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“is the occasion when his monotonous only son died, she entreated to be allowed stupidity prompted the solitary jest that to go to them, protesting that only those twinkles through the gloomy career and who knew the same grief could comfort character of King James; and it came at each other. In this, as in the heart of the gloomiest moment of his days, when many a humble sufferer, lay the tragedy his family and kindred were one by one of her life. Otherwise there is nothing deserting him.” We are indebted, how- disagreeable in the little affectation of ever, to another writer for the comical- homely names which she adopted after rueful picture of poor Est-il-possible," the fashion of her time. She called the in which, out of the “monotonous stupid- splendid pair who hold in history a posiity,” so well characterized, there breaks a tion so much more brilliant than her own, dull reflection of the same kind of piteous Mr. and Mrs. Freeman; and Dutch Wilhumor. When the agitation against Occa- liam, her brother-in-law, was Mr. Caliban sional Conformity was at its height, -a name in which a little faint fun comPrince George, we are told, was sent to bines with the domestic spitefulness the House of Lords to vote for the bill which prevails in almost every coterie. abolishing it, which was strongly pro- Poor unfortunate Morley” is not so moted by the High Church party; The clever as any of those fine people; but dutiful husband did as he was told ; but be the roundabout, plump, motherly Majesty, ing himself only an Occasional Conform- who suggests the duchess's housekeeper mist, and keeping up his little Lutheran rather than her sovereign, was by no chapel for his own spiritual consolation, means without color or character. Mrs. did it against the grain, and whispered to Freeman cares no more for the Church the leader of the opposition, “ My heart is than for anything else that stands in her vid you," as he went into the orthodox path; but the queen makes an unwaverlobby. Poor royal Dane! happy for him ing stand for it, and takes her own way, that he was not born to set right those with a mild determination which shows times which were out of joint. “It is that there is nothing abject in her dependifficult to understand,” Dr. Burton says, dence on her friend. Dr. Burton's apol“how one not incapacitated by mental dis- ogy for Anne, and explanation of her ease could have kept so entirely out of position, is well worthy of the reader's the notice of the world." Nothing can attention, and treats the subject with a be more likely than that it was the entire justice rarely awarded to her. want of support and backing-up from her husband which made Anne herself so The growth of her friendships is touching in dependent on her friends; and whatever itself, as an effort to find something in the we may think of the sentimentalities of world dearer than greatness and power, and to their correspondence, there is something be reached from the steps of the throne

enjoy a little of that simple life - so hard to very touching in the forlorn queen's con- where friends can confide their thoughts and stant appeal to the sympathy and sustain- aspirations to each other without their being ing force of her high-spirited favorite trumpet-tongued by the unscrupulous favorites that imperious duchess, whom even Dr. that haunt the steps of royalty. And if it was Burton, like everybody else, treats with a weakness, it was grandly'exercised – it gained jocular familiarity as Sarah. Here is a for the recasting of F.urope that one whose specimen of the curious qualities inberent name is yet the greatest among warriors, if in names. If my Lady Marlborough's we count in our estimate only those whose name had been Mary, would any of her science and achievements we know with suffi. numerous historians have ventured on the greatest financial minister that ever ruled

cient distinctness for comparison. It secured such a familiar use of it? We think not. Britain.

The queen is fat, and not very dignified; but she is always simple and kind, And when the quarrel ensued which at least until the jar comes. When the has pointed a foolish moral ever since poor little Duke of Gloucester died, and about female squabbles and friendships,

inne became childless, there is some- and Mrs. Masham ce more a woman thing in her adoption of the title “unfor- unfortunate in her name — for who can tunate” in her simple letters which goes refrain from making a jest about Abigail ?) to the reader's heart. A mother of many succeeded the duchess, the statesmen children, but childless, the wife of a that waiting-woman brought in her train harmless drone, separated from all her were respectable specimens of persons natural kindred, what was the simple soul introduced by the back stairs. Had Queen to do but to surround herself with that little Anne been surrounded by all the wises band of friends ? When Marlborough's | sages in her empire, it is to be doubted

