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stand holding it in her mouth by a bit of lower animals all the human emotions skin, and shaking it till it dropped. If "except those which refer to religion and called or whistled to, she would always to the perception of the sublime.”* With run with the sound and could not be regard to religion, Sir John Lubbock taught to do otherwise, for in fact it seems half-disposed to attribute the germs requires a certain mental effort to enable of it to his favorite insects the ants, since a dog to understand that he must come he is unable to account for the presence towards a sound instead of following of certain blind beetles in some ants' nests, after it; and so hopeless was the effort to unless they are retained as objects of teach this dog, that we found the only superstitious veneration. Whether this way to make it understand was by signs, be so or not, it is certain that among the which she would obey slowly; yet she higher vertebrata, especially dogs, superwas not deaf, for she would always prick stitious fear is a feeling more fully develup her ears and run after a sound. The oped than among civilized man. This marvellous in which dogs and other feeling was finely portrayed by Rivière in animals will find their way over utterly his picture in last year's Academy, in unknown tracts has been already referred which the horse and dogs are represented to; in this the dog is certainly not guided as cowering in :mortal terror at the enonly by scent (although that is something trance of a deep cavern, whilst the knight extraordinary and incomprehensible from sits erect and courageous, holding a cross its extreme delicacy), in many cases, such before him as a safeguard. But it must as those of animals crossing the sea, etc., be noted in this composition, which every and finding their way through London one will recognize as truthful, that superstreets traversed for the first time, to the stitious feeling — dread of the unknown one vessel among so many in the docks -is alike in both man and beast, only in from which they were taken ; even land- the one it is controlled, not by reason, but marks can be no guide. Dr. Lindsay by faith in a power invisible, and utterly attributes it to a sense of polarity; but incomprehensible to the animals, because whatever it may be, it is one proof among of its abstract nature. This strong feeling many of wonderful acuteness, and an- of horror at the unknown, which exists other may be recorded almost equally alike in children, savages, and the lower curious, which is the idea of time. Cases animals, and lurks in the heart of the are recorded of dogs knowing the exact educated and civilized man also, may be hour at which to meet their master, of in a great measure instinctive; but it is their noting the recurrence of certain days evidently the germ of that which becomes year after year. That they should recog- developed into superstition, and later into nize Sundays and the time of meals is religion. That some animals possess it perhaps less remarkable ; but among pet in a very remarkable degree is evidenced dogs, the bath-day is known long before by the popular belief in the power of any water is prepared, and we have often horses and dogs to see spirits, and to known them to hide away on that day, foretell death. The baying or bowling of even when there was no intention of giv- dogs or starting of horses on moonlight ing the bath, and when therefore there nights is probably caused by the borror could not have been sights or scents to of the deep, mysterious, moving shadows, guide them. This sense of time is also but that they have some unexplained shared in an inferior degree by other sense of the approach of death seems to domestic animals ; cats will wait at a cer- be demonstrated by many recorded intain time for an accustomed meal, and we stances, whilst the fact that sharks will have often watched with interest the long follow for days a vessel containing one train of cows and goats returning at sun- sick unto death, is certainly not altogether set in an orderly manner, unsought, from a sailor's superstition. These things are the mountains in Switzerland, and more wholly inexplicable with our present imparticularly in the Tyrol ; all following perfect psychological knowledge, but pertheir leader, the cows first and the goats haps will some day yield to the light of afterwards, each turning in to their re- science; and there is also another subject spective homesteads without a call, or worthy of investigation, and upon which a even a dog to collect them together. most interesting book might be written —
There is one more subject which we namely, the strange friendships subsist. must lightly touch upon with respect to ing between animals of totally different animal intelligence, although space forbids us to discuss it at the length it de- * Lecture on Animal Intelligence, by George J.
Mr. Romanes attributes to the Romanes.
species, and even as it would appear be- man, and imitated by him for his own tween insects and plants; some of these purposes; but we think it will be admitare, of course, the consequence of mutual ted that man, as yet, has never been able benefits, but with many this motive seems to enter so fully into the feelings of the wholly wanting, as, for instance, that of lower animals, nor to comprehend their the hermit crab with certain anemones, language so well as the dog, the horse, the pilot fish and the shark, and that of and the elephant have learned to underthe prairie dogs and owls, of which Mrs. stand the language, and interpret the feelBrassey gives such an interesting ac. ings of their human master. countinThe Voyage of the Sunbeam.'' We have seen that Dr. Lindsay claims Among domestic animals, a sense of iso- for the lower animals an intelligence lation may often be the cause of the greater than that of the human savage ; strange.friendships we see, but this can that Professor Mivart, on the contrary, have no effect in such communities as denies to them all power of thought, rethose of the prairie dogs.
