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of their delicious scent, as the summer same pleasure and personal triumph in evening falls, the curious schizopetalon, our success. Then, too, each year the and the better known mathiola, or night-intelligent gardener will arrange new scented stock.

combinations, grow new varieties of But, besides its flowers, the garden is plants, and aim after a perfection which alive with other happy forms of life. The be can never hope to reach. blackbird, as the laureate tells us, will But the garden has no less also a sciwarble, eat, and dwell ”

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entific interest. Fresh species of plants liers, and the thrush, as Mr. Browning are constantly enriching our filower-beds, reminds us, “sings each song twice over,

,' and botanists are constantly searching from some blossoming pear-tree. Then the wildest and most remote corners of the bees are busy all summer long, rifling the world on behalf of the English stove. for themselves the flowers, and setting house, conservatory, and garden, They for us the fruit. “ The butterflies Autter endure untold hardships, and risk many from bush to bush, and open their wings dangers, if only they may secure some to the warm sun," and a peacock or red new treasure. Often they have caught admiral, or, better still, a humming-bird deadly fever, or met with fatal accidents moth, is always a welcome guest. Only in their search, and, true martyrs of scithe other day we heard a delightful story ence as they are, they pass away forgotten, (we wish we were satisfied hat it was a except perchance when some unwonted fact) of a lady who got some chrysalises designation of a plant may recall, not their of butterflies from Italy and elsewhere, memory indeed, but their name.

But as and, planting in a corner of her garden one drops off, another will succeed; and the herbs and flowers in which they most so, among far coral islands of the Pa. delighted, had hovering around, for many cific, in the tropical recesses of a South weeks of summer, these beautiful, strange American forest, in the heart of Asiatic visitors from the south.

mountains, or the unexplored mysteries One great charm of a garden lies in the of New Guinea, these lovers of nature are certainty that it will never be the same at work, laboring for our pleasure and two years running. If we were only con- instruction, and procuring for us fident that each year was to be precisely forms of vegetable life and beauty. And like the last, it may fairly be doubted meanwhile science is working at home in whether we could feel the same interest another and a happier way. Not content in our task. It is really no paradox when with finding new species of plants, she is we say, that it is fortunate that gardening forever developing fresh varieties. The should be always more or less of a strug- art is no new one, and in old days the gle, for the very struggle, as should always simpler minds of men were not quite happen, has the element of pleasure sure of its propriety. It was unnatural, about it. Each year there will be success they used to say. It is in vain that

one side, if something of failure on Polixenes tells Perdita that there is an another. And there are always difficul- art that does mend nature, and, therefore, ties enough. There are difficulties aris- is nature. She evidently thinks it all ing from bad seasons, from climate, or sophistry, and not a gilly-flower will she from soil. There are weeds that worry, have. and seeds that fail. There are garden

I'll not put pests of every variety; The mice nibble The dibble in the earth to set one slip of them. away the tulip-bulbs: the canker gets into the rosebud, and the green fly infests the And so, too, Andrew Marvell's mower

Wireworms destroy the roots of complains of the gardener that tender annuals, and slugs breakfast upon their sprouting leaves. Moles and birds The pink grew then as double as his mind; and caterpillars have each and all their with strange perfumes he did the roses taint,

The nutriment did change the kind; peculiar plans for vexing the gardener's

And flowers themselves were taught to paint. heart. Then again certain plants are attacked by special diseases of their own. He thinks it a wicked extravagance, as it The gladiolus turns yellow and comes certainly was, to sell a meadow for the to nothing, and a parasitic fungus de- sake of a tulip-root, and he thinks it an stroys the hollyhock. And yet, if there absurdity, as it certainly was not, that were no difficulties to contend against, no we should have brought the marvel of forethought to be exercised, no ingenuity Peru over so many miles of ocean; but to be displayed, no enemies to conquer, it all this might be forgiven, but not the is surely impossible that we could feel the "forbidden mixtures” which grafting and

