in railway travelling; no lady of any sense confess, do they do so elsewhere; if I or spirit objects to travel by the second, had been in their place, perhaps I should or even the third class, if her means do have been equally selfish ; though I do not justify her going by the first. But think I should have made an effort, in when she meets with richer friends upon this instance at least, to make room for the platform, and parts with them to jour- her close beside me.* ney in the same compartment with their A young governess whom some wicked manservant, she suffers as acutely as fairy endowed at her birth with the sensithough, when the guard slams the door of tiveness often denied to princesses, has the carriage with the vehemence propor- assured me that her journeys by railway tioned to its humble rank, her tender have sometimes been rendered miserable hand had been crushed in it. Of course by the thought that she had not even a few it is very foolish of her; but it demands pence to spare for the porter who would democratic opinions, such as almost no presently shoulder her little box on to the woman of birth and breeding possesses, roof of her cab. not to feel that pinch. Her knowledge It is people of this class, much more that it is also hard upon the manservant, than those beneath them, who are shut who has never sat in her presence before, out from all amusements. The mechanic but only stooped over her shoulder with goes to the play and to the music-hall, "'Ock, miss,” serves but to increase her and occasionally takes his "old girl," as he pain.

calls his wife, and even “ a kid” or two, to A great philosopher has stated that the the Crystal Palace. But those I have in worst evil of poverty is, that it makes my mind have no such relaxation from folks ridiculous; by which I hope he only compulsory duty and importunate care.

; means that, as in the above case, it places “ I know it's very foolish, but I feel it them in incongruous positions. The sometimes to be a pinch," says one of man, or woman, who derives amusement these ill-fated ones, " to see them all (the from the lack of means of a fellow- daughters of her employer] going to the creature, would jeer at a natural deform- play, or the opera, while I am expected to ity, be cruel to children, and insult old be satisfied with a private view of their age. Such people should be whipped and pretty dresses.” No doubt it is the sense then hanged. Nevertheless there are cer- of comparison (and especially with the tain little pinches of poverty so slight, that female) that sharpens the sting of pov. they tickle almost as much as they hurt erty. It is not, however, through envy, the victim. A lady once told me (inter- that the “ prosperity of fools destroys us rupting herself, however, with pleasant so much as the knowledge of its unnecesbursts of merriment) that as a young sariness and waste. When a mother has girl her allowance was so small that when a sick child who needs sea air, which she she went out to spend the morning at a cannot afford to give it, the consciousness friend's, her promised pleasure was almost that her neighbor's family (the head of darkened by the presentiment (always ful- which perhaps is a most successful finanfilled) that the cabman was sure to charge cier and market-rigger) are going to the her more than the proper fare. The extra Isle of Wight for three months, though expense was really of consequence to her, there is nothing at all the matter with but she never dared dispute it because of them, is an added bitterness. How often the presence of the footman who opened it is said (no doubt with some well-intenthe door.

tioned idea of consolation) that after all Some young ladies - quite as ladylike money cannot buy life! I remember a curias any who roll in chariots - cannot even ous instance to the contrary of this. In the afford a cab. “What I call the pinch of old days of sailing-packets a country genpoverty,” observed an example of this tleman embarked for Ireland, and when a class, " is the waiting for omnibus after few miles from land broke a blood-vessel omnibus on a wet afternoon and finding them all full.”

* There is, however, some danger in this. I remem“But surely," I replied with gallantry, in the city who thus accommodated on a wet day a

ber reading of some highly respectable old gentleman any man would have given up his seat very nice young woman in humble circumstances. She

was as full of apologies as of rain-water, and he of good

natured rejoinders, intended to put her at her ease; so She shook her head with a smile that that he became, in a platonic and paternal way, quite had very little fun in it. People in friendly with her by the time she arrived at her destinaomnibuses,” she said, “don't give up their tion which happened to be his own door.

out to be his new cook, which was afterwards very emseats to others.” Nor, I am bound to barrassing.



to you?


