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caused him to lose many of those instincts wanting or in abeyance among civilized possessed by the lower animals, and still men. retained by the lowest races of mankind, If Mr. Romanes be correct in affirming as, for example, that peculiar homing in that only cerebral reflexes are attended stinct which exists in many insects and with ideation, it is obvious that animals animals, and is possessed in a far higher devoid of brains can possess no intellidegree by the savage than by the civilized gence, and that sense would become de. man, and in which there would seem to veloped in exact proportion to the size of be a combination of intelligence and in the brain; yet we find that, next to man, stinct which Dr. Lindsay has properly the most indubitable proofs of intelligence classed among "unsolved problems. are to be found among insects. " Look
The wonderful way in which bees and ing at the nervous system of insects," pigeons will find their way home from says Wood, “ in whom there is no defiimmense distances is well known, and the nite brain, but merely a succession of anecdotes told of the same faculty in ganglia united by a double nervous chord, dogs and cats are innumerable and too many physiologists have thought that well authenticated to admit of dispute. reason could not be one of the attributes Instances have been known in which of the insect race. Yet nothing is more dogs have found their way home even certain than that they are able to converse across the ocean. Wood relates that a with each other and communicate ideas, dog, found its way from Calcutta to Inver- this fact showing that they must possess keithing, Scotland, coming in a ship from reason." * 6. The first animals in which, Calcutta to Dundee, and thence in a col- so far as I can ascertain," says Romanes, lier to Inverkeithing; and Watson tells we may be quite sure that reflex action of one coming to Northumberland from is accompanied by ideation, are the inAmerica, another to England from Bre- sects,” and he goes on to give the obsermen, and another to Edinburgh from vations of Darwin and Sir John Lubbock Rome. Such instances might be given with regard to the teachability of bees, ad infinitum, but they are not confined adding, “ These observations would seem to dogs and cats, bees and pigeons. to prove that the grade of intelligence is Horses, mules, asses, and cattle possess higher in some articulata than it is among the same power in a greater or less de. the lower vertebrata.” † It would, in truth, gree. We have been informed that wild appear that the hymenoptera, which incattle and horses bred in the Orange Free clude bees, wasps, and ants, have attained State will find their way back several to the same rank among insects as man months after having been taken some among mammals; and the wonders related hundreds of miles into the Cape Colony, by competent observers of the habits and and so well is this known to the colonists, customs, division of labor, industry, and that in buying cattle or horses from long laws of these social insects seem absodistances they always go to the same spot lutely incredible. The ants, especially, to seek them if lost. Sometimes as many seem to have attained to a perfect Utopia, as forty or fifty per cent. will find their according to Belt, who describes their way back by twos and threes to their old various communities and the order obquarters; and the most singular thing is, served in them; their wars and capture that they will not retrace their steps by of slaves; their agricultural and engineerthe way they came, but will generally ing works; their tenderness towards their strike across country in a direct line, young, and the care of their domestic although horses will sometimes follow the cattle; their methods of communication road. That migratory birds will return and of combination for the common weal year
after year to the same spot for build- - until we are almost tempted to believe ing is well known, and it is a fact truly that man is himself inferior to these little marvellous, when we remember the vast ingenious, self-sacrificing insects. Belt distances traversed by these little wan. makes the following comparison between derers, and the perils encountered by the the two: way. The development of this same quality among savages has been recorded the articulata, and the mammalia at the head
The hymenoptera standing at the head of by many travellers, and, altliough proba of the vertebrata, it is curious to mark how in bly much depends upon minute observa. zoological history the appearance and develoption, yet it seems evident that both with ment of these two orders (culminating in the savages and the lower animals a certain sense or instinct is called into use for
* Man and Beast, by Rev. J. G. Wood, p. 165. this particular purpose, which is either † Animal Intelligence, by George J. Romanes.