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whether she could have done much better war attained. The power of Louis was than Marlborough and Godolphin, Harley shaken to pieces. Only here and there a and St. John; who, indeed, were anything sagacious and far-seeing observer had yet but immaculate - but yet as unlike the divined that the power and splendor of pretty gentlemen of a chambermaid's fa- France rested on a foundation of volcanic vor as it is possible to conceive. So misery which, sooner or later, must come much should be said in favor of Queen to a terrible explosion. And at the moAnne and her women. One or two things ment when Louis XIV.- moved, one ja ber life show a fine liberality. Almost cannot tell by what charitable temptation, her first royal act was to give up a portion what softening of the heart towards his of her revenue

the “tenths and first- unfortunate kinsman on his deathbed – fruits,” originally intended as a papal appeared like a god by the bedside of the tribute, but transferred to the crown at exiled and dying King James, and solthe Reformation as a benefaction to emnly promised to recognize his son as the poor clergy, from whose livings it had king of Great Britain after him, nothing been originally subtracted. . Bishop Bur: could be more magnificent than the posinet claims the merit of this act, but it tion of France in Europe. Louis was le was one to which all his rhetoric could | Grand Monarque, and his country la not move King William. Dr. Burton gra idend 11, beyond all rivalship or seems doubtful whether this gift has comparison. Successful in war, full of really benefited the Church; but we be- conquests, covered with glory, there lieve there are many recipients of “Queen seemed nothing that this triumphant counAnne's bounty" who could satisfy him to try could not accomplish; and when Spain the contrary;

In any case, whether became the inheritance of a Bourbon, and spoiled by maladministration or not, this the rich cities and strongholds of the Low royal giving up to the poor parish priest Countries were occupied by French solof the contribution originally intended diers, no wonder that the wealthy Dutchfor his own ecclesiastical superior, then men, whose riches had tempted so many swept into the revenues of the crown, conquerors, should take fright. No less was a seemly and gracious act. At a later fright took England when the fine draperiod, when the country was drained by matic tableau of the godlike monarch the expenses of the great war, the queen appeared in that darkened room at St. gave a very large contribution from her Germains, carrying transport to the bocivil list for the public necessities. soms of the poor little mock court and all

This great war, which Marlborough's the busy conspirators. The great Louis gepius turned into one succession of vic- was never concerned in a more fatal pagtories, filled the greater part of the reign eant. He had the first armies, the most of Anne with the excitement and high scientific generals, in the world — and the tension of a conflict in which the national science of arms had just taken a great prestige was to all, and the national safe- leap, and so equipped itself with rules ty, in the opinion of many, deeply in- and systems, that its results could almost folved. Its nominal object, which was to be determined beforehand, so clearly setprevent the elevation to the throne of tled and ascertained was the order of its Spain of Philip of Anjou, the second son operations. But Marlborough was of Louis XIV., putting in his place the of those for whom rules are not made. archduke Charles, son of the emperor, He used science when it suited him, and was frustrated with that strangest and laughed at it in those cases where the most solemn irony of fate which so often inspiration of genius knew better. When turns man's greatest efforts into confu- he ought to have been working his way sion. According to the arbitration of from step to step along the beaten path, war, all pronounced itself on the side of he made a sudden blow at the heart, such Charles, until, in a moment, death cleared as discomfited all the array against him, the way for him to the imperial throne, and shook the opposite forces for the momaking his accession to that of Spain as ment into pieces. impossible as had been, at first, the can- Dr. Burton is very interesting and lucid didature of the French prince whom Eu in his description of the critical and morope feared to see unite the crowns of mentous battle of Blenheim. It was far France and Spain upon one head. Philip away from the border towns which the of Anjou, accordingly, at the end of all allied armies had been taking one by one, the prodigious efforts made to prevent it, and with which the French had hoped ascended peaceably the Spanish throne; they would continue to amuse themselves but not the less was the real object of the l until France had swept across the unpre