She turned

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

through sea-sickness. A doctor on board other (just as after constant "pinching pronounced that he would certainly die a limb becomes insensible) grows callous, before the completion of the voyage if it and also (though it seems like a contrawas continued ; whereupon the sick man's diction in terms) sometimes acquires a friends consulted with the captain, who certain dreadful suppleness. Nothing is convoked the passengers, and persuaded more monstrous than the generally rethem to accept compensation in propor- ceived opinion with respect to a moderate tion to their needs for allowing the vessel competence; that “fatal gift," as it is to be put back; which was accordingly called, which encourages idleness in done.

youth by doing away with the necessity One of the most popular fictions of our for exertion. I never hear the same peotime was even written with this very ple inveighing against great inheritances, moral, that life is unpurchasable. Yet which are much more open to such objecnothing is more certain than that life is tions. The fact is, if a young man is often lost through want of money — that naturally indolent, the spur of necessity is of the obvious means to save it. In will drive him but a very little

way, while such a case how truly has it been written the having enough to live upon is often that “the destruction of the poor is their the means of preserving his self-respect. poverty”! This, however, is scarcely a One often hears what humiliating things pinch, but, to those who have hearts to men will do for money, whereas the truth feel it, a wrench that “divides asunder the is that they do them for the want of it. joints and the marrow.”

It is not the temptation which induces A nobler example, because a less per- them, but the pinch. “ Give me neither sonal one, of the pinch of poverty, is poverty nor riches," was Agur's prayer; when it prevents the accomplishment of feed me with food convenient for me, some cherished scheme for the benefit of lest I be full and deny thee, and say, the human race. I have felt such a one who is the Lord ? or lest I be poor and myself when in extreme youth I was un- steal.” And there are many things, flatable, from a miserable absence of means, teries, disgraceful humiliations, hypocrito publish a certain poem in several can- sies, which are almost as bad as stealing. tos. That the world may not have been one of the sharpest pinches of poverty to much better for it if I had had the means some minds must be their inability (bedoes not affect the question. It is easy to cause of their dependency on him and be incredulous. Henry the Seventh of that of others upon them) to tell a man England did not believe in the expecta- what they think of him. tions of Columbus, and suffered for it, and Riches and poverty are of course but his case may have been similar to that of relative terms; but the happiest inaterial the seven publishers to whom I applied position in which a man can be placed is in vain.

that of “means with a margin.". Then, A man with an invention on which he however small his income may be, howhas spent his life, but has no means to get ever it may behove him to “cut and conit developed for the good of humanity trive," as the housekeepers call it, he does or even patented for himself - must feel not feel the pinch of poverty. I have the pinch of poverty very acutely. known a rich man say to an acquaintance

To sum up the matter, the longer I live, of this class, “ My good friend, if you only the more I am convinced that the general knew how very small are the pleasures view in respect to material means is a my money gives me which you yourself false one. That great riches are a mis- cannot purchase!” And for once it was fortune is quite true; the effect of them not one of those cheap and empty consoin the moral sense (with here and there lations which the wealthy are so ready to a glorious exception, however) is de- bestow upon their less fortunate fellowplorable: a shower of gold falling con- creatures. Dives was, in that instance, tinuously upon any body (or soul) is as the quite right in his remark; only we must waters of a petrifying spring. But, on the remember he was not speaking to Lazaother hand, the occasional and precarious rus. " A dinner of herbs where love is," dripping of coppers has by no means a is doubtless quite sufficient for us; only genial effect. If the one recipient be there must be enough of it, and the herbs comes hard as the nether millstone, the should be nicely cooked in an omelette.