garding them as mere automata moved Mr. Romanes places the great dividing by instincts implanted in them at their line between the intelligence of man and creation, uncontrolled and uncontrollable that of the lower animals in the posses. by reason, whilst Mr. Romanes shows sion, by the former, of the power of artic- that both the instincts and reason of aniulate speech. He says : “The only dif- mals are similar in kind, though differing ference between animal intelligence and in degree from those of men, the grand human intelligence consists in this — that distinction between them consisting in animal intelligence is unable to elaborate the possession of speech by the latter. that class of abstract ideas, the formation We have endeavored to place the views of which depends on the faculty of of each fairly before our readers, although
Yet it is certain that among we have not attempted to hide our sympamany of the lowest savages speech is in thy with those of Mr. Romanes. a very rudimentary stage, consisting al- Upon one branch of the subject, that of most entirely of gesture language; whilst mental disease and incapacity, as treated the complex dialects of civilized man have of by Dr. Lindsay, we have not time to been slowly elaborated during countless say much: we believe that he has greatly ages of ever-advancing civilization, aided prejudiced his subject by injudicious treatby ever-increasing intercourse; for there ment, much that is really important being can be no doubt that the one chief thing so intermingled with trivialities as to necessary to advancement, either in civ- throw a suspicion of unreality and ridicule ilization or in language, is intercourse, upon the whole. That animals should whilst isolation means stagnation in every- exhibit signs of insanity, of aberration thing. As a rule, we find the intelligence and deficiency of intellect, is a strong of social animals much greater than that proof that they do possess mind similar of those which live a solitary life; but with to that of man, whilst the fact that similar all there exists, if not articulate speech, diseases affect both man and beast, are yet such a power of intercommunication communicable from one to the other, and of ideas as serves instead of it, and there are curable by the same remedies, is anwould seem to be in the lower animals other strong argument in favor of those also a greater aptitude for understanding who maintain the evolution of species, the language of different species, and of and the common descent of man and man himself, than exists in the human other animals from lower forms. Com
Much of the language of animals parative psychology is at present in its consists of gesture. Insects communi. infancy, but it is a branch of biology cer. cate with each other almost entirely by tain to advance with rapid strides, not means of touches of the antennæ, but only from its importance, but because the among the vertebrata there are various restless intellect of man is ever on the cries, the tones of which seem to convey watch for a new outlet for its activities, certain emotions, not only to those for and this we believe constitutes one of the whose benefit they are uttered, but to all greatest distinctions between the mental animals of every kind within hearing: capacity of man and the lower animals. The warning cry of a bird will cause all the intellect of the animal is centred other animals to look to their own safety. chiefly in self or its own species, although Many of these cries are understood by the dog seems to rise above the general
level, in frequently making its master's • Lecture on Animal Intelligence, by George J. interests its own, but man alone has the Romanes.
power to investigate, weigh, and consider
facts relating to natures other than his equalities of life both for men and ani. own; nevertheless, we must in fairness mals, the hardships endured by the many,. admit that this quality does not exist alike the luxuries enjoyed by the few, our inin all men. In savages it is certainly stinctive sense of justice leads us to look wanting, or present in an infinitesimal to an unknown future for compensation. degree, and the same may be said of Moreover, the real lover of animals looks idiots and very young children, therefore forward with a feeling of dismay to a Mr. Romanes has justly drawn a parallel future without those animal pets which between animal intelligence and that of have added so much to his happiness idiots, children, and deaf mutes, showing here, whilst the majority of mankind, that whilst in the two former cases the mindful of acts of cruelty and injustice, analogy is not perfect, because we cannot would be filled with horror at the thought fairly compare the immature with the ma- of meeting in another world the victims ture, and arrested or imperfect cerebral of their oppression here. It is, however, development, with that which is perfect evident, that if we admit a community of in its kind, yet in the third the analogy is origin in man and the lower animals, not much greater, since it is found that the only as regards bodily parts, but also in human being deprived of speech is in mental processes, and believe with Mr. mental capacity little above the more Herbert Spencer and Darwin in the "nechighly gifted of animals, and in all three essary acquirement of each mental power a graduated scale may be traced, bringing and capacity by gradation,” * we cannot the mind of man more nearly to the level deny to the animal world the possibility of the higher animals. Curiosity, one of of a higher and more perfect development the great levers of the human race, is of those qualities in the future, and even wanting alike in savages, very young chil- if we doubt for the lower animals the posdren, idiots, and the inferior animals, but sibility of a "resurrection of the body and becomes developed in the higher animals, life everlasting," we may yet be certain and especially in man's nearest allies, that, “as natural selection works solely the apes, being accompanied in them by and for the good of each being, all with very strong imitative powers; but corporeal and mental endowments will invention is beyond the capacity of even tend to progress towards perfection.” the highest anthropoid ape, although existing to a limited extent in the lowest * Origin of Species, chap. XV., p. 428. savage.
