Some years afterwards, “ business,” says Sprat, " passed of course into other hands;" and Cowley, being no longer useful at Paris, was in 1656 sent back into England, that, “ under pretence of privacy " and retirement, he might take occasion of giving “ notice of the posture of things in this nation.”

Soon after his return to London, he was seized by some messengers of the usurping powers, who'were sent out in quest of another man; and being examined, was put into confinement, from which he was not dismissed without the security of a thousand pounds given by Dr. Scarborough.

This year he published his poems, with a preface, in which he seems to have inserted something, suppressed in subsequent editions, which was interpreted to denote some relaxation of his loyalty. In this preface he declares, that “ his desire had been for “ fome days past, and did still very vehemently con“ tinue, to retire himself to some of the American “ plantations, and to forsake this world for ever.”

From the obloquy which the appearance of submission to the usurpers brought upon him, his biographer has been very diligent to clear him, and indeed it does not seem to have leffened his reputation. His wish for retirement we can easily believe to be undifsembled; a man harassed in one kingdom, and persecuted in another, who, after a course of business that employed all his days and half his nights in cyphering and decyphering, comes to his own country and steps into a prison, will be willing enough to retire to some place of quiet and of safety. Yet let neither our reverence for a genius, nor our pity for a fufferer, dispose us to forget



that, if his activity was virtue, his retreat was cowardice.

He then took upon himself the character of Phy fician, still, according to Sprat, with intention, “ to “ dissemble the main design of his coming over;" and, as Mr. Wood relares, “ complying with the " men then in power (which was much taken notice “ of by the royal party), he obtained an order to be “ created Doctor of Physick, which being done to “ his mind (whereby he gained the ill-will of some “ of his friends), he went into France again, having “ made a copy of verses on Oliver's death.”

This is no favourable representation, yet even in this not much wrong can be discovered. How far he complied with the men in power, is to be ena quired before he can be blamed. It is not said that he told them any secrets, or aflisted them by intelligence or any other act. If he only promised to be quiet, that they in whose hands he was might free him from confinement, he did what no law of society prohibits.

The man whose miscarriage in a just cause has put him in the power of his enemy may, without any violation of his integrity, regain his liberty, or preserve his life, by a promise of neutrality: for, the stipulation gives the enemy nothing which he had not before ; the neutrality of a captive may be always secured by his imprisonment or death. He that is at the disposal of another may not promise to aid him in any injurious act, because no power can compel active obedience. He may engage to do pothing, but not to do ill.


There is reason to think that Cowley promised little. It does not appear that his compliance gained him confidence enough to be trusted without security, for the bond of his bail was never cancelled; nor that it made him think himself secure, for at thar diffolution of government, which followed the death of Oliver, he returned into France, where he refumed his former station, and staid till the Restoration.

“ He continued,” says his biographer, « under “ these bonds till the general deliverance;" it is therefore to be supposed, that he did not go to France, and act again for the King, without the confent of his bondsman; that he did not thew his loyalty at the hazard of his friend, but by his friend's permission.

Of the verses on Oliver's death, in which Wood's narrative seems to imply something encomiaftick, there has been no appearance. There is a discourse concerning his government, indeed, with verses intermixed, but such as certainly gained its author no friends among the abettors of ufurpation.

A doctor of physick however he was inade at Oxford in December, 1657; and in the commencement of the Royal Society, of which an account has been given by Dr. Birch, he appears busy among the experimental philosophers with the title of Dr.


There is no reason for fupposing that he ever attempted practice ; but his preparatory studies have contributed something to the honour of his country. Conlidering Botany as necessary to a physician, he reiiicd into Kent to gather plants; and as the predo

minance minance of a favourite study affects all subordinate * operations of the intellect, Botany in the mind of Cowley turned into Poetry. He composed in Latin several books on Plants, of which the first and second display the qualities of Herbs, in elegiac verse; the third and fourth, the beauties of Flowers in various measures; and in the fifth and fixth, the uses of Trees, in heroick numbers.

At the same time were produced, from the same university, the two great Poets, Cowley and Milion, of diflimilar genius, of opposite principles; but concurring in the cultivation of Latin Poetry, in which the English, till their works and May's poem appeared *, seemed unable to contest the palm with any other of the lettered nations.

If the Latin performances of Cowley and Milton 'be compared (for May I hold to be superior to both), the advantage seems to lie on the side of Cowley, Milton is generally content to express the thoughts of the ancients in their language; Cowley, without much loss of purity or elegance, accommodates the diction of Roine to his own conceptions.

At the Restoration, after all the diligence of his long service, and with consciousness not only of the merit of fidelity, but of the dignity of great abilities, he naturally expected ample preferments; and, that he might not be forgotten by his own fault, wrote a Song of Triumph. But this was a time of such

* By May's Poem we are here to understand a continuation of Lucan's Pharfalia to the death of Julius Cæfar, by Thomas May, an eminent poet and historian, who flourished in the reigns of James and Charles I. and of whom a life is given in the Biogra. plia Britannica. H.


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general hope, that great numbers were inevitably disappointed; and Cowley found his reward very tediously delayed. He had been promised by both Charles the First and Second, the Mastership of the Savoy; “ but he loft it,” says Wood, “ by certain “ persons, enemies to the Muses."

The neglect of the court was not his only mortification; having, by such alteration as he thought proper, fitted his old Comedy of “ The Guardian" for the stage, he produced it * under the title of “ The Cutter of Coleman-streetgh." It was treated on the stage with great severity, and was afterwards censured as a satire on the King's party.

Mr. Dryden, who went with Mr. Sprat to the first exhibition, related to Mr. Dennis, “ that, when " they told Cowley how little favour had been shewn “ him, he received the news of his ill success, not ss with so much firmness as might have been exs pected from so great a man."

What firmness they expected, or what weakness Cowley discovered, cannot be known. He that misses his end will never be as much pleased as he that attains it, even when he can impute no part of bis failure to himself; and, when the end is to please the multitude, no man, perhaps, has a right, in things admitting of gradation and comparison, te throw the whole blame upon his judges, and to* 1663.

ị Here is an error in the designation of this comedy, which our author copied from the title-page of the latter editions of .Cowley's works: the title of the play itself is without the Bricle, “ Cutter of Coleman-ftreet," and that becante a merry Tharking fellow about the town, named Cutter, is a principal character in i:. II.


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