Speaking of the boys who acted on the welcomed because they made themselves Elizabethan stage, Professor Dowden disagreeable to so many people. There is (“Shakespeare Primer,” p. 10) says: “A a kind of popularity which is acquired by further refinement of art was demanded an attitude provokingly unpopular. Men from these young actors when they were and women are attracted by the courage required to represent a girl who has as- which despises and disregards their feel. sumed the disguise of male attire, as ings. People whose minute perfections happens with Jessica and Portia, with and sense of their own merit make them Rosalind, with Imogen; it was necessary detested, become notorious, and consethat they should at once pretend to be, quently are sought after. A sage might and avoid becoming, that which they say to aspiring boyhood," Young man, be actually were.” This the boy who took a puppy.' In this respect, as in others the part of Tara achieved to perfection; more important, the prizes of the world his disguise as a boy looked exquisitely are to the impudent. Society truckles to girlish, and his manner, timid yet col- people who can consistently display their lected, exactly conveyed the impression conscious superiority. The very magniof Imogen, trembling with womanly fear, tude of their insolence and the calmness and yet nerved by the consciousness that of their fatuity excite curiosity and welan unguarded gesture meant betrayal of come analysis. People are anxious to her secret.

judge for then res as to whether a con. Imogen's dress as Fidele consisted of spicuously conceited fellow is in earnest a sleeveless jacket of dark green trimmed and a supreme fool, or whether he is with gold braid, above a red, gold-em- quietly playing a part. Thus the eccenbroidered kilt, loose yellow knee-breeches, tricity of imperturbable vanity, a vanity and white stockings. Round the head a which declares itself in peculiarity of green scarf, spangled with gold, was dress and manners, is rather a good introwound like a turban, the ends covering duction to society. A famous living the ears and hanging loosely down the statesman was remarkable for his canes shoulders. A slender sword completed and waistcoats even before he was ad. the equipment. The remaining charac- mired or feared for his wit or eloquence. ters call for no special remark, except the Dandyism was to him only a steppingunusual one that every player, from first stone, as it usually is to young people of to last, knew his part thoroughly, and high ambition and real strength of charspoke it faultlessly.

acter. They learn very early in life that

to be remarked is the first thing necessary This sketch of a visit to a Hindoo play- for success, and social is of course more house may be concluded by mentioning readily attained than literary or political that the social position of the actor in notoriety, and may lead on to these higher India is at present quite as respectable as prizes. It would probably be a mistake it is in England, but formerly, as in En- to suppose that“ the higher dandyisı” is gland also, his was considered a degraded entirely a matter of calculation. The calling, on account of the frequent im- most distinguished dandies in the history morality of its followers.

of society have been men of great power HAROLD LITTLEDALE. and ambition disguised as fops. They BARODA, Jan. 19th, 1880.

have thus disguised themselves, not only because the distinction gained by impertinent perfection of dress was necessary to their projects, but because they could

not do anything by halves, and because From The Saturday Review.

they were supremely vain. Vanity, a

quality much decried, is really necessary DANDIES, like saints, are never much for some sorts of success. Without vanbeloved by their fellow-creatures. Like ity there could scarcely be any ambition. saints, they have an ideal perfection of In the evolution of character vanity first manner and dress, and ideals are felt to declares itself in the love of finery which be impertinent. To be a dandy is to out- is remarkable in the child and the savage, rage the vanity of every one who has not and which clings to many generals, statesthe energy to be wakefully attentive to men, and divines. The gigantic' tailor's details of deportment and costume. The and jeweller's bills of a son do not usually great dandies of old days, Brummell, make a parent's heart sing for joy; but Lauzun, and the rest, were everywhere these bills may, in rare cases, be more


full of promise and encouragement than | last named may be recognized as literary any, number of medals and first-classes. dandies because they respected the mere It is difficult, however, to get parents details of their literary labor. They were and guardians to take this hopeful view, not of the sect that swears by tattered old and the young genius for dandy.ism, like slippers that toast at the fire, and ragged genius for the other arts, is too often old jackets perfumed with cigars. They persecuted by indignant and terrified rela- arrayed themselves in fine linen, if not in tions.