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hybridizing have brought about. Mean- system of Linnæus has still its use and while, as we are now untroubled by such votaries. scruples, we may not only enjoy the The most recent investigators into boresults of the art of the skilful florist, but tanical science are not classifying plants, may even take an intelligent interest in but they are examining into the meaning the art itself. It lets us into many of their structure. The mere task of desecrets of nature. It helps to explain scription and enumeration has been done, problems of much higher significance and so they have set themselves to find than the brief existence of a garden out why certain structures exist, and why flower. It makes us understand, in some certain'habits (if we may use the word) small degree, how, in every form of life, have been formed. Why do the climbing a higher type may be produced from one plants climb at all, and why do some of inferior order.

twine, and others cling? Why do the And the results are really wonderful. Ay-catching plants cause the death of It is difficult to know what class of plants numbers of unlucky insects? Why are has in late years most profited by the art. the stamens and pistils in plants of such ful nature, or unnatural art, of the skilful various lengths and sizes? Why have gardener; but, certainly, some of the some flowers a hairy fringe, and others most striking successes have been among drops of nectar in their calyces? What roses, clematis, begonias, and rhododen- is the meaning of the scent of flowers, drons.

and what is the object of the night-openBut it is not the florist only who has ing flowers? The key to many of these been helping on the cause of botanical questions is in the relationship of flowers science at home. Within the last few to insects; and Charles Darwin, Sir John years the botanists, or rather perhaps the Lubbock, and others, have done very naturalists, have been increasingly busy much to explore and then to popularize among both the English field and garden the subject. Much that is most imporflowers. The old botanists indeed had tant has thus been made known to us, examined with every minuteness the but these eminent naturalists would be structure and economy of the blossom, the first to own that there is much more had counted the stamens and the pistils, still to do. The secrets of nature open and known the origin of the swelling of out but slowly, and after long and patient the seed-vessel. And what Linnæus had wooing. It would sometimes appear too systematized, Erasmus Darwin endeav- as if there might be danger, not indeed of ored to turn into a romance. Science was adapting facts to theory, but of taking it to be made popular in a long didactic too readily for granted that all facts must poem, and “ The Loves of the Plants

eventually fit into some favorite theory: was the curious result. But to treat the This tendency may not be so apparent in various organs of a plant as if they were the leaders as in their less cautious discihuman beings, and endowed with human ples in these scientific researches. From passions, was obviously too far-fetched a some of their expressions they would conceit to give real pleasure, and it was almost seem to imply that insects were not wonderful that Mathias, and many made for the sake of fertilizing flowers. others, should have laughed at those, They attribute the bright color and beauty who

of Aówers not to the same good purpose In sweet tetrandrian monogynian strains

that gives beauty elsewhere, but as if it Pant for a pistil in botanic pains.

were merely that insects may be attracted,

and do their duty among the ripening polAnd then the illustrators took the mat- len. They are contemptuous at the idea ter up, and in Thornton's “New Illustra. of a flower being intended for the selfish tions of the Sexual System of Linnæus,” pleasure of man, and not for its own purwhich is perhaps one of the most beau- poses, and they point to plants of beauty tiful botanical works ever published, we that “ blush unseen where man cannot have pictures of plants with Cupid' aim- admire them, forgetting, however, that ing a shaft at them, and with a letterpress man has seen them, or be would not know of love-verses. Into the new system, in- of their existence. They will learn nothtroduced by Jussieu, and now generally ing of the affluence of nature, and nothing adopted for purposes of classsification, is quite accepted unless its use can be we need not enter. The natural system, established, though on this principle it is as it is called, which is certainly the sen- hard to explain why, as Bishop Hall sible system, has now held its own for pointed out long ago, many years, though the more artificial I rich stone laid up in the bowels of the

