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West, for there is a letter extant from "painted” afresh on one occasion; an Charles V. of France to the mayor and art that seems to have been lost. Idiots burgesses asking them to supply him or naturals wore long petticoats of yelwith another fool. The merry brother- low; that being the fool's especial color. hood waxed puissant; they gained the Their restless habits caused them to wear patronage of two saints, St. Julian and out their boots very quickly, as the houseSt. Mathurin, and though John of Salis- hold expenses of the French court testify. ry, in 1160, had denied them the sacra. The fool's head was shaven, no

were the ment, religion looked benignly on them ladies spared this disfigurement, for there from her loftiest throne on earth, for Leo is a charge of “iiijd. for shaving of Jane, X. kept a pack of jesters, and laughed the fole's hedde" in the books of one of immoderately at them over his favorite our queens. Fools being so constantly dainty of peacock sausage. Nor were near the persons of great men, had often they confined to the Old World, for Cor- to stand amid the wreck of their fortunes, tez saw at the court of Montezuma, in dumb jesters, silent witnesses that favor, the wondrous city of Mexico, a company honor, and rank may be empty as the of humorous misslapen beings, two of emptiest of jests. So stood poor Patch, whom he procured and piously sent to in Putney town, beside the dishonored Rome for the amusement of Clement Wolsey. They were travelling towards VII. The pleasant folly spread, women my Lord of Winchester's house at Esher took to fooling, and nobles and men of in very miry weather. Presently a genlearning jangled the bells and trilled with tleman riding hastily overtook them, beartbe dagger of lath. Fools amassed for- ing a gracious letter and a golden ring tunes, estates were given to them — wit- from the king.. Wolsey, overjoyed, be

one who held his lands upon the thought him of what peace-offering he condition of executing a saltus, a suffa- could send to his imperious sovereign. tus, and a bambulus, yearly before the His eye rested upon the crestfallen Patch. king. Tbey were benefactors and found- “ The fool is worth a thousand pounds," ers of religious houses like Rahere, to said the cardinal; “ I'll give himn to the . whom we owe the Church and Priory of king.” But Patch was of finer metal than St. Bartholomew in East Smithfield ; and he had been accounted, and would not Hitard, fool to Edmund Ironside, who left leave him who could be “sweet as suman estate at Walworth for the benefit of mer” to those he loved. And so resolute Canterbury Cathedral. They became the was he that in the end six men had to confidants of kings, and the mouthpieces gird the noble fool to a horse and trot of political parties; they were even sent him off to his new master. Heywood, on secret missions. In later times, Peter poet, dramatist, royal jester, and staunch the Great recruited the ranks of his fools, Catholic, was often called upon to “unwho were divided into classes according dumpish his mistress, the unhappy to their qualifications, by enrolling Queen Mary, and in her dying hours, amongst them those ambassadors or men when she felt the sting of the beloved of science whose negotiations or re- Philip's desertion and of her subjects' searches were not to his liking. Several hatred, he was with her to the last, solacfools are recorded to have fought galing her with music. lantly, and to have saved their masters The fashion of humor has changed; from the hands of assassins. The Fran- the old jests have lost their savor. No ciscans borrowed their name, calling king of Spain would die nowadays from themselves “Fools of the World.” The laughter at a fool's jest. The quips and Jack-Puddings who frequented fairs and quibbles that have been handed down to markets stole their jokes. Whole ages us are dead as flowers that have been were leavened with the light yeast of clasped for centuries in a missal. And their folly, and laughed as the nineteenth yet the brood of folly struggled hard for century cannot laugh.

life and lingered 'long in odd places. There is evidence that the dress of the Muckle John, fool to Charles I., was the fool was greatly varied at different times last official royal fool in England, and in and in different places. Will Somers, 1680 fools in private houses were reported one of the fools of Henry VIII., had an “out of fashion.” In 1722 a certain outfit at the king's charge of thickly-lined Kathrin Lise was jester to the Duchess

His portrait by Holbein von Sachsen Weissenfels Dahme, and may be seen at Hampton Court. The Dicky Pearce, the Earl of Suffolk's fool, garments of Edward VI.'s jester were | had the honor of having his epitaph wriť

green cloth.

ten by Swift. It was reserved for George | conditions are requisite for its formation, II., when Prince of Wales, to abolish the namely:last humorous appendage to the royal household, the king's cock-crower. The

