. After his death he was taken to his native place, where he was interred. A large concourse of relations and friends attended on the solemn occasion, two sermons were preached, the one by the Rev. Mr. Ruthrauf, the other by the Rev. Mr. Kurtz. In the death of Mr. Jacobs, science and learning have lost an able patron; the church, a zealous and active minister; and a virtuous community a valuable member. His death is deeply lamented by his friends and relations; and especially by the Professors and the Students of the Institution. As a mark of respect to his memory, the members of the Theological Seminary and Gymnasium called a meeting, and adopted the following resolutions :
Resolved, That as an expression of our sincere regret at the death of the Rev. Mr. Jacobs, we wear black crape for a time not less than thirty days.
Resolved, That a committee be adopted to draft an obituary account of the deceased, and have it inserted in the public prints as soon as possible.
Preparation for Eternity-He who cannot find time to consult hisBible, will find one day that he has time to be sick; he who has no time to pray, must find time to die; he who can find no time to reflect is most likely to find time to sin; he who can find no time for repentance, will find an eternity in which repentance, will be of no avail. Let us then, under the influence of the Divine Spirit, seri-, ously reflect under what law we came into the world! "It is appoin ted unto all men once to die, and after this the judgment." Is it not. obvious, then that the design of life is to prepare for judgement: and that in proportion as we employ time well, we make immortality hap py?-Hannah Moore.