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earth, many a faire pearl laid up in the the summer air. Time and change may bosome of the sea, that never was seen, have been busy since some long-absent nor never shall be.” They will not allow member of the family has revisited his that there has ever been a Divine Wisdom old home, but the flowers and their fra“rejoicing in the habitable parts of his grance, still the same as ever, will call up earth,” even before “his delights were all the past. There is the corner where with the sons of men."

the first violets were always found; there It is curious how apparent extremes is the rosebush from which a flower may will meet. The very men, who would once have been gathered, of which the most readily throw over the old theologi- poor faded petals still remain ; there is cal argument of design,” which be- the lavender, which supplied the oaken lieved that everything was done in the presses where the house-linen was always most perfect way for the most perfect kept. And, apart from all such fond and ends, will now in the interests of evolu- foolish private memories, there are all the tion show the necessity of each curve of associations with which literature has cona flower-cup, and for each marking on secrated the old garden flowers. Pelara petal. We cannot be too thankful goniums, calceolarias, verbenas, and the to them, if only they will make their rest of the new-comers have but few ground sure at every step, but it will not friends, but not an old flower but is do to generalize too rapidly. For in- " loaded with a thought,” as Emerson stance, we saw it stated the other day says of the asters on the slopes at Conthat veins on a flower were probably cord. Roses, lilies, violets, primroses, guides to lead insects down into the and daffodils, have been written about honey-cup below, and that night-blowing over and over again, and the words of flowers were without them, because at great poets rise unbidden to the memory night they would be invisible and useless. at sight of them. And then certain flowUnfortunately it has since been shown ers will recall an entire scene, and Marthat the nothcra taraxicifolin, and guerite asks her fate from the large white probably other night-flowers are deeply daisy whose name she bears, or Corisande, marked with veins. Again, why in some in her garden of every perfume, gatherscherry-blossoms is the pistil longer than but not for herself — her choicest rose. the stamens, so that the fertilization must While a garden owes so much to the be effected differently to what it is in the poet's pen, it is strange that it should owe more ordinary varieties, where the sta- comparatively little to the artist's brush. mens and pistils are of equal length ? Who can recall a single picture of gardens Why have blossoms gradually developed or of flowers that ever gave him any great properties to attract insects, when it is amount of pleasure. Is Watteau an exobvious that those properties were not ception? But it is the figures in the foreoriginally required for the perpetuation ground, not the garden, for which one of the species? Why should some flow- really cares. And of flower - painters, ers of magnificent size, like the mag: there are Van Huysum and the Dutchnolia, require scent to attract insects, if men, with their piles and masses of blos.

must indeed admit that use and som, of large size, but generally of dull not pleasure is the end and aim of color, and without light or warmth about every attraction of the garden? And if them. Then there are our English flower. scent is necessary in this case, why is it painters; with some the flowers are only not so where the flower is small and in- subsidiary to the picture, and they seem significant? Why among roses has La to have adopted Gilpin's advice that France a delicious perfume, and Baroness Rothschild none?

by a nice representation of such trifles, he (the But such questionings are inevitable as painter) would be esteemed puerile and pe. yet: meanwhile facts are accumulating, dantic. Fern-leaves perhaps, or dock, if his and the whole truth, thanks to the piece be large, he might condescend to imi. patient and laborious workers of our time, tate; but if he wanted a few touches of red or may né day be known.

blue or yellow, to enliven and enrich any parBut quite apart from scientific inter- ticular spot on his foreground, instead of aim. ests, a real old garden, unaltered and ing at the exact representation of any natural unspoiled, has a peculiar interest of its plant, he will more judiciously give the tint he It is sure to be haunted by asso- something like nature, and leave the spectator,

wants in a few random general touches of ciations, and nothing calls up associa. if he please, to find out a resemblance." Botantions so quickly and certainly as a sudden ical precision may please us in the flowerscent of Aowers coming and going upon | pieces of Van Huysuin, but it would be paltry LIVING AGE.