purple, before they sat down to describe A young man is never more certain of the animal kingdom or give rules for the social success than at the moment when conduct of the prince. The other writers, most other young men never mention him whose names we have taken very much at without saying that they “ would like to random from a crowd of the greatest kick him.” As Thackeray observed in authors, were dandies in style, exquisites the case of Pendennis, that desire is the in literary manners, precisians, who result of envy and of conscious humilia- turned away from what was commonplace tion awakened in manly bosoms. To in thought. They șived among slipshod provoke people so much is a token of writers, or in ages when all the world superiority, and a prize of nonchalance. scribbled, or in times when style was disNor is it social dandyism alone which thus regarded, or not invented, and they set irritates the rabble of decent fellows who themselves to seek after grace and dishave neither the vanity, nor the impu- tinction. One can imagine how the dence, nor the strength of resolution to Athenians, who were accustomed to the win distinction. Literary dandyism is harsh and niggardly style of the old also excessively annoying to the rugged chroniclers, or the half-developed prose of hodmen of letters, the rapid picturesque Herodotus, laughed at Plato. That phiwriters, the half or quarter educated per- losopher, if the portrait-bust of him does sons who crowd the press, and carry their him no injustice, was very careful about farrago of ill-assorted observations to an the dressing and curling of his ambrosial uncritical public. These industrious per- locks. It is more certain that he must sons detest the literary dandy, the man have given immense labor to the perfecwho minds his periods, and regards the tion of his style, to that instrument of cadence of his sentences, and shuns stock extraordinary suppleness and grace which illustrations and old quotations, as the was derived from no model. The tradisocial dandy avoids dirty gloves and tion says that the first clause of the clumsy boots. They howl at him as the “Republic” was found written in nine little humorous street boys bully some different ways in a note-book of Plato's. small Etonian with a tall hat and a broad Whether the legend be true or not, the white collar, who has lost himself in polish of his manners and the “educated Seven Dials. This antagonism naturally insolence” of his wit sufficiently mark breeds more excess in literary dandyism, Plato as the great father and patron of all till the prose of some critics is as full of literary dandies. Catullus was not less a musk or millefleurs as the handkerchief of literary exquisite, with his airs of a spoiled a popular preacher. Both parties are wit, and his style, like his novum libelhardened in their ways; the rough and -lum, arida modo pumice expolitum. He ready press-man becomes careless even of naturally takes his place among homincs grammar, and trots out his quotations venustiores, among gentlemen who care from Macaulay's essays more vigorously for the attire of their thoughts, who let the than of old. The prose of the exquisite toga trail with a delicate grace, and debegins to die away in aromatic nonsense, spise all muses inlepide atque inelegantes. and his great genius tires itself to death in The famous Pleiad of France, the seven the hunting for rare exotic adjectives. poets and critics of the sixteenth century,

There have been schools of literary was a coterie of literary dandies. They dandyism, there have been literary dan- made it their business to care for the dies, inore robust than those of our time. way in which thoughts were presented; Where we can show nothing much better they devised lace and jewelry of style and (if Mr. Arnold belongs to an earlier gen- of versification; and boasted of ceste eration) than Mr. Dowden and Mr. Pater, celeste manière d'escrire, a celestial tranthe great literary ages can boast of Plato, scendental manner of writing. Du Bellay Catullus, Ronsard, Pascal, Horace Wal- ventured to discover that the old French pole, Sir Philip Sidney – nay, one might of Froissart and Villon was scabreux et add, Buffon and Machiavelli. The two | mal poly, and he and his friends were only


the precursors of three or four successive

From The Spectator. schools of literary dandies in France.

THE PINCH OF WEALTH. Who can consider the polish, the precision, the accuracy of that speech, its point MR. PAYN says, in this month's Nineand elegance, which make even dull teenth Century, that it is not easy to find writers seem witty, and fail to acknowl- the “pinch of poverty,” though he admits edge that the work of the literary dandies its existence, and allows that the true has not been wholly wasted? Some ad- “grip” of poverty is very visible indeed; vantage came of the conceit and careful but it is much more difficult to find the periods even of the elder Balzac. And pinch of wealth. The prosperous always Though the great Balzac of a later time is say, with grave shakes of the head, that more remarkable for vigor than elegance, money brings little happiness; yet it was at perfection that he too aimed. they seem to enjoy its possession, are Plato did not rewrite his sentences more proud of it in various ways, according to frequently; and the ruin of at least one character, use it freely as a power, and publisher, by Balzac's expensive correc- will not surrender it without the very tions of the press, proved how minutely toughest fighting. A complete surrender careful he was to have his thought draped of wealth, of the difference between subin the very best and richest language he sistence and competence or riches, is, could procure by incessant research. except in a very few cases of religious Our own revival of letters had its heroic conviction, the rarest of all forms of selfdandy in Sir Philip Sidney, with his con- sacrifice. So different, indeed, is the tempt for the slovens and grobians of disconsolate talk of the well-to-do from literature, those “paper-blurrers” who, their actual condition, that the world sus" by their own disgracefulness, disgrace pects them of a little bypocrisy, or of an the most graceful of Poesy.” Sidney's intention to avert envy by declaring, what censure of the dramatists of his time is a is unquestionably false, the equality of all typical example of the scorn of the liter- earthly conditions. Dives is sad with ary dandy of the nobler sort.

