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the Thibetans, who lay between the two, itself in the white or green turban, and and required suppression on both sides if they carry themselves with the dignified they were to be kept in order at all. bearing of their Bedawy forefathers. The
The Arab traders, augmented by the women are smaller than the men, the hips four thousand military colonists, pros- wide, and the bosom fully developed ; pered and multiplied in the land. The their hands and feet very small, in conseonly important accession they received quence no doubt of Chinese customs; but from outside consisted in the Tartar and the lower classes do not cramp the feet of other immigrations which followed the their children after this fashion. The general disturbance of Asia by Jenghiz skin of both sexes is either whiter or Khan, and in prisoners of war taken dur- browner than the olive-yellow of the Chiing that period of universal fighting. But nese; the hair is generally black, but internally they grew steadily, and needed sometimes one meets with a positively little fresh blood from without. Besides blonde color. In character they are detaking Chinese women as concubines, scribed as gentler and more truthful than they increased their stock by the purchase the other Chinese. As traders their honof Chinese children in times of famine, esty is above suspicion ; as magistrates and these they brought up as members of they are impartially just, and are looked the Muslim community, and established, up to with reverence. They are natuwhen fully grown, on their own account, rally more energetic than other Chinamen, so that whole villages were formed of these and prefer war and commerce to art and purchased Mohammedans.
letters. In religion they are not fanatical,
but For four centuries these strangers, envied
go so far in the contrary direction that by the natives for their political immunities, they are willing to surrender such details enjoyed a thousand facilities for development in their ritual and creed as may seem and for the formation of a populous and healthy offensive to the customs and prejudices community. Forced by their religious law to of China. They dwell together in singumarry among themselves, they gradually took lar harmony, like a great, good-tempered to them Chinese concubines, and were not family, mutually protecting each other, slow to lose the diversity of types which dis- | and living in charity one with another tinguished them at the time of their arrival in and with their unconverted neighbors. China; and thus there sprang up a race dis
Colonel Yule, in an excellent introductinct from the Chinese, and at the same time tion prefixed by him to Captain Gill's narin no manner recalling its mixed origin (vol. i., rative of his journey to Thibet, which
bears the somewhat affected title of “ The M. de Thiersant's description of this River of Golden Sand,” has pointed out peculiar race agrees closely with those of that in Indo-Chinese countries Islam has the learned Lazarist missionary, l'Abbé never assimilated the nationality of those David, and of M. Dupuis and Mr. Ander- who profess it, as in western Asia. This
Of course the characteristics differ is the case in some degree in Java, still somewhat in the different provinces and more so in Burmah, and most of all in districts, according as one influence or China. The people in those countries another has been principally exerted; but, professing Islam may be compared to the speaking, generally, the Arab, Tartar, and Abyssinian professors of Christianity. Chinese blood which went to make up the As we travel further east, the manners, people can be traced everywhere, and yet rites, and observances prescribed by the none of the three predominates so as to common faith are considerably modified. obscure the others, but rather all three M. de Thiersant has devoted a whole unite in forming a new and distinct type, volume of five hundred pages to the differing from all others and from its orig- religion of these Muslims of China - a inal ingredients. These Chinese Mus- very needless waste of time and paper, as lims are well-made fellows, of an athletic we think. It is divided into three large build, and, though seldom very tall, they sections: (1) dogmatic, (2) moral, (3) ritual, are above the average Chinese height, occupying from one hundred and fifty to altogether bigger and more muscular than two hundred pages apiece, although each the Chinese. The face is a long oval, might have been sufficiently explained in with prominent cheek-bones; they have a single chapter of very moderate length. the Arab nose, but slightly sloping eyes The first part describes the necessary that would be almost Chinese save for dogmas of Islam, as they exist all over their fierce, keen glance. They wear only the world among the orthodox - complia short moustache, and shave the rest of cated and clouded over with the usual the face. Their Arab lineage asserts I refinements and adumbrations of the
divines, or such of them as the Chinese | the minor duties of the Muslim are exmind affects. The curious thing is, that plained — where he should dwell, how these Muslims of China almost all belong he must feed, and what he must avoid. to the orthodox sect of the Hanafys, and This last category includes not merely yet contrive to be tolerant and sociable the ordinary Mohammedan restrictions with their infidel neighbors. Orthodoxas to wine and the like, but also Islam is not wont to be so. Beyond this tobacco. The Chinese Muslims, like the general fact, that orthodoxy and toler- Wahhabys, look upon smoking with unance are compatible in Islam, there is feigned horror: they say the devil innothing to be learned from M. de Thier. vented it when Nimrod cast Abraham sant's treatises on God, and angels, and into the furnace, in order to prevent the jinn, and prophets, and sacred books, and patriarch from escaping the flames. resurrection, judgment, paradise, and hell. Opium, however, is not, unfortunately, On the subject of predestination, how- regarded with such aversion. Dancing is ever, the extracts from the Tsin-tchen- not only forbidden, but unknown in China. tche-nan are important, for they show Music, vocal and instrumental, the singthat the dangers of fatalism are clearly ing of spiritual psalms and the trolling of comprehended by the Mohammedans of profane songs, are equally placed under China, and that they can reconcile in their a severe interdict. Images of living own minds an orthodox belief in predes- things are eschewed, as among all Mustination with a firm conviction of man's lim communities; but the Mohammedans responsibility and freedom of action of China, it must be confessed, do someWhilst they recognize the doctrine that times indulge their vanity by getting all the physical facts of the universe are themselves photographed. Various reguthe results of the immutable decrees of lations as to dress, usury, polite behavior, God, they also assert that actions of a public prayers, pilgrimage to Mekka, moral order hang on the will of man, who alms, and the like, are included in this is free to choose the good and eschew the part of the work; and these differ in no evil.