1. A rocky or stony bottom. fool died with the French Revolution,

2. Shallow water as compared with that and it was but the ghost of mediæval folly higher up the stream.

3. A swifter current and rougher water that appeared at the Eglinton Tourna

in comparison with a smooth and slower ment, brandished its bauble for little

motion immediately above. space, and vanished. Whether the ancient spirit be laid, or whether it does yet All these conditions existed in the preshaunt the councils of the nation, let those ent case. keen-eyed gentlemen, the reporters, in- The ford was a rapid, and as I have form us.

already mentioned, shallow, whilst imme. diately above there was a pool of nearly still water, three or four times as deep, which was ice-covered to within a few

yards of the ford. On the surface of From Nature.

this almost still water, close to the rapid, ANCHOR-ICE.

where it was yet unfrozen, numerous On looking over some old papers I find small crystals of ice were forming and a few notes on a rather curious instance floating, indicating that the water was at of the mode of formation of anchor-ice perhaps colder than — the freezing

. which was accidentally brought to my point. notice.

When these ice-crystals and surface When at Repulse Bay on the Arctic cold water get into the turmoil of the Circle many years ago, I went out one rapid, they are brought into contact with morning in the latter part of September the rocks and stones at the bottom, which to shoot deer, and on my way forded a are thus cooled down to the freezing-point, stream of no great size, dry-shod, having and become convenient nuclei for ice-foron Eskimo waterproof boots, the water mation.* being little more than a foot deep. The Supposed anchor-ice is often found at parts of this small river which had a slow the bottoms of shallow lakes and ponds, current were already covered with ice, and also in the quieter pools of rivers; but not strong enough to bear my weight. but this, as far as my experience goes, is For so early à date the day became ex- not true anchor-ice, but is formed

in the tremely cold, and on my way home, after usual manner, beginning at the surface an absence of about eight hours, I was and increasing in thickness downwards surprised to find, when recrossing the until it reaches the bottom, to which it stream, that the water came high over my freezes firmly and remains attached durknees, filling my boots.

ing the spring and early part of summer On examination I discovered that this - perhaps longer — with two, three, or rise of water was produced by an accumu- more feet depth of water over it, as it lation of frozen water fully eight or nine slowly thaws. inches deep, adhering to the stones at the The manner in which anchor-ice is bottom of the rapid, all of which must formed may be well known; if so, the have been formed, since the morning, at fact that no satisfactory description of the rate of not less than one inch in the the process has come under my notice hour. The foot sank readily into this is the only apology, I have to offer for “slushy" formation, a lump of which rose troubling you with this communication. buoyantly to the surface at each step.

J. RAE. Unfortunately I could not wait to study 4, Addison Gardens, Kensington, W., March 25. the process of construction, as it was getting“ dusk,” and my wet clothes - which

The way in which masses of ice, yards in extent, had to be cut off when I got to my fire- which have been floating on the surface in the smoother less tent— began speedily to freeze.

and slower current of a river, disappear when they enter

a rapid and remain under water for some time, may I have seen anchor-ice » in rivers be noticed in any country where the winters are cold many times, and believe that two or three ) enough, at the breaking up of rivers in the spring.

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Fifth Series, Volume XXX.

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No. 1879. - June 19, 1880.

From Beginning,

Vol. OXLV.

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CONTENTS.
I. THE LETTERS OF CHARLES DICKENS, . Westminster Review,
II. ADAM AND Evy. By the author of “ Dorothy
Fox." Part IX., .

Advance Sheets,
III. WHAT SHAKESPEARE LEARNT AT SCHOOL, . Fraser's Magazine,
IV. HE THAT WILL NOT WHEN HE MAY. Ву
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XIX., .

Advance Sheets,
V. THE ASCENT OF RORAIMA,

Temple Bar,
VI. A PERSIAN GARDEN-Party. By a Guest, Tinsley's Magazine,
VII. MUSIC IN ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL,

Leisure Hour,
VIII. MR. MATTHEW ARNOLD ON POETRY AND
RELIGION,

Spectator,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGe will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

An extra copy of THE LIVING AGB is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post office money-order, ii possible. li neither of These can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Siogle Numbers of The LIVING AGB, 18 cents.

IN A HAYFIELD.

Sudden open wide before me, BEFORE the mower's sweeping scythe

Rock and crag and mountain range; The dewy grasses bend and fall;

And my lover, waiting for me, A group of children, gay and blithe,

At my feet lies still and strange ; Amid the hay keep carnival :

Calling me with many voices: While rising high, in azure sky,

Lazy lappings on the shore; The morning sun shines lovingly.