pared continent, and won a kind of em- true soldier, in the choice of his profession, pire of the world by mastering Vienna. has thrown his life as a stake that may be But Marlborough could march more rap- taken up at any time. He cannot accept the idly, and keep his own counsel better alternative of saving it by anything that has than the best of the generals against him. the faintest tinge of grudging it. "Yet there The reader will not look for those details may be occasions where one who has responsihere which Dr. Burton supplies so ably, bility for many other lives as well as his own,

may seek and find the more honorable alternabut we may indicate the manner in which tive in the act that must preserve all; and such he treats them by the following account surely was the condition of those who conof the last act in that fierce and brief sented to the surrender of the village of Blendrama of battle. When the victory was heim. There is little doubt that the surrender gained, there was found to be a detach-was a mighty relief to Marlborough, looking ment of twelve thousand men shut up in to the horrible work that had to be done if the the village of Blenheim, so crowded to imprisoned mob continued defiant. gether, that action was almost impossible We are not quite sure that it is generto them, their commander lost, and the ous on the part of the historian to charentire forces of Marlborough and Prince acterize this outburst of the wild gaiety Eugene, flushed with victory, in front of of despair as a proof of the “mocking them.

spirit” of the French intellect. Other They showed vigor and courage, but to no men besides Frenchmen have given vent possible end. They attempted to make sorties, to that laugh of desperation in the face after the manner of invested garrisons; but of death : indeed, supreme excitement there were essential differences that baffled as often takes that form of expression as such attempts at the outset. The fortress has


other. But the incident in any case outworks, within the protection of which sallying-parties can form so as to fall on the is very striking. We need not dwell, besiegers in battle array; and when it is neces.

however, on the record of victories which sary, they can again come within the shelter of moved England to impassioned interest, the outworks. But the unfortunates in Blen- and intoxicated her with national pride. heim could only run out in the vain hope of There is nothing finer in the book than forming themselves in rank outside, and with the manner in which Dr. Burton sets the certainty of being immediately slain. It the great soldier before us — in the very was a period of awful suspense to the assail. spirit of Addison's fine lines, which he ants as well as the assailed, for the solemn quotes more than once — like the great question arose, Was the victor, according to the hard law of a soldier's duty, to do the Angel of the Storm, “who drives the worst he could against the enemy if that enemy and calm” as the summer skies,

furious blast," while himself, continued obstinate? The whole of Mariborough's army surrounded the village, with And pleased the Almighty's orders to perfonn, not only the cannon originally in its posses. Rides on the whirlwind and directs the storm. sion, but those taken from the enemy. The troops in the village were so closely packed,

While these thunders of war were belthat we hear of the small area of the churchyard lowing abroad, changes of still more affording relief to the pressure. Must the vital importance were taking place at victor then pound the village in a cannonade, home. We need not pause upon the and crush the twelve thousand under its shat. Sacheverell commotions, to which Dr. tered houses ?

Burton gives two instructive chapters, This gloomy juncture is enlivened by an in. testifying to elaborate research — though cident exemplifying the indomitable elasticity there is a great deal of the paradoxical of the spirit of the Frenchman, and his instinct for the enjoyment of the mocking spirit of his interest which is characteristic of the intellect under the most tragic conditions. time in the prosecution of the popular Two figures were seen to approach the doomed preacher for his enunciation of those crowd. One was a French officer, the other doctrines of divine right which were as in his uniform proclaimed himself an officer of obnoxious to the whole large scope of rank in the British army. Was this latter a English statesmanship as Louis XIV. prisoner broug! to them by or of themselves himself and his predominance in Europe, Were they then able, at the conclusion of that though sympathized in both by the queen disastrous day, to say they had made prisoner and the mob, the two extremes of society, a British officer ? Such was the tenor of the grim merriment in which the two were re- ton's great central interest, the history