essential manner from the ordinary rules The moral law of the Chinese Mus- of all Muslim societies. The truth is, lims is more interesting, because in it that the mere description of the Koran there is more room for the display of law is of no possible use; for the Muslims national and local peculiarities. The of China are bound in many things to account of this law, however, in M. de conform to the ordinary law of the land, Thiersant's second volume, is indescrib- whilst in others the regulations of Moably tedious. It consists mainly in ex- hammed are modified by contact with tracts from Chinese moral treatises, other religions and customs. In marriage, which abound in excellent precepts for for example, the Chinese law holds good: men's and women's conduct in all the rela- a Muslim in China can have but one wife, tions of life, but which do not present though, with her permission, he may take any strikingly original thought, and in any number of concubines, who act as deed seem to have a special power of giv- servants to the chief wife. The good and ing forth distressingly "goody'platitudes the bad points of Muslim marriage are in a solemn way, which provokes unseemly traceable in China, with the improvement mirth in the reader. If the Mohammedans of the Chinese form of monogamy. The of China were all that these moral essays good side is seen in the rareness of illicit say they ought to be, we should know intercourse in the case of either sex. The where to go for a Utopia. They begin bad side comes out in the degraded views with the portrait of an ideal sovereign, of women which are common to all Mowho is one with his people, and whom his hammedan societies. Among the Chinese people worship as the shadow of God, Muslims, the chief wife is simply “la and then proceed to describe the duties première servante de la maison, and of public functionaries; after which fam- though she has seldom to complain of ily virtues have their turn — the duties harshness or cruelty in her husband, her of parents and children, husbands and inferior position naturally produces a corwives, brothers and friends, all of which responding inferiority in character. Genare treated with extreme good sense, but erally an affectionate and virtuous wife somehow remind us of the copybooks, and mother, she is yet as ignorant as all and do not strike us as likely to be more woinen must be who are kept down by efficient in their influence than these the low estimation of the men, and she is same instructors of our childhood. Then consequently unfit to train and educate
her children in that time of their life provinces.* The original settlement in which is perhaps the most important for the province of Kwang-tung where the the firm implanting of high principles and commercial interests common to Muslims an intelligent view of life. Although the and Chinese made a peaceful modus sexes are separated in the ordinary Mo- vivendi imperative at the beginning, behammedan fashion (but without the veil), came in later times the scene of the the Chinese wife enjoys much more lib- massacre by Huang.chow, which was folerty than her sisters in Egypt and Turkey. lowed by the migration of the Muslims Yet this liberty seldom leads to immo- to the islands of Hainan, where their rality, and the Mohammedan ladies of four mosques are still in existence; and China, though self-indulgent and given Kwang-tung, with its twelve mosques, over to opium-smoking, are very reserved five of which are in the capital, Canton, and modest in their behavior. Among itself now holds scarcely more than twenty the lower classes, the women show to the thousand believers in the creed which the best advantage; they share every labor of Arab traders brought first to its port, and their husbands with the utmost energy their numbers are ever on the decrease. and devotion, and are rewarded by real Islam has flourished in China as no affection and constancy. Few men of the other foreign religion, if we except Budworking classes have more than the one dhism; and it is worth while to discover wife; but among the traders and govern- how this has happened. It is not because ment officials about two-fifths keep a ha- there is any special affinity between rem of several women. It is a singular Islam and the State religion of China, fact that it is often the chief wife who although imperial decrees would have us urges the husband to take secondary allow a close resemblance between them. wives (who are simply purchased slaves), It is because the Muslims of China have either like Sarai of old, on account of her understood in a very remarkable manner own barrenness, or because she wishes to the duties of a minority, and have recogincrease her domestic establishment; for nized the hardest necessity of dissent these concubines are more thoroughly the necessity of preferring the obligations under the control of the chief wife than of the subject to the prescriptions of a any other servants could be, and they not nonconforming creed. It is really astonseldom suffer many hardships and indig- ishing to read how these Mohammedans nities at her hands. The Chinese Mus- of China have brought themselves to give lim system of one chief wife is certainly up what was local in their religious ordian advance upon the system of other nances, and to accommodate themselves Mohammedan societies; but in the mat- as citizens to the laws and customs of the ter of concubines, and in the general Chinese Empire. They have adopted the ignorance and inferior position of women, habits and often the dress of the rest of it tallies only too well with what we know the people, and have so far softened the of all communities where the social sys intolerance and fanaticism that we are tem of the Koran is in force.