“Now you wealth," sighs the man with too little, shall have three ladies walk to gather “but how I wish I had a touch of his flowers, and then we must believe the complaint!” A few men, indeed, have stage to be a garden. By-and-by we hear boldly declared the regrets of wealth to news of a shipwreck in the same place; l be pretences, and have asserted, with then we are to blame if we accept it not Macaulay, that every guinea they acquire for a rock. Upon the back of that comes gives them distinct and appreciable pleasout a hideous monster with fire and ure. He was the most generous of mansmoke, and then the miserable beholders kind, but he liked money, and avowed his are bound to take it for a cave; while, in liking, as he would have avowed a liking the mean time, two armies fly in, repre. for pleasant bindings for his books. sented with swords and bucklers; and There was solid truth in Macaulay's idea, then, what hard heart will not receive it particularly as to earned inoney; but he for a pitched field ?

put his truth, as usual, a good deal too It would be easy to carry on the history broadly, nothing being ever quite so little of literary dandyism. The elegant dis- complex as he imagined everything to be. dain of Pascal, and his care for polished Very few men indeed part with wealth insolence of irony, might lead us to the voluntarily, because very few have the reserved conceit and minute toil of Gray, courage to deprive themselves of any and thence we might pass to the fine-gen- faculty or power they may hereafter want; tlemanly literature of Walpole. Modern and very few are without that pride in it France had its school of dandyism under which any distinction tends to raise; but the master whom Ouida and the society we believe the constant depreciation of journals call by the appropriate name of its value in which the well-off indulge, is Beaudelaire. It might probably be de- not a hypocrisy. Tbey see, or many of monstrated that literary dandyism has them see, failures in the effect of their been salutary as well as irritating, that it wealth upon themselves, and even die has served as a protest against the lax rectly, bad consequences springing from language and outworn commonplace of it, which quite justify their shakes of the the press-man and the poetaster, and that, head, though they are slow to explain like ordinary dandyism, it has made its even to themselves why the apples taste disciples more distinguished among than so ashy. beloved by their literary brethren.

We believe that rich men - we do not

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mean very rich men, though we include | tion what a pity there is no short word them, so much as the well-off, the classes for that idea! — is one extra pain of the which need not work to fulfil their desires rich, and must have as depressing an

suffer the pinch of wealth distinctly effect as we know the consciousness of enough, if they are thoughtful men, to rec- mental powers with no opportunity for ognize it for themselves at at least three their exercise usually has. The Red who separate points, the first trouble being is Red because the world gives him no nearly universal. This is impatience of chance, burns with a chagrin which the the close limits placed upon what wealth very rich must often feel. can do. Money can secure so much, and This is one pinch of wealth ; and there gives in many directions such freedom to is another much more frequently quoted, the will and so much of concrete reality - the additional difficulty which wealth to the fancy, that the man who possesses creates in achieving complete success in it frets when he perceives that his power anything. This is constantly described will in other directions do so little. He as a consequence of idleness or of dislike feels like a potentate who is stopped by to necessary drudgery, but that is an imsome obstacle quite trifling, but quite perfect or even unjust description. Nothimmovable; or a magician whose genius ing prevents a rich man from occupying cannot obey him, except to secure ends himself, and he will probably drudge which he is not just then seeking to ob- quite as much as the poorer man would tain. Money, for example, will purchase without the whip, but the absence of alleviations from pain, skilled attendance, desire for the gain to be earned makes good advice, and soft beds, but it will not the labor seem positively heavier. A purchase the dismissal of the pain itself. strength has been taken away. We can If you have a cancer, millions are no help. illustrate this by a comparison which A millionaire may have toothache, and in everybody can test. A rich man of artistoothache feels, on account of the money tic leanings will not toil in the schools which places all dentists at his command, like a poor one, a rich agriculturist will an additional pang. “Here am I, who not give hours and years to economies can buy all the help there is, and of what which make agriculture successful, a rich use is that to my pain?” The sense that author will not display the patient rethe money will aid volition in so many search of his professional rival; but the ways deepens the pain, when it is of the rich politician will work like a slave or a kind in which money is powerless, as it is barrister with large practice and no savin almost all serious questions of health. ings. The rich politician is no more laThe Marquis of Steyne is not the less borious than the rich artist by nature, but aggrieved by his liability to madness be- his reward comes in a shape he desires; cause he is so very rich, but the more and the rich artist's does not, or at least aggrieved, as a man is who knows his not in the same degree. The politician own strength to be unusual and finds it desires two things, -the success of his just insufficient. That habitual complaint work and power, and however rich be of the rich, that money will not buy affec- may be, has a double stimulus; but the tion or happiness, or even immunity from artist desires the success of his work and pain, has in it something of irritation as money, and, if he is rich, fully tastes only well as of pathos, and springs often from the first reward. The comparative feeblean inclination to contend, as of one who ness of the stimulus which makes the is unjustly deprived of something. The rich man's work so tasteless is increased workers have need to be solicitous about by that absence of fixed conditions which health, but it is the rich who coddle them- follows on wealth, the presence of other selves; and the reason is not so much the possibilities which distract the will, till passion for comfort, as the additional energy is impaired by half-conscious hesisense of the value of health, which their tations. One road, and but one, is open inability to buy it with money brings to the poor artist, and he advances on it home to them more clearly than to other rapidly. One road is open to the rich

