his generation. Two weeks since, on the Sabbath before his departure to Oahu to visit his sister Piia, he arose, after the morning sermon, and addressed his people in a pious and affectionate manner, exhorting them to turn from their sins and follies, and give themselves up to Christ. "As for myself," said he, "I have resolved to serve the Lord, and to seek for the salvation of my soul through Jesus Christ. As he gave himself up a sacrifice for our sins, so❞—said he, in allusion to the text of that morning-"do ye present your bodies a living sacrifice holy and acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service." He acknowledged his former remissness in the punishment of offenders against the laws enacted for the prevention of crime, and publicly announced his purpose of not suffering criminals to escape. "Let us observe," said he, "what the laws of God enjoin. If they say to us, You may steal, murder and commit adul tery, why then we will do it. But if not, then let us beware what we are about, for he sees us every day, and will judge us acording to our deeds."-Missionary Herald.


Advancement in the Morals, the Arts of Government & Civilized Life.

The following letter says the Missionary Herald, from the Rev. Samuel A. Worcester, missionary of the Board, residing at New Echota, in the Cherokee nation, was addressed to Mr. William S. Coodey, Secretary of the Cherokee delegation now at the city of Washington. The letter states with sufficient explicitness the occasion of its being written, the aim of the writer, and the means of information possessed by him. It was first published in connection with a report, presented by the Secretary of War, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, asking information respecting the progress made in civilizing the Indians during the last eight years, and their present condition. The letter of Mr. Worcester is dated 15th of March, 1830.

Dear sir,-I cheerfully comply with your request, that I would forward to you a statement respecting the progress of improvement among your people, the Cherokees. Whatever might be said of the propriety or impropriety of missionaries discussing the question of the removal of the Indians, it can hardly be doubted that it is proper for any one to give a statement of what passes under his observation, in regard to the present condition of the tribes interested in that question. I shall not say any thing in this communication, which I shall be unwilling to have come before the public, accompanied with my proper signature, if occasion require.

Whatever deficiencies there may be in my statements, I shall use my utmost endeavor, that nothing colored, nothing which will not bear the strictest scrutiny, may find a place.

It may not be amiss to state, briefly, what opportunities I have enVol. V. No. 4.


joyed of forming a judgment respecting the state of the Cherokee people. It was four years last October, since I came to the nation; during which time I have made it my home, having resided two years at Brainerd, and the remainder of the time at this place. Though I have not spent very much of the time in travelling, yet I have visited almost every part of the nation, except a section on the northeast. Two annual sessions of the General Council have passed while I have been residing at the seat of government, at which times a great number of the people of all classes and from all parts are to be seen.

The satistical information which has been published respecting this nation, I hope you have on hand, or will receive from some other source; it goes far towards giving a correct view of the state of the people. I have only to say, that, judging from what I see around me, I believe that a similar enumeration made the present year would show, by the comparison, a rapid improvement since the census was taken.

The printed constitution and laws of your nation, also, you doubtless have. They shew your progress in civil polity. As far as my knowledge extends they are executed with a good degree of efficiency, and their execution meets with not the least hindrance from any thing like a spirit of insubordination among the people. Oaths are constantly administered in the courts of justice, and I believe I have never heard of an instance of perjury.

It has been well observed by others, that the progress of a people in civilization is to be determined by comparing the present with the past. I can only compare what I see with what I am told has been.