accustomed to regard as inherent in the As to the third division of the second religion of Mohammed that they are able volume, concerning the ritual, little need to live amicably with the infidels, and to be said. The trivial and wearisome regu- regard their Buddhist neighbors with a lations as to purifications and prayers, kindly feeling which it would be hard to fasts and festivals, and the ceremonies find in a mixed community of Catholics of births, marriages, and deaths, are those and Evangelicals such as some English observed throughout the Mohammedan country towns present for the edification world, and it was quite unnecessary to of our modern Gallios. They join in the recapitulate them in this work.
public amusements, and behave altogether The Mohammedans of China are by no like ordinary Chinamen, only better ; and means equally distributed over the em- anything that annoys their neighbors, as pire. Of the twenty million Muslims who enjoy the protection of the emperor: Mohammedan population of the various provincesur le
* M. de Thiersant gives the following figures for the nearly three-fourths are found in the is much to be regretted that he does not state the source north-west provinces of Kan-suh and of his statistics. Shen-si, and four million inhabit (or, we Kan-suh 8,350,000 Shan-si .
6,500,000 Hu-nan, Hu-pih. 50,000 should rather say, inhabited before the
4,000,000 Sze-chuen massacre of the Panthays) the fertile Chih-li
250,000 Kwei-chow south-west province of Yun-nan; so that Shan-tung 200,000 Che-kiang
200,000 | Kwang-tung. only about one million one hundred and
150,000 Kwang-si fifty thousand remain for all the other | Shing-king 100,000 | Kiang-si
40,000 40,000 30,000 21,000 15,000 4,000
tall minarets, for example, they studi- serious disobedience, of stiffneckedness, of a ously avoid.
spirit of revolt; and they demand of me severe This loyalty and orderliness of the measures against them. After having exam. Muslim population in China has been ined these complaints and accusations, I have met by a similar spirit of tolerance and found them groundless. The religion which kindliness on the part of the supreme forefathers. Their tongue in truth is not the
these Mohammedans practise is that of their rulers. The Muslims of China labor
same as the Chinese ; but how many dialects under no disabilities; they are eligible are there not in China ? As to their temples, for all offices; and the intelligent and their dress, their handwriting, which are not worthy manner in which they fulfil the as those of the other Chinese, these things are duties confided to them proves the wis- of no account: they are mere questions of dom of the sovereigns who did not fear manners. Their character is every whit as to trust them. The emperors of China good as that of my other subjects; and there have had no better and abler servants is nothing to show that they have a mind to than their Muslim officials; as ministers revolt. I will, then, that they be left freely to of State, members of the highest councils exercise their religion, which aims at teaching of the realm, generals of the Celestial and civil obligations and duties.
men to do good and to observe their social
Their rearmy, and governors of provinces, they ligion respects the fundamental bases of govhave fully justified the confidence reposed ernment: what more should I exact? Let the in them. The emperors of China have Mohammedans continue to bear themselves as always impressed upon their subjects the good and loyal subjects, and my favor shall triviality of slight dogmatic differences, extend to them as to my other children. From provided the religion in question produces their number have come many civil and miligood citizens and kind-hearted, helpful tary officials, who have attained to the highest neighbors; and the Muslims in return ranks the best of proofs that they have have sought to find points in common form to the ordinances of our sacred books.
adopted our customs and know how to conwith Confucianism, instead of differences. They pass their examinations in letters like all The Arab religion, says a Chinese writer of by the law. In a word, they are true members
the rest, and perform the sacrifices prescribed the eighteenth century, prescribes for the wor- of the great Chinese family, in that they force ship of the Supreme Being that which Confu: themselves indefatigably to fulfil their religious, cius ordained for the Chang-ty: it only adds civil, and political duties (vol. i., pp. 155–6.) what has been borrowed from Buddhism, concerning prayer, fasting, alms, rewards and punishments after death, and certain rites So said the emperor Yung-shing in (Mah. en Chine, vol. i., p. 54).