1558

we

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VOL. XXX.

common.

and affected in the landscapes of Claude or | brought indoors and placed in some blue Salvator.

jar or Salviati vase, and the artist shows But even when the flower or plant is how carefully he can draw, not so much something better than a "touch" of color, the petals of the flowers, as the texture of there is often some gross carelessness, or the porcelain or the iridescence of the ignorance, which gives a sense of annoy- glass. It is difficult enough worthily to ance rather than of pleasure. Each re- paint the light and glow of color in any turning year, the Gardeners' Chronicle beautiful flower, but, if it is to be painted, reviews the Royal Academy from a botan- let it be when the plant is still growing, ical point of view, and nothing can be and as it grows. Any garden will give droller than the blunders it points out. subjects enough, if they are only sought Sometimes all sorts of flowers of various for. Here is a bank of daffodils; here the seasons are growing together, or a wood, white narcissus and the red anemone have through which a knight is riding, is formed a group; here a blue forget-me-not adorned with agarics and fungi that be- looks up into the bell of the snake's-head long to different periods of the year. fritillary; here is a great peony bowed Sometimes places, no less than times, are down with its crimson globes, here a set at nought, as in an instance quoted by nasturtium trails its bright yellow blos. Mr. Rossetti from the Exhibition of 1868, soms along a bit of grey old rock; here a where a Greek maiden is gathering blos- cluster of hollyhocks keeps watch by a soms from a pot of (American) azaleas. garden walk; here the purple clematis But, indeed, such instances are only too clings to the orchard hedge. Pictures of

In how many modern classical flowers such as these, if only the artist pictures, for example, has not the large have some sense of color and some refinesunflower of America been introduced ? ment of taste, would give a real and almost But when the flower itself is one impor- a new pleasure to us all. tant part of the picture, how curiously But there must be no artistic grouping, unsatisfactory is too often the result! or representing of things as they should No one has tried more earnestly to set be, rather than as they are. The work our painters right in these matters than must be conscientious, as in the case of a Mr. Ruskin, and how little even now have great living sculptor who, having to carve they profited by his teaching! They an ivy-plant upon a tablet, went himself catch bold of a suggestion, as when he to study the form of growing ivy, and once told them (showed them, we might found how entirely different it is from say) that a spray of pink apple-blossom the conventional wreaths of the ordinary against a blue sky was beautiful, and the marble-mason. next exhibition or two abounded in blos- There is one question in connection soming apple-boughs: but they seem un- with English horticulture, to which at able to grasp a principle. It was in 1851, first sight it does not seem quite easy to in his tract on “ Pre-Raphaelitism,” that give a satisfactory answer. Are the fíowhe urged the painting of “the heather as er-shows, the number of which is conit grows, and the foxglove and the hare- stantly increasing, an advantage or not? bell as they nestle in the clefts of the They certainly stimulate the production rocks," and this very year, while speaking of magnificent fruit, of beautiful floristof the same artist, Mr. Hunt, he has had flowers, and of handsome stove and to repeat the same lesson, that plants that greenhouse plants. But how do they grow are pleasanter objects than flowers affect the gardens in which these prize that are gathered. And, indeed, the rea- specimens are grown ? It is mere matter son is not far to seek. A bunch of gar- of fact that, when a gardener begins to den roses thrown carelessly down upon a think of exhibiting, he is very apt to pay mossy bank - and there is scarcely an undue attention to the plants which will exhibition without one - - not only gives secure him prizes and reputation. If his one a feeling of incongruity (as though master is satisfied with the usual monot. the fashionable flowers were out at a ony of garden-beds, why should the garpicnic), but a stronger feeling still of com- dener give special attention to what can ing death. We know those roses must be of no service to himself ? So he wither and die, almost, we fancy, as we throws his whole strength into some look upon them. No dew that falls can bunches of grapes, some dozen roses, now keep them alive, as it will the humble some trained chrysanthemums. And this