one in ants, and in the other in the primates) | allowing cerebral reflexes, and conserun parallel. The hymenoptera and the mam- quently thought, in animals possessing malia both make their first appearance early brains like our own, conjoined to bodies in the secondary period, and it is not until the
presenting more or less similarity of commencement of the tertiary epoch that ants and monkeys appear upon the scene.
structure to the “human form divine;"
There the parallel ends; no one species of ant has but, as before stated, intelligent actions attained any great superiority above all its are less distinctly developed in the lower fellows, whilst man is very far in advance of vertebrata than in the higher articulata, all the other primates. *
as they would seem to be less
marked in the lower articulata than.in It seems, however, difficult to decide
some insectivorous plants. Until re how many of the attainments of ants and cently, fishes were probably the least other insects are to be attributed to in- known, and therefore believed to be the herited instinct, and how much to pure least intelligent of the vertebrata ; but mental processes; and this inquiry be- recent researches show that they are by comes more complicated when we
no means so stupid as we have commonly sider that the greater part of these com supposed them to be, and that, in the munities consists of sterile females and construction of their nests, care of and neuters, — differing greatly in form, size, affection for their young, and skill in en: and color in the same community,
snaring their prey, they are quite equal who could not hand down their experi- to many terrestrial animals, whilst there ences to their descendants, whilst a great can be no doubt that they are equally portion of their short lives is passed in amenable to instruction, coming to be fed a state of metamorphosis, in forms and at a call, etc. Of course there is, doubt. with instincts totally different from those less, much difference in the mental pow. of their adult state. So great was this
er, not only of different species, but also difficulty felt to be by Darwin that he in individuals of the same species. It is
us he at one time believed it well-known that some fish will allow themfatal to his theory of natural selection; t selves to be caught more than once in and even now Sir John Lubbock con precisely the same manner, which does fesses that the metamorphosis of insects not seem to denote a high degree of intelseems to him one of the greatest difficul. ligence; and Mr. Romanes relates the ties of the Darwinian theory: “In most experiment of Professor Möbius to show cases, the development of the individual how slowly a pike learnt that certain minreproduces to a certain extent that of the nows were protected from him by a glass race; but the motionless, imbecile pupa partition, and how the association of ideas cannot represent a mature form.” Itthus established became so fixed, that does, indeed, pass our comprehension how when the glass was removed, the minthe acute instincts and undoubted reason-nows still remained unmolested. ing powers of these most interesting crea- Of reptiles, toads and frogs have been tures can become so rapidly and fully most narrowly observed, and are developed through so many different especially interesting from the fact of phases; nevertheless, in the adult form undergoing many remarkable metamorthe cerebral development is such as we phoses before attaining the adult state. might expect in accordance with the Professor Mivart has studied these creatheory of Mr. Romanes. Belt says, “The tures, and described them exhaustively cerebral ganglia in ants are more devel- in a small volume of the “Nature Series, oped than in any other insect,” and that in in which all their peculiarities of strucall the hymenoptera, at the head of which ture are minutely described; but their they stand," they are many times larger mental characteristics are less clearly than in the less intelligent orders, such as defined, and are probably not of a high beetles.” †
order, being confined to their own de If there should seem a difficulty in ad. fence and the capture of prey, although mitting intelligent action in plants, and in Wood, as quoted by Dr. Lindsay, assigns insects and other articulata so differently to them the power of measuring holes constituted from ourselves, there would and distances, and a compassionate care not appear to be the same difficulty in of their maimed.*
In birds the instincts are very strongly * Naturalist in Nicaragua, by Thomas Belt, F.G.S., developed, and it has often been said that
they are invariable; this, however, we beOrigin of Species, chap. viii. | Naturalist in Nicaragua, by Thomas Belt, F.G.S.,