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

From Nature.


for its heat. If so space must be enorTHE TEMPERATURE OF SPACE AND ITS mously more transparent to heat-rays

than to light-rays. If the heat of the

stars be as feeble as their light, space Few questions bearing directly on ter- cannot be much above absolute zero, and restrial physics have been so much over- this is the opinion expressed to me a few looked as that of the temperature of stel. weeks ago by one of the most eminent lar space, that is to say, the temperature physicists of the day. Prof. Langley is which a thermometer would indicate if also of this opinion, for he concludes that placed at the outer limits of our atmo- the amount of heat received from the sun sphere and exposed to no other influence is to that derived from space as much than that of radiation from the stars. as four to one; and consequently if our Were we asked what was probably the luminary were extinguished the tempermid-winter temperature of our island ature of our earth would fall to about eleven thousand seven hundred years ago, - 360° F. when the winter solstice was in aphelion, It must be borne in mind that Pouillet's we could not tell unless we knew the tem- memoir was written more than forty perature of space. Again, without a years ago, when the data available for the knowledge of the temperature of space, it élucidating the subject were far more imcould not be ascertained how much the perfect than now, especially as regards temperature of the North Atlantic and the the influence of the atmosphere on radiair oyer it were affected by the Gulf ant heat. For example, Pouillet comes Stream. We can determine the quantity to the conclusion that, owing to the fact of heat conveyed into the Atlantic by the of our atmosphere being less diatherinastream, and compare it with the amount nous to radiation from the earth than to received by that area directly from the radiation from the sun and the stars, were sun, but this alone does not enable us to the sun extinguished the radiation of say how much the temperature is raised the stars would still maintain the surface by the heat conveyed. We know that of our globe at — 89° C., or about — 53°C. the basin of the North Atlantic receives above that of space. The experiments of from the Gulf Stream a quantity of heat Tyndall, however, show that the absorbequal to about one-fourth that received ing power of the atmosphere for heat-rays from the sun, but unless we know the is due almost exclusively to the small temperature of space we cannot say how quantity of aqueous vapor which it conmuch this one-fourth raises the tenpera- tains. It is evident, therefore, that but ture of the Atlantic. Suppose 56° to be for the sun there would probably be no the temperature of that ocean: this is aqueous vapor, and consequently nothing 517° of absolute temperature which is to protect the earth from losing its beat derived from three sources, viz. : (1) direct by radiation. Deprived of solar heat, the heat from the sun, (2) heat from the Gulf surface of the ground would sink to about Stream, and (3) heat from the stars. Now as low a temperature as that of stellar unless we know what proportion the heat space, whatever that temperature may of the stars bears to that of the sun we actually be. have no means of knowing how much of But before we are able to answer the the 517° is due to the stars and how much foregoing questions, and tell, for examto the sun or to the Gulf Stream.

ple, how much a given increase or deM. Pouillet and Sir John Herschel are crease in the quantity of sun's heat will the only physicists who appear to have raise or lower the temperature, there is devoted attention to the problem. The another physical point to be determined, former came to the conclusion that space on which a considerable amount of unhas a temperature of 142° C. or - 224o certainty still exists. We must know in F., and the latter, following a different what way the temperature varies with the method of inquiry, arrived at nearly the amount of heat received. In computing, same result, viz., that its temperature is say, the rise of temperature resulting about — 239° F.

from a great increase in the quantity of Can space, however, really have so high heat received, should we assume with a temperature as - 239°? Absolute zero Newton that it is proportional to the inis – 461o Space in this case would have crease in the quantity of heat received, or an absolute temperature of 222°, and con- should we adopt Dulong's and Petit's sequently our globe would be nearly as formula ? much indebted to the stars as to the sun In estimating the extent to which the


[ocr errors]


temperature of the air would be affected pass, thereby swelling the total radiation. by a change in the sun's distance, I have But as the plate becomes thinner and hitherto adopted the former mode. This thinner, the obstructions to interior radiaprobably makes the change of tempera- tion become less and less, and as these ture too great, while Dulong's and Petit's obstructions are greater for radiation at formula adopted by Mr. Hill, on the other low than high temperatures, it necessarily hand, makes it too small. Dulong's and follows that, by reducing the thickness of Petit's formula is an empirical one, which the plate, we assist radiation at low inore has been found to agree pretty closely than at high temperatures. with observation within ordinary limits, If this be the true explanation why the but we have no reason to assume that it radiation of bodies deviates from Newwill hold equally correct when applied to ton's law, it should follow that in the case that of space, any more than we have to of gases, where the particles stand at a infer that it will do so in reference to tem considerable distance from one another, perature as high as that of the sun. the obstruction to interior radiation must When applied to determine the tempera- be far less than in a solid, and conseture of the sun from his rate of radiation, quently that the rate at which a gas radiit completely breaks down, for it is found ates its heat as its temperature rises, to give only a temperature of 2130° F., or must increase more slowly than that of a not much above that of an ordinary fur- solid substance. In other words, in the