The present principal chief is about forty years of age. When he was a boy, his father procured him a good suit of clothes, in the fashion of the sons of civilized people; but he was so ridiculed by his mates as a white boy, that he took off his new suit, and refused to wear it. The editor of the Cherokee Phoenix is twenty-seven years old. He well remembers that he felt awkward and ashamed of his singularity, when he began to wear the dress of a white boy. Now every boy is proud of a civilized suit, and those feel awkward and ashamed of their singularity who are destitute of it. At the last session of the General Council, I scarcely recollect having seen any members who were not clothed in the same manner as the white inhabitants of the neighboring states; and those very few (I am informed that the precise number was four) who were partially clothed in Indian style were, nevertheless, very decently attired. The dress of civilized people is generally throughout the nation. I have seen, I believe, only one Cherokee woman, and she an aged woman, away from her home, who was not clothed in, at least, a decent long gown. At home only one, a very aged woman, who appeared willing to be seen in the original native dress; three or four, only, who had at their own houses dressed themselves in Indian style, but hid themselves with shame at the approach of a stranger. I am thus particular, because, particularity gives more accurate ideas than general statements. Among the elderly men there is yet a considerable por

tion, I dare not say whether a majority or minority, who retain the Indian dress in part. The younger men almost all dress like the whites around them, except that the greater number wear a turban instead of a hat, and in cold weather a blanket frequently serves for a cloak. Cloaks, however, are becoming common. There yet remains room for improvement in dress, and that improvement is making with surprising rapidity.

The arts of spinning and weaving, the Cherokee women, generally put in practice. Most of their garments are of their own spinning and weaving, from cotton, the produce of their own fields; though considerable northern domestic, and much calico, is worn, nor is silk uncommon. Numbers of the men wear imported cloths, broadcloths, &c. and many wear mixed cotton and wool, the manufacture of their wives; but the greater part are clothed principally in cotton.


Except in the arts of spinning and weaving, but little progress has been made in manufactures. A few Cherokees, however, are mechanics.

Agriculture is the principal employment and support of the people. It is the dependence of almost every family. As to the wandering part of the people, who live by the chase, if they are to be found in the nation, I certainly have not found them, nor even heard of them, except from the floor of Congress, and other distant sources of information. 1 do not know of a single family who depend, in any considerable degree, on game for a support. It is true that deer and turkics are frequently killed, but not in sufficient numbers to form any dependence as the means of subsistence. The land is cultivated with very different degrees of industry; but I believe that few fail of an adequate supply of food. The ground is uniformly cultivated by means of the plough, and not, as formerly, by the hoe only.

The houses of the Cherokees are of all sorts, from an elegant painted or brick mansion, down to a very mean log cabin. If we speak, however, of the mass of the people, they live in comfortable log houses, generally one story high, but frequently two; sometimes of hewn logs, and sometimes of unhewn; commonly with a wooden chimney, and a floor of puncheons, or what a New England man would call slabs. Their houses arc not generally well furnished; many have scarcely any furniture, though a few are furnished even elegantly, and many decently. Improvement in the furniture of their houses appears to follow after improvement in dress, but at present is making rapid progress.

As to education, the number who can read and write English is considerable, though it bears but a moderate proportion to the whole population. Among such, the degree of improvement and intelligence is various. The Cherokee language, as far as I can judge, is read and written by a large majority of those between childhood and middle age. Only a few who are much beyond middle age have learned.

In regard to the progress of religion, I cannot, I suppose, do better than to state, as nearly as I am able, the number of members in the churches of the several denominations. The whole number of

native members of the Presbyterian churches is not far from 180. In the churches of the United Brethren, are about 54. In the Baptist churches I do not know the number; probably as many as 50. The Methodists, I believe, reckon in society, more than 800; of whom I suppose the greater part are natives. Many of the heathenish customs of the people have gone entirely, or almost entirely, into disuse, and others are fast following their steps. I believe the greater part of the people acknowledge the Christian religion to be true religion, although many who make this acknowledgment know very little of that religion, and many others do not feel its power. Through the blessing of our God, however, religion is steadily gaining ground.

But, it will be asked, is the improvement which has been described, general among the people, and are the full-blooded Indians civilized, or only the half-breeds? I answer that, in the description which I have spoken of the mass of the people, without distinction. If it be asked, however, what class are most advanced-I answer, as a general thing-those of mixed blood. They have taken the lead, although some of full blood are as refined as any. But, though those of mixed blood are generally in the van, as might naturally be expected, yet the whole mass of the people is on the march.