- but will proceed at once to Dr. Burceived. The British officer was Lord Orkney, accompanied by one of the French prisoners, of the Union, upon which he has put to represent to his fellow-soldiers the hopeless- forth his full strength. It would be diffiness of their position, and to beseech them to cult to say too much of the thorough and surrender. It was a bitter alternative. The exhaustive record which our historian



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has given us of all the principles in which threatened to deprive England of volved. It is no mere chronicle of the the mastery of the seas, in which she squabbles of commissioners on one hand took so much pride. And Scotland had or the other, abortive meetings, luke- been included within the protected circle Farmness on the English side, and angry upon the same terms as the rest of Great petulance on the side of the Scots, as it Britain, and only foreign powers were might easily have been; but a clear and shut out. But though the union of the lucid account of all the hidden forces in two crowns was a sort of general union volved, such as requires the eye of a of the two realms, there was really no philosopher as well as a historian. When feeling even of friendship between Scotch Queen Anne came to the throne, though and English. The Scots, in spite of her authority extended over a really their subjection to the same sovereign, unanimous people on both sides of the were practically looked upon as foreignTweed, wishing nothing better than such ers, and the second Navigation Act a legitimate compromise as was found in placed them upon the same footing in her natural rights, between the law of law as the subjects of other powers. hereditary succession and the new insti- From the passing of this act we have a tution of elective sovereignty, the two continuous struggle, the Scots trying halves of the kingdom were yet two, sep- every means to induce, or even force, the arated by some real and important dis- English to yield them the much-coveted cordancies of feeling, and by many bick- freedom of trade; while on the other side erings and mutual offences, such as are we find a stubborn resistance kept up 100 common among neighbors, and not until the two kingdoms seemed actually unknown even in the closest circle of on the verge of war. family life. A quarrel full of mutual Monopoly was the great idea of the aggravations and recriminations, nay, of time in commercial matters; in fact few absolute hostilities now and then, had if any other considerations seem to have been going on between them for years; commended themselves to even the most and it had not yet become quite appar- sagacious of the statesmen of the day. ent, even to the wisest statesmen on Throughout the varied phases of the relaeither side, that whatever might be tions between England, Scotland, and the cost — these two must be made one Ireland, the ruling theory in the English or else break adrift altogether, an alterna- mind is always the same, that the best, if tire forbidden at once by nature and by not the only, way to make one State rich, every true principle of policy. Through- is to make and keep its neighbors poor. out this quarrel Scotland had, we think The relations of England with the two (if it be not national partiality that affects other kingdoms which now form with her our judgment), a stronger position and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and more reason in her resistance than En- Ireland, were no doubt very different. gland in her exactions. The cruel satis- The difference is declared clearly enough faction with which — after refusing to from the English point of view in the the Scots any share in her commercial answer returned by the English commisFeatures, at a moment when the world sioners in 1678 to the Scotch demand to *as crazy on that subject — the richer be included in the privileges allowed to and more powerful nation had looked on, Ireland and Wales. This answer declares Day, worse than looked on, at the ruin of that Ireland is not only under one king Darien, bad roused a furious sense of with England, as Scotland, but belongs wrong in the Scottish bosom. Dr. Bur. to, and is an appendix of, the crown of ton treats this burning question, still England: that laws made by the English capable of rousing the wrath even of Parliament are binding in Ireland, while spectators so distant as ourselves, with those of the Irish Parliament require great impartiality and calm; but he points confirmation by the English Privy Counoet very clearly the determination of the cil: finally, that the high officers of the Eaglishman to let nobody interfere with crown have authority and jurisdiction in bis trade - an impassioned yet sullen Ireland, “all which," it adds, " is quite determination to which he clung in the otherwise in relation to Scotland.” This face of every law and national motive difference is clearly shown subsequently, Dore elevated than his profit and preju- in the manner in which the theory of cce Foreign intervention had been monopoly affected the measures taken by czecked by the first Navigation Act, England' towards Scotland and Ireland posed under the Protectorate, and aiming respectively. a ibe diminution of the Dutch trade, The branch of trade which was in