# Mind in the Lower Animals, pp. 71-98
lieve to be quite untrue. We have already him and his burden along by the ears. given some instances of a change of ma- That they are remarkably fertile in expeterial in nest-building by wild birds in dients cannot be doubted, and that their accordance with circumstances, and birds, actions cannot be explained by any theory wben domesticated or in captivity, lose of inherited or acquired instinct is equally many of their wild instincts, and acquire certain, since they are the result of unhabits totally at variance with those to foreseen and constantly varying circumwhich they were once accustomed. The stances. acquisition of human speech by the parrot is certainly a proof of the bird's imitative higher vertebrated animals [says Mr. Romanes]
As regards the association of ideas by the powers, and of its general intelligence, it is only necessary to say that in all these anialthough perhaps few would agree with mals, as in ourselves, this principle of associaDr. Lindsay in supposing that the words tion is the fundamental principle of their are uttered by the bird with a full under- psychology; that in the more intelligent ani. standing of their meaning. Nevertheless, mals associations are quickly formed, and it must be allowed that they are often when once formed are very persistent; and in used very appropriately:
We have often general, that so far as animal ideation goes, heard a parrot call the dog or a servant in the laws to which it is subject are identical the precise tones of the master, and laugh with those under which our own ideation is derisively when its summons was re
performed.* sponded to; but how much of this was In proof of the great reasoning power simple imitation, and how much sponta- possessed by some animals, Mr. Romanes neous mental effort, it would be impossi. gives two observations made by Dr. Rea, ble to decide. We have not space to the one on a domestic and the other on a repeat the numerous anecdotes given by wild animal, which are so curious and Dr. Lindsay of the mental powers of important as to deserve repetition. The birds, as culled from the works of natu- first was of a dog in Orkney, “which, beralists, but it seems to us indubitable that ing allowed to accompany its master to reason, as well as instinct, must be at- church on alternate Sundays, had to swim tributed to the interesting denizens of the a channel nearly a mile wide; and, before forest.
taking to the water, used to run a mile to When we come to the rodents, we find the north whe the tide was flowing, and tales innumerable of the cleverness of a nearly equal distance to the south when rats and mice, táles which almost every the tide was ebbing, almost invariably housekeeper might supplement by others calculating his distance so well that equally remarkable. Their ingenuity in he landed at the nearest point to the escaping, snares rivals that of the fox, church.” † The other instance is even whilst their mutual understanding and more remarkable, as a proof of strong combination for obtaining food, and some reasoning power in a wild animal. times for attack and defence, are well
Desiring to obtain some Arctic foxes, Dr. known. Watson speaks of their care of Rea set various kinds of traps ; but as the the maimed and blind, and gives, on the foxes knew these traps from previous experi. authority of Dr. Henderson, a confirma-ence he was unsuccessful. Accordingly
, he set tion of the fact observed by an older trav- a kind of trap with which the foxes in that eller in Ireland, of from six to ten mice part of the country were not acquainted. This collecting in parties, selecting a piece of consisted of a loaded gun set upon a stand dried cow-dung, placing upon it berries, pointing at the bait. A string connected the etc., and using it as a raft in crossing a
trigger of the gun with the bait, so that when stream; they launch it, embark upon it, and thus committed suicide. In this arrange
the fox seized the bait he discharged the gun, and range themselves round the edge, ment the gun was separated from the bait by their heads in the middle, their tails pen- distance of about thirty yards, and the string dent in the stream to serve as rudders.* which connected the trigger with the bait was The same author also gives instances of concealed throughout nearly its whole distance rats carrying potatoes in the manner so in the snow. The gun-trap thus set was sucoften ridiculed, but which an eye-witness cessful in killing one fox, but never in killing has assured us he has seen done in the a second; for the foxes afterwards adopted case of eggs — viz, that one rat will lie either of two devices whereby to secure the
One of down, hold the egg or potato between his these devices was to bite through the string at
bait without injuring themselves. four paws, whilst his companions drag
• Lecture on Animal Intelligence, by George J. • Reasoning Power in Animals, by Rev. J. Selby Romanes. Watson, p. 307.