There is one other subject, on which I think it due to justice to give my testimony, whatever it may be worth. Whether the Cherokees are wise in desiring to remain here, or not, I express no opinion, But it is certainly fast, that it should be known whether or not they do, as a body, wish to remain. It is not possible for a person to dwell among them without hearing much on the subject, I have heard much. It is said, abroad, that the common people would gladly remove, but are deterred by the chiefs, and a few other influential men. It is not so. I say, with the utmost assurance, it is not so. Nothing is plainer, than that it is the earnest wish of the whole body of the people to remain where they are. They are not overawed by the chiefs. Individuals may be overawed by popular opinion, but not by the chiefs. On the other hand, if there were a chief in favor of removal, he would be overawed by the people. He would know that he could not open his mouth in favor of such a proposition, but on pain, not only of the failure of his re-election, but of popular odium and scorn. The whole tide of national feeling sets, in one strong and unbroken current, against a removal to the west.

By all these remarks I do not intend to convey the impression, that the Cherokees have already reached or nearly reached a level with the white people of the United States in point of civilization. But they have made great advances, and are steadily advancing still. It is only requisite that they be not hindered, and that the means which God has so abundantly blessed in this respect continue to operate, and there is every reason to believe their progress will continue. Any theory in regard to their removal from this place, which is built upon the supposition of the impossibility of their rising where they are, is opposed to fact. They can rise for they are rising.


Dr. Buchanan first attracted attention to these interesting, but degraded, inheritors of the Christian name. There are 13,000, families, and perhaps 70,000 souls.

They have 55 churches still in their hands: the Papists have appropriated several of these to themselves. These churches, in general, resemble the parish churches of our own country, though of course they are of various sizes, and differ much as to the style of architecture. Some of them are respectable buildings, and of a considerable extent. They have neither pews nor benches inside: at the east end there is a kind of altar, with steps, on which a cross is placed, and tapers lighted in time of worship. Their mode of worship strongly resembles that of the Armenian churches; and strikingly approaches, in different ceremonies, those of the Church of Rome: though they have crosses in their churches, there is no crucifix nor carved image. The service is read in the Syriac language, of which the people know nothing, and but few of the catanars are acquainted with it. The catanars are the priests. Here is no preaching; and nothing in the whole service for their edification, but a short extract from one of the Gospels which is read in Malayalim, which is the language of these Syrian Christians: of course, they are in a state of the most wretched ignorance. In fact, these churches are but so many limbs of Popery, from which, as to doctrinal sentiment, they do not essentially differ.

The Church missionaries have for their object the introduction of the pure Gospel among these benighted Christians. The Rev. Mr. Bailey is engaged in translating and printing the Scriptures in Malayalim, and has made considerable progress. The Rev. Mr. Doran is at the head of the college, in which are 51 students and stout boys: 28 of these are intended to be catanars: on examining all the pupils in mathematics, Latin, Greek, English, &c. we found them in a very reputable state of proficiency: the college building is large and commodious, and there is in it a valuable library. The Rev. Mr. Baker is at the head of the school system: here is a sort of grammar school, in which are 60 boys: from these are selected students for the college: we found them, also, in an excellent state; besides this, there are 55 other schools, containing about 1000 children of the Syrian Christians, in different parts of the country. Both the college and the schools are conducted on principles which are decidedly evangelical, to which the metropolitan does not object. He was from home, but we saw his substitute and representative. Of all the ca tanars, there is but one, a young man, who appears to be truly pious. Mr. Bailey has been permitted occasionally to preach in the churches; and a good understanding appears to exist between the missionaries, and the metropolitan and catanars.

Of these missionaries, with Mrs. Bailey and Mrs. Baker, we cannot speak too highly: they are truly pious, and breathe an excellent spirit; and appear to be greatly devoted to their difficult work.

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