Anne's reign exciting most attention in was chosen. Arbitrary though the alte England was the woollen manufactory. native was, the newly introduced man Here the three kingdoms came into con- facture grew and flourished to a remar tact: the plains of England were not the able extent. The way in which its gre only places in the island upon which success was welcomed in England sheep could be reared ; large flocks might however, a curiosity in history. Findir be, and were, kept on the rougher and that it had got into the hands of a Scot more broken country in Sc land and colony in the north, was therefore n Ireland, and wool was one of the most reaching the classes specially intended, important productions of both these king- was proposed to remove the manufacto doms. This, of course, in pursuance of further towards the south of Ireland, the prevailing theory, had to be put down as to spread the industry over the who at once; but the method of proceeding country; but in discussing the questi adopted was not the same in the two of a new grant for this, the commerc

Scotland, as has been already magnates are prevented from action pointed out, was in all but name an indé- the fear that “ if Ireland should fall in pendent State. Its legislation could, in the making of fine linen, it would affe deed, to a certain extent, be stopped by the trade of England.” Such was the refusal of the royal assent to the fear expressed by the Commissioners measures passed by the Estates; but even the Board of Trade, and the mass of E this was anything but a reliable power, glish merchants were of opinion that and had to be used with the greatest cau- further encouragement ought to be giv tion: while in no way could the Houses to the Irish linen trade. It is difficult of the English Parliament legislate for imagine the real existence of so mu the internal affairs of Scotland as they ignorance and blindness as are here d could for Ireland. The difference be- played. England had deprived Irela tween the relations was, in short, practi- of one trade in obedience to the mistak cally the same as that between relations principles of the age; she had implant with a foreign power and those with a another to remedy the distress which s colony. They could and did prohibit had caused, and at the moment when t the importation into England of Scotch substituted industry appeared to be wool, thus considerably injuring and dis. the point of accomplishing the object couraging the chief industry of the rival which it was professedly instituted, kingdom, and breaking off entirely nego- help and encouragement necessary to tiations for a union of Scotland and En- were withheld. And the reason of t gland, which at the time presented fair great stroke of policy was, that the n hopes of ultimate success; but with regard trade was tending to make Ireland r to the Irish competition they could do and prosperous, to enable it to be a use better still, and their proceedings in this and self-supporting part of the kingdc direction were a most brilliant and in- instead of a State ever oppressed w structive application of the ruling idea. poverty and distress, and in need of Not only could the Irish trade to a great sistance and relief from England ! extent be crushed, but it might be made Commercial tyranny of this kind w to help the English woollen manufactory. however, safer as well as easier in To this end all exportation to any foreign case of Ireland than in that of Scotla country- i.l., to anywhere but England The Irish might indeed be driven by - of Irish wool in any shape whatever, tress to acts of lawlessness and violen was forbidden under heavy penalties; but the kingdom was in the power of while, for its safe conveyance to English English crown absolutely, and со ports, a large staff of officers was estab- originate no really formidable repris lished on either side of the Channel, who But the refusal of the Scotch dem actually watched the wool from its being was a matter of much greater importan shorn to its delivery in a stated port. The Scots Estates were greatly ex Indeed it would be almost laughable, had perated by the determined refusal of tł it not been the cause of so much distress, claims, and as union seemed impossi to trace the extent to which the great the next best thing appeared to them theory of monopoly was followed out in be a more thorough and complete sep: dealing with the unhappy Irish. In com- tion. This feeling culminated in pensation to a certain extent for the famous Act of Security, by which it suppression of the wool trade, the gov- enacted, that in case of the queen's dy ernment determined to plant another without issue, the Parliament of Scotí industry in Ireland, and the linen trade should choose from the royal Protes

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