A rich man who wanted water, say artist, and a dozen tempting nes, the atin a shipwreck, and could not get it, would tractions of which he pauses to consider feel in his riches, if he thought of them at so often, that he seems, in comparison all, an addition to the pain of his despair; with his rival, to crawl. An increase of and there are wants nearly as urgent as indecision comes to the rich from their water towards which money gives just as riches as to what to do with themselves, little aid. A fretfulness born of tantaliza- which is supposed to be idleness, though


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it is not, and which becomes a distinct strugglers very often fail utterly, either and separate pain. We all know the from inherent defects of character or from effect of an embarras des richesses in the insuperable obstacles of position ; but shape of plans, and for the rich that is more of them win than the children of never absent. For all but a very few, the well-off, and, taken as a body, they compulsion, when it does not come from have stronger and finer characters. As an individual, will smooth life.

their children grow up, the well-to-do find And this brings us the third "pinch them more burdensome, more difficult to of wealth,” which we see and hear reason manage, more troublesome to “settle," to believe is the most severe of all. We than the poorer do; are more anxious for have no doubt whatever that, in this gen- their future, and more displeased with eration more especially, the well-to-do their defects of character and conduct, have more difficulty, much more difficulty, which, indeed, from the absence of the in bringing up their children than the pressure of circumstance, are much great strugglers have. Formerly, this was not er. With the very rich, anxiety about so much the case, because the necessity their children, crosses of different kinds for strong discipline was so thoroughly inflicted by them, and their frequent total acknowledged that it was maintained al- failures, make up, we believe, a definite most without an effort, and the habit of and separate source of pain; and even obedience was enforced by practically with the well-off, greatly increase the irresistible authority. But the specialty burden of life, just at the time when of to-day is to concede freedom in all burdens are most anxiously avoided. A directions, and especially freedom to chil- man has not gained much in the struggle dren and those who are subordinate. of life whose children are profligate, babyDiscipline in any strong form is, among ish, characterless, or given up to selfishlarge classes and over great tracts of the ness; and that is far more often the lot world, nearly dead. The bad effect of of the rich than of the poor, and consti. that change - we do not mean the change tutes at least one true “ pinch of wealth." from severity to kindliness, but the change from studious government to comparative inattention - is very great, but is partly concealed by the fact that poverty acts as a disciplining atmosphere. It fixes con

PROFESSIONAL FOOLS. ditions rigidly. The girl must learn to do her own dressmaking, or go untidy. THE annals of folly hold nothing more The boy must go to work, or there will curious than the history of the profesnot be enough, and to that particular sional fools, those strange beings who work, for only the rich have much choice lived by their wit or their weakness. The of occupations. Economy is imperative, custom of keeping court and domestic for the money is not there, and no train- fools is said to have originated, like most ing in self-sacrifice acts daily, lrourly, mo- other things, in the East. However that mently, like compulsory economy: The may be, it must have been very common will is compressed by the facts of life, and at an early period. The Athenians had becomes at once strong and pliable, like their public fools called “flies,” because leather. With the rich, that discipline is they were free to enter into any banquet absent, and cannot, as Mr. Payn has without invitation. At Xenophon's feast pointed out in an amusing story, be arti- there reclined the sorry jester Philip, ficially produced; and the young have soon to be put to silence by the stern only conscious “training," in the athlete's reproof of Socrates. Rome had her sense, from direct authority, which, as we scurræ, ber cinædi, her moriones, her natsaid, it is the tendency of the age to relax. urals, and her monstrosities, manufacThe result is not only that the passions, tured expressly for the fool market. especially the passion of self-will, grow | Haroun-al-Raschid kept a noted jester too strong, though that is so clear as to named Bahalul, most probably an Arinehave become a truism; but that among nian, for Armenia was held to produce both good and bad a certain bonelessness the choicest strain of fools in the East. of character is apparent, a certain indis- There are very early notices of fools in position to endure, or to form strong pur- German courts, but not until after the poses as to the work of life, a certain Crusades did they become want not so much of energy as of decision amongst the Latin nations. Troyes would and pertinacity. The children of the appear to have been the Armenia of the

From The Globe.


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