case of a gas, the rate of radiation must But besides all this it is doubtful if it correspond more nearly to the absolute will hold true in the case of gases. From temperature than in that of a solid; and the experiments of Prof. Balfour Stewart the less the density and volume of a gas, (Trans. Edin. Roy. Soc., xxii) on the ra- tbe more nearly will its rate of radiation diation of glass plates of various thick- agree with Newton's law. The obstrucnesses, it would seem to follow that the tion to interior radiation into space must radiation of a material particle is probably diminish as we ascend in the atmosphere, proportionate to its absolute temperature, at the outer limits of which, where there is or, in other words, that it obeys Newton's no obstruction, the rate of radiation should law. Prof. Balfour Stewart' found that be pretty nearly proportional to the absothe radiation of a thick plate of glass in-lute temperature. May not this to a cercreases more rapidly than that of a thin tain extent be the cause why the temperplate as the temperature rises, and that, if ature of the air diminishes as we ascend ? we go on continually diminishing the If the foregoing considerations be corthickness of the plate whose radiation at rect, it ought to follow that a reduction in different temperatures we are ascertain the amount of heat received from the ing, we find that as it grows thinner and sun, owing to an increase of his distance, thinner, the rate at which it radiates its should tend to produce a greater lowering heat as its temperature rises becomes less effect on the temperature of the air than it and less. In other words, as the plate does on the temperature of the solid grows thinner its rate of radiation be- ground. Taking, therefore, into considercomes more and more proportionate to its ation, the fact that space has probably a absolute temperature. And we can hardly lower temperature than ---239°, and that resist the conviction that if it were possi- the temperature of our climate is deterble to go on diminishing the thickness of mined by the temperature of the air, it the plate till we reached a film so thin as will follow that the error of assuming that to embrace but only one particle in its the decrease of temperature is propor. thickness, its rate of radiation would be tional to the decrease in the intensity of proportionate to its temperature, or, in the sun's heat may not be great. other words, it would obey Newton's law. In estimating the extent to which the Prof. Balfour Stewart's explanation is winter temperature is lowered by a great this. As all substances are more diather increase in the sun's distance there is manous for heat of high than low temper- another circumstance which must be atures, when a body is at a low tempera- taken into account. The lowering of the ture only the exterior particles supply the temperature tends to diminish the amount radiation, the heat from the interior parti- of aqueous vapor contained in the air, and cles being all stopped by the exterior this in turn tends to lower the temperaones, while at a high temperature part of ture by allowing the air to throw of its the heat from the interior is allowed to heat more freely into space.


Fifth Series, }

No. 1877.— June 5, 1880.

{ From Beginning

Vol. CXLV.

[ocr errors][merged small]



[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

By Leslie Stephen,

Fortnightly Review,
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XVII.,

Advance Sheets,

Contemporary Review, .
IV. BUSH-LIFE IN QUEENSLAND. Part VI., Blackwood's Magazine,

Macmillan's Magazine,
VI. THE CIVIL CODE OF THE JEWS. Part VII., Pall Mall Gazette,
VII. PLAIN-SPEAKING. By the author of "John
Halifax, Gentleman,"

Good Words,

Pall Mall Gazette, IX. A MODERN SERMON,

Portsmouth (Eng.) Monitor,

599 615

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


627 632

635 637 639


[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. Ii neither of These can be procured, the money shouid be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


« VorigeDoorgaan »