Deep-toned moans from ocean caverns;

Silver lispings; thunderous roar! The flowers and grasses slowly fade,

And o'er their wreaths the children sigh; O my lover! grand and mighty, A maiden sees in ev'ry blade

Dare I venture the rash deed ? Emblems of hopes but born to die : All my soul has gone before me ! Yet in the sky, still rising high,

Follow I with swiftest speed. The golden sun shines lovingly.

O'er the precipice my waters

Rush tumultuous at one bound; The mower works with haggard eyes,

Shattered? broken? ah, what care I?For bitter grief is in his breast;

Thou, my lover, thou art found ! A lark flies up with startled cries

Temple Bar. The scythe has swept away her nest : Yet, risen high in deep blue sky, The sun still shines on lovingly.

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From The Westminster Review. than if we had known him only from Mr. THE LETTERS OF CHARLES DICKENS.* Forster's “Life.” THE dean of Westminster, in his re

The letters extend over the period from cently published memoir of his mother, 1833 to 1870, that is, from the commencegives us her estimate of Sir Walter Scott: ment of Dickens's literary life, just before * As to Sir Walter, when one thinks the starting of the “Pickwick Papers," over other works and other writers, there to the time of his death, and we purpose s not one to be compared to him since calling our readers' attention to those of Shakespeare; not one to whom so many them which are most characteristic of the can feel grateful for the number of hours writer's mind and style. of innocent and delightful amusement he

We first take an illustration of Dickhas given to the world." +

ens's habit of making real persons and This opinion was expressed before the events the foundation of characters and publication of any of the works of the incidents in his tales. In a letter written great writer, whose selected letters are to his wife during a tour in Yorkshire, how given to the world. At its date we undertaken in order that he might inveshould have concurred in it, but now we tigate for himself “the real facts as to hink that in the amount of innocent and the condition of the Yorkshire schools," lelightful amusement Dickens has given and dated from “Greta Bridge,” in the o the world he certainly equals, perhaps neighborhood of which our readers will even surpasses, Scott. In common with remember

Dotheboys Hall” is placed, he rest of the world we, therefore, gladly he writes : welcome these volumes, which completely We reached Grantham between nine and ten ulfil their editors' intention and “great on Thursday night and found everything prelesire to give to the public another book pared for our reception in the very best inn I rom Charles Dickens's own hands, as it have ever put up at. It is odd enough that vere, a portrait of himself by himself.” I an old lady who had been outside all day and The editors, to whom the preparation came in towards dinner-time turned out to be f the work has undoubtedly been "a the mistress of a Yorkshire school, returning abor of love," tell us that they

from the holiday stay in London. She was a

very queer old lady, and showed us a long lettend this collection of letters to be a supple- ter she was carrying to one of the boys from bent to the “Life of Charles Dickens,” by his father, containing a severe lecture (enohn Forster. That work (they go on to say], forced and aided by many texts of Scripture) erfect and exhaustive as a biography, is only on his refusing to eat boiled meat. She was complete as regards correspondence, the very communicative, drank a great deal of cheme of the book having made it impossible brandy and water, and towards evening be

include in its space any letters, or hardly came insensible, in which state we left her. oy, besides those addressed to Mr. Forster.

Again, writing on another day, during s no man ever expressed himself more in his

the same journey: tters than Charles Dickens, we believe that - publishing this careful selection from his We had a very droll male companion until eneral correspondence we shall be supplying seven o'clock in the evening, and a most deliwant which has been universally felt § cious lady's maid for twenty miles, who im. Not only do we agree in this belief, but windows, as she expected the carriage was

plored us to keep a sharp look-out at the coach e go further: we believe that had we coming to meet her, and she was afraid of Oly had the “ letters,” and not Mr. Fors- missing it. We had many delightful vauntr's biography, we should have known /ings of the same kind; but in the end it is ore what manner of man Dickens was scarcely necessary to say that the carriage did

not come, but a very dirty girl did. * The Letters of Charles Dickens. Edited by his STER-IN-Law and his Eldest DAUGHTER.

Here we plainly have the origin of Mr. Vol. I. London: Chapman and Hall. - Memoirs of Edward and Catherine Stanley, by refused to eat boiled meat appears in

Squeers's drunken habits. The boy who ahur Penrhyn Stanley, p. 301.

Vol. i., preface. Ibid.

* Vol. i., p. 8.

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