But in asserting that the mind of man and that of the lower animals is identical in kind though different in degree, psychologists and physiologists allow that
From Temple Bar. the problem of what is mind and where
A YOUNG LADY'S LETTER. we are to look for its origin, remains un- What is always to be seen from the solved and probably unsolvable. “At pretty stone bridge of three arches that the line where mind and matter meet,” spans the Thames at Panghead, as one says Mr. Romanes, "there rises, like a looks down stream, is the large red-brick frowning cliff, a mighty mystery, and in house to the left; the comfortable inn, the darkness of the place we hear the and the boat-shed to the right; the pole voice of true philosophy proclaim, 'Hith- in the middle of the river to which are erto shalt thou come, but no further, and fastened various craft; the swans; the here shall thy proud waves be stayed.'”* little boy fishing, from the bank; and
Some amiable naturalists who would what is always to be heard are the sounds strongly repudiate the Darwinian theory, of rippling running water, of oars moving are yet so impressed with the mental qual- in rowlocks, of voices talking in the dis. ities of the brute creation, their patient en- tance, of rooks cawing pleasantly in the durance and other moral attributes, that fields out yonder by the lock. they endue them not only with mind, but What is not always to be seen with that ethereal, incomprehensible, and Panghead, or indeed, on any other bridge, eternal essence denominated soul, and is the very charming young girl that was claim for them, equally with man, a future leaning over the bridge parapet on a state. We need scarcely point out that lovely afternoon in October last. That this is mere sentiment. Seeing the in- she was remarkably pretty was to be seen
at a glance. That she was frivolously Lecture on Animal Intelligence, by George J. twiddling a piece of note-paper into the Romanes.
shape of a paper boat, was to be remarked
at the second glance; any man or woman in that foolish old hen clucking at her
man perhaps especially — who took one chickens. Decidedly men are more disglance at this fascinating young lady, be interested than women. A woman would ing as it were compelled to take another. not stand there looking at an old hen What must be told of ber however, since, while an unmarried gentleman with ever from the modesty of her dress and man- so much hateful money was standing starner, nobody could possibly infer it, is that ing down at her from a bridge. She she was as wealthy as she was pretty and, would know it directly and be all alive moreover, an orphan and, being of full and gracious and meeting him half-way. age, her own mistress.
I do so wish I were poor, and very lovely, This very desirable young lady was, the and then perhaps etc., etc. while she twiddled her piece of note-pa- The gentleman was thinking that if he per, ostensibly engaged in admiring the had a million a year, he would lay itbeauties of nature and enjoying the sweet and himself — at Miss Munniss's feet. freshness of the breeze. "In reality, how- In default of a million, if he could only ever, she was rather more occupied in paint a famous picture ... or write a endeavoring in the most modest and one book that would set the whole world wonmight almost say shyest manner in the dering ..
... or better still, if he could save world, to attract the attention of a very
her from drowning not in this bit of a handsome young man who stood with his river, but in the sea, from a shipwreck, hands in his pockets, and a moody face, swimming about with her for forty-eight at the door of the boat-house, looking hours perhaps, and being cast on a desert every way but hers.
island, and having all sorts of opportuni. He certainly did not see her, but he ties of defending her from savages and was nevertheless thinking of her, and as wild beasts At this point in his the thoughts of both gentleman and lady reflections the young man laughed right at this particular moment have long been out, as well he might! and came mentally known to their friends, there is no reason back from his wild adventures with Miss why they should not be set down here. Munniss to his short holiday, which came This is what the young lady was thinking to an end on the day, after next, and to a
“I am sure Baker must have read this. certain red spot which had come at the She looked so pert when she brought it end of his nose, just where anybody out to me. And why indeed did she say. Miss Munniss — would be sure to trouble herself to bring it out at all? It notice it. is as if she wanted to say, “This is not
At that moment Miss Munniss, goaded the sort of document to leave about one's to desperation by the apathy of this most room. And it certainly is not. I think aggravating young man, coughed, unnecbeing so much in love with Mr. Lescar essarily perhaps, but successfully, for Mr. makes me stupid. Because, one can't Lescar immediately looked up and his hide this sort of thing from oneself. I face became radiant. am in love with him, and I am sure he “How d'you do?” cried he. thinks about as much of me as he does of “How d'you do?” cried she, and bis boots ; less ' perhaps ! Money can't nodded, well pleased. buy everything. "It won't buy Mr. Les- Mr. Lescar called out something, but car, that's very certain. I wonder now if Miss Munniss could not make out what, he were to suddenly look up and shout to and, most anxious not to lose one of the me like a boatman with his hand to the words of wisdom that fell from the lips of side of his mouth : "Hi! Hullo! Miss her love, leaned over the parapet and Phæbe Munniss, I haven't a penny, and said, “ Eh? What?" you are conveniently rich; but I'll try to Mr. Lescar repeated his remark. But like you
wish it'- I wonder if I it was lost on Miss Munniss, for at that should smile and get red and be fluttered, moment a meddlesome bumble-bee, on and say: ‘Yes, if you please, Mr. Lescar, pranksome wing, came full pelt at her I do wish it. Sometimes I fancy I can't face, as it were on purpose. be really in love, because I am able to eat She did furious battle with the intruder my meals as usual, and I can reason about and worsted him. Meanwhile Mr. Lesit all in this jocose way to myself. And car, seeing his love in such extremity, yet it is certain that the mere sight of his had moved a step or two to her assistance, hat lying on the hall table this morning when he was suddenly stopped. The made my heart beat like no other bat ever piece of paper she held in her hand had did. Dear me ! there he stands looking dropped from her agitated grasp, and genas cross as two sticks, and quite absorbed tly fluttering here and there had reached
the river, and was sailing down the to Miss Munniss, or he would perish in stream like the gallant little paper boat it the attempt. was!