its exposed part near the trigger, and the other may say civilized, without the aid of man. device was to burrow up to the bait through in thus judging, we shall find that many the snow at right angles to the line of fire, so of them have established laws, offenders that although in this way they discharged the against which are punished; that their gun, they escaped with perhaps only a pellet leaders are chosen for strength and couror two in the nose. Dr. Rea adds that in that part of the world traps are never set with age, often by single combat, and that the strings; so that there can have been no special conqueror is obeyed, and sometimes association in the foxes' minds between strings blindly followed even to death; that upon and traps. Moreover, after the death of fox this leader devolves the duty of posting number one, the track on the snow showed sentinels, of conducting foraging parties, that fox number two, notwithstanding the and of providing for the safety of the temptation offered by the bait, had expended young and feeble in case of attack or rea great deal of scientific observation on the treat from the enemy. Such combina. gun before he undertook to sever the cord. tions exist among insects and birds as Lastly, with regard to burrowing at right well as among mammals, and certainly angles to the line of fire, Dr. Rea justly deemed this so extraordinary a circumstance that he prove the existence of something above repeated the experiment a number of times, in blind instinct, for such combinations could order to satisfy himself that the direction of not exist without some means of interthe burrowing was really to be attributed to communication, some power of choice, thought and not to chance.*
some association of ideas.* In accordance with the principles of that we should expect to find the natural
But it is among our domestic animals evolution, we should expect to find the intelligence developed to the highest point size of the brain increasing in proportion of which it is capable, for upon these man to the intelligence of the animal, and this has bestowed his care for innumerable seems to be at least partially, the case. generations, he has guided and controlled Watson gives the following table of the natural and sexual selection, and has sucproportionate size of the brains of certain ceeded in producing varieties to suit his animals: “The weight of man's brain, in tastes and caprices, but it seems doubtful proportion to his body, averages about whether he has in all cases raised the i to 27; that of long-armed apes, about mental standard of the animals under his I to 40; fox, i to 205; horse, I to 400; control. The domestic fowl has nearly elephant, i to 500.” † Here we see the lost the power of flight and capacity for ape ranking next to man, but with a great defence; the sheep has become timid and interval between, whilst a very much blindly dependent upon the shepherd, wider interval intervenes between the ape incapable of taking care of itself and its and the fox, which, as we have seen above, young excepting in those countries where often shows exceptional intelligence, the from geographical difficulties it has rehorse and the elephant ranking far below verted to a state of semi-wildness; the the fox, although we should have been
same may be said of the pig, the goat, the inclined to assign to the latter a very high ox, the horse, and to a certain extent of place in the scale of intelligence. But, the deer; and what have they gained by
; in truth, it is well known that mere weight their association with man? a tine form, of brain is not always to be depended an abnormal amount of flesh, and a slavupon in gauging intellectual power; for ish fear and dread of the enslaver. In the weight of an idiot's brain will often most cases the organization and order exceed that of a philosopher. The form, quality, and the various convolutions have * We have not said so much as we should like to all to be taken into account, and, with have said with regard to the apes and monkeys, the
limits of a paper like the present preventing full details. regard to the inferior animals, we do not Travellers all agree in crediting them with wonderful think that, as yet, sufficient data exist for prudence and cunning, great affection for their
and care for their wounded, combined, however, with a establishing that gradation which our own singular absence of abstract reasoning power. observation tells us certainly exists in the will never put a stick on a fire to warm ihemselves, and scale of animal intelligence.
may often be caught by most simple expedients, as, for
instance, by cutting a hole in a melon : the monkey will If we desire to judge of the natural thrust in his hand, grasp a handful of seeds, and being capacity of animals, we must observe unable to withdraw it thus filled, will suffer himself to them in their wild state, and find out how be taken, rather than relax his hold. Yet in crossing
streams they show wonderful intelligence, forming of far they have become organized, or we their bodies a swivging bridge, and allowing the young
and infirm to pass over them; and if in hunting under
stones for scorpions or other food, they find a stone too * Lecture on Animal Intelligence, by George J. heavy for one, others will come to assist in raising it.