- so much better than they-on is not the worst of it. The “dressing” which they rest. And it is almost worse of particular blooms has recently become when the poor, gathered fowers are an art, and little curling-irons are em

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ployed to get petals into their proper | surely as the heart is stirred. We must shape, and other various devices are used remember, too, that our personal delight for various flowers. But there is after all in a garden is entirely independent of its a morality in these things. It is allowa. size or the perfection of its appliances. ble to cut away superfluous petals, but it A child's garden, such as Mary Howitt is not allowable to insert fragments of once described, a few pots of musk or another blossom. This seems to be the mignonette on the window-ledge of a limit. Now we confess the whole system schoolboy's study, will afford a pleasure seems to us thoroughly bad, and we rec- which acres of garden, left only to the ommend the managers of flower-shows to gardener's care, can never give. forbid “dressing” of every kind. If not can I care for this garden? It is so exactly dishonest in itself, it leads on, much too large to care about” lady, and very easily, to the worst forms of dis- who owns one of the famous gardens in honesty. But, indeed, in almost every the north of England, once said to us; aspect, nothing can be more spoiling to and it was impossible not to appreciate the gardener than these flower-shows so the difficulty. constantly are. In the first place, the Indeed, as with everything else, the prize-ticket generally asserts that the garden will soon grow dull, and the flowprize is adjudged to Mr. - gardener ers lose their attraction, unless we take to -." The owner of the garden is no- the management, partly at least, into our body, and the gardener is everything: own hands, and be masters not in name The prize is in almost every case regarded but in reality. It is not necessary to unas the unchallenged property of the gar- derstand every matter of detail, though dener, who has, nevertheless, won the our interest will strengthen as our pracprize by his master's, plant, reared at his tical knowledge grows. But at least we master's expense, and at the cost of time may make up our minds as to what we which has made him too frequently neg- want to have done, and then take care lect much more important matters. that the gardener carries out our orders.

Is it any wonder if horticulture in its We are too often the absolute slaves of best sense that is, the culture of the our gardeners, and they in turn (of course garden as a whole is not what it we are not speaking of exceptions) are should be ? No gardener can get prizes too often the slaves of an unintelligent roufor well-kept beds, for effects of harmoni- tine. We have learnt, as Bacon said, “ to ous coloring, for arrangement of shrub-build stately sooner than to garden finely, beries, for the grouping of herbaceous as if gardening were the greater perfecplants. He is tempted for the sake of a tion." It is really about time that we single specimen to sacrifice the beauty of learnt the more difficult lesson. a whole plant or the clusters of an entire fruit-tree. That it is most important for nurserymen to be able to compare new species, or new varieties of old species, is

From Blackwood's Magazine. of course undeniable. That our ordinary

BUSH-LIFE IN QUEENSLAND. flower-show is for the ordinary spectator an extremely pretty sight is no less certain. But we are satisfied that in the majority of cases it is the wiser course for PREPARING FOR THE YERING MEETING.

- EMIN BEY. FITZGERALD'S SYDNEY any one who really cares about his garden,

ADVENTURE. and would rather have a succession of well-cultured flowers than some merely STONE's stay at Mr. Gray's station exceptional success, to discourage his this time was productive of many results. gardener from exhibiting.

In the first place, he arranged with his In conclusion, we can only repeat that future father-in-law to stock the newly “the English flower-garden” may afford discovered country as soon as possible. far greater pleasure than it does at pres. His own marriage was to take place in á ent. We must learn to look on plants, couple of months' time, and he had promnot as mere points of color, but as old ised Bessie a short trip down to Sydney friends on whose coming we can rely, and afterwards, to which she looked forward who, returning with the recurring seasons, with excited delight. Fitzgerald had also bring back with them pleasant memories been much oftener at Betyanimo since the of past years. And if, as often happens, explorer's return than for some time prethey are plants consecrated by song or viously; and on returning to Ungahrun legend, the imagination is quickened, as he frequently expatiated on the happiness

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XXI.

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