Nothing could possibly be more ridicuWhat had arrested young Lescar's at- lous than this excited pursuit of a piece tention was, not this comparatively unim- of evidently useless paper, than his reportant fact; it was the face of distress; turning to her without it. the wild clasp of the hands, the cry of Meanwhile she had finished her wicked utter dismay of his pretty little lady-love laughter, and had run as hard as she on the bridge. Had it been her whole could run along the bank after the punt fortune in bank-notes that was sailing -calling out all the while entreaties that away so swiftly, she could hardly have Mr. Lescar would give it up and come appeared more horror-stricken.
back. On the spur of the moment he
But Mr. Lescar was deaf to them. In with a bound towards a punt conveniently the first place because the furious bark. moored to the bank by an iron chain and ing of two small dogs that had followed a spike, tore up the spike, and by the her prevented his hearing them, secondly mere impetus of his spring into the punt, because he could not come back without sent it out into mid-stream. When he a punt-pole. found himself there he suddenly perceived Finally Miss Munniss was stopped by that he had no punt-pole.
a closed five-barred gate -- on the other “All right! all right!” cried he. side of which were cows. She made a “Never mind. I'll get it somehow.” final attempt as Mr. Lescar floated away,
He was full of enterprise, determina- and this time he felt sure he heard her tion, and ardor, standing valorously in this say, “ Don't read .. : it." empty punt. But the punt being left to Now this seemed a very unnecessary itself took its own careful time, and swung request to make to an honorable_man, slowly round, floating sideways like a and Paul Lescar felt aggrieved. But it hansom-cab horse, after the piece of was of no use to look hurt and reproachpaper. It then struck him that he could ful at that distance, so all he could do be quite as valiant and useful standing in was to lift his hands in horror, and to the iniddle of the puntas at one side, and shake his head violently, which agitated that she would go a great deal better for pantomime, would, he trusted, reassure the change.
the young lady. Meanwhile Miss Munniss had rushed “ Now, what on earth can it be?" down from the bridge to the boat-house, thought he. “ I'll be bound it's a loveand was screaming at the top of her letter. Good heavens! Fancy my tearvoice,
ing off after some other fellow's letter in " Mr. Lescar ! Never mind ! Do this way. Don't read it, indeed! Concome back! Never mind! It's nothing! found him!” Oh! my goodness me! what shall I do if The thing, however, at the present mohe picks it up!
ment was, not to devote Miss Munniss's This last remark was made to herself, favored suitor to the infernal gods, it was and for all young Lescar heard of the oth- to rescue his letter - if it was his letter ers, she might as well have made them to or not -- not only because it would be herself also.
agreeable to restore the valued document “ All right! All right!” cried he, wav- to Miss Munniss with a sigh and a look ing his hand encouragingly. It was that should speak volumes, but because needless, he thought, to tell her that he having begun the pursuit of it entirely of couldn't * come back," if even he wished his own accord, it behoved him to comit.
plete it. As he spoke, however, he suddenly dis- For some time the piece of paper kept appeared, and there was a wild flourish of to the middle of the stream, so did the boots in the air. He had only lost his punt, and consequently so did Mr. Lescar. balance - which is a possibility to a per. They passed the field with cows, and son who is standing violently gesticulating several subsequent ones. They passed a in a punt. As he picked himself up he villa or two with well-ironed lawns. Then heard unmistakable sounds of laughter a stretch of meadow-land, whereon were from the distant bank on which Miss daisies and nothing else. At last they Munniss stood. This settled the matter. neared a man fishing from the bank. Either he took that trivial piece of paper, “ Hi! hi!” called out Mr. Lescar, catch. which very likely was nothing but a silly ing as it were at a straw. “I say! I letter from some schoolgirl friend, back I haven't got a punt-pole, and