Also in feeding upon prickly pears, they deliberately † Reasoning Power in Animals, by Rev. J. Selby rub them in the sand to free them of prickles. All Watson, p. 281.
these acts are indicative of reason.
proper to them in their wild state are in words used by the mistress to point out abeyance, and although in every herd a certain row of cards; but he gave us there is still a leader, it no longer the the impression of certainly knowing, some strongest and most courageous, but either of the letters, and particularly “S;” in any one appointed by man, or an old, experi- case it would be impossible to deny to enced animal, knowing in the ways of the such an animal a great amount of intellihuman master.
gence over and above natural or acquired When, however, we come to the dog, instinct; and it would be equally impossiwhich has for so many ages been the ble to suppose the attainments of the chosen friend and companion, as well as Scotch collie to result from instinct alone. the trusty servant of man, the case is dif. One of the most remarkable signs of the ferent; here the efforts of man have been acuteness of this intelligent breed of dogs directed to the development of mental is their power of counting as well as colrather than bodily qualities, or to the lecting a flock of sheep. It is well known perfection of some especial inherited in that if sent to bring together a flock from stinct, and hence in the different breeds the hills, they will do so without leaving of dogs we get every imaginable quality, one; that they will separate their masand added thereto as consequent upon ter's sheep from others with which they the familiarity of intercourse subsisting have become mingled, and if told to bring between them and their masters, a docil- them two or three at a time will do so ity, teachableness, fidelity, and wealth of without fail. We cannot suppose it posaffection far above that of any other ani- sible that they could do all this without mal. Our various breeds of dogs Mr. some knowledge of numbers, and some Darvin believes to have been derived comprehension of the meaning of human from several wild species, yet at the pres- speech; indeed, it appears certain that ent day we have little opportunity, of dogs, and other animals also in an inferior judging of the qualities of the wild dog, degree, do understand the meaning of since few now exist. There was a breed words addressed to them by man, and do at the Cape, great, brindled creatures with very frequently also hear and understand erect ears, which were the terror of the that which is not addressed to them, it early settlers, from their habit of rushing would otherwise be impossible to explain among a flock of sheep, biting them be- those cases in which dogs so frequently neath and devouring the intestines, leav- anticipate their masters' intentions, geting the sheep to die of the horrible ting out of the way when they overhear wound; but these have been extermi- they are to be shut up, appearing far in nated or driven into the interior; they advance on a road they have heard their seem always to have hunted in packs like masters speak of following, etc. Numerwolves, which they somewhat resembled. ous other authentic instances of canine The semi-wild dogs of Constantinople, so understanding might be given did space well known to travellers, have made for permit, but for these we must refer our themselves laws and customs which speak readers to the works of naturalists, merely much for the natural capacity and high pointing out in this place as a proof that intelligence of the race, and show what dogs do really comprehend the meaning excellent material man had to work upon of language, the fact that a dog brought when bringing these intelligent creatures up in one country does not understand under bis control ; whilst the extent to the language of another country, but if which education may be carried is exem- transferred, say, from England to France, plified in the various performing dogs, and has slowly to learn to understand French, particularly in Minos, that little cross-bred even as a child would do. There is, as terrier, which has for some years past every one must have observed, a vast astonished the public by his attainments. difference in the mental capacity of dogs, It is claimed for him that he understands and it is not generally among those of the the first four rules of arithmetic; but purest breed that the greatest capacity is whether he really understands figures or to be found ; on the contrary, mongrels simply obeys a given sign from his mis- often show the highest mental power. tress in picking up the right card without We once knew a very handsome Blenhesitation, the quickness and intelligence heim spaniel, which, having been taken displayed are wonderful, as also in his very early from her mother, seemed to choice of photographs, and in the correct show an arrested mental development; spelling of a given word. We watched she never could learn to pick a bone as his proceedings with great interest, and other dogs do, by putting the paw or paws fancied that the clue was given by fixed i upon it to hold it steadily, but would LIVING AGE.