1731; and another emperor, regarding
Islam in the same liberal light, mainThe government has taken the same view tained the doctrine that “religion is a of the stranger creed, and many imperial matter of conscience, which no one has decrees remind the people that Islam only the right to scrutinize.”. Many edicts aims at teaching the doing of good and could be quoted couched in the like tolthe observance of natural laws and social erant spirit, to which, and the appreciaobligations; and, if it presents some dif- tion thereof by the tolerated, the Muslims ferences from other creeds, these are to of China owe the peace and tranquillity be regarded simply as questions of coun- they have generally enjoyed. try and custom, best understood by the
Whenever the Mohammedans have founder of the creed. An extract from come into conflict with their neighbors, it an imperial decree published in 1731, on has been the fault, not of the supreme the occasion of a Muslim objection to an government, but of its lower officials. edict respecting, cattle, will show the The mandarins of the provinces not unkindly spirit which the Chinese emperors naturally entertained feelings of jealousy entertained towards Islam:
towards the mixed people of foreign creed In all the provinces of the empire there have who had taken so firm a root in their land, been for many centuries a great number of and to whom the emperors showed marks Mohammedans, who form part of the people, of such decided favor. In the early days and, like all my other subjects, are my very of Chinese Mohammedanism the Muslims children. I make no distinction between them were too few to resent the petty injuries and those who do not belong to their religion. of these understrappers by force, and in I have often received from certain functionaries the central provinces the Muslim minorsecret complaints against the Mohammedans, because their religion differs from that of the ity is still too small to be ever on anyother Chinese, because they do not speak the thing but its best behavior. In the trou. same language, because they wear different blesome south-west provinces, however, dresses from the rest : they'accuse them of they sometimes forgot their policy of
meek submission and conformity, and re-erant treatment as the rest of the Chinese turned blow for blow. A slight quarrel Muslims, and the mineral wealth of the between individuals of the different creeds province, together with the trade with would be followed by a conflict between Burmah, contributed to bring about the the two whole parties, who would take up unusual degree of prosperity, which the the quarrel of their co-religionist in the Mohammedans of Yun-nan enjoyed at the spirit of the Arab avengers of blood, or beginning of this century; but the last the Scottish clans in the good old days. seventy years have been filled with one Then would ensue massacres marked with long record of troubles and rebellions and all the cruelty of the Chinese character, merciless massacres. One of the worst added to the ferocity of religious warfare. of these disturbances took place in 1840, The long suppression of spiritual rancor when, in consequence of the Muslims perhaps served only to intensify the fury having offended two government officials, of the fight, and things were done worthy by claiming a just debt of one, and refusof the best days of the Albigensian “cru- ing to subscribe to a parasol of honor sade"
or the inculcation of the "Thor- which it was proposed to present to the ough ” principle in Ulster. In Kwei-chow, other, some sixteen hundred men, women, for example, in 1860, some litigation be- and children of the Mohammedan populatween a Muslim family named Ma and a tion of Momien were butchered without Confucian called Tung resulted in a mas- mercy, and the massacre would have been sacre of all the Muslims of the town. carried out through the rest of the disThe neighboring Mohammedans came to trict if the Muslims of the vicinity had avenge them, and in turn massacred the not come to the rescue and exacted'a terwhole of the Confucian population. The rible vengeance from the wanton oppressstreets were so full of the dead that, in ors of their co-religionists. But the most order to clear a way, they 'had to pile the deplorable conflict between the Muslims bodies one atop of another against the and their neighbors in Yun-nan — or inwalls of the houses, and the wounded deed in any part of China
was that were so entangled among the dead that which began in a quarrel between some they could not extricate themselves, and miners in 1855, and only ended in 1874 in so perished miserably in the loathly heap: well-nigh the extermination of the Muslim Famine followed hard on the heels of population of the province. M. de Thierslaughter, and the people were reduced to sant's account is more detailed than any eating human flesh. To bury dead per report we have hitherto seen. The Chic sons came to be regarded as criminal nese miners of Lusun-fu killed a good waste : they ate them. No man dared many of their Mohammedan fellow-workwalk abroad by himself for fear of being men; the Muslims retaliated, murdered devoured by his hungry townsmen. The the Chinese superintendents, who had luckiest of mortals was he who lighted made themselves detested by their opupon a corpse; he would carefully carry pressions; and the struggle began to asit to a secret place, cut it into convenient sume alarming proportions. The Chinese joints, dry it in the sun, and store it as called to their aid the national guard of the most precious of provisions; the the department; but the superior courage bones went to make soup. Things came and solidarity of the Muslims gave the to such a pass that human flesh was actu- latter the advantage. The futay, or govally sold in the public markets without a ernor of the province, was appealed to, pretence of concealment. Happily, Mon- and he, acting under the advice of a signor Faurie succeeded in patching up young Tartar, a member of the Academy the quarrel before it went any further, and of the Han-lin, ordered a general massince then it is said that perfect harmony sacre of the Muslims throughout the bas reigned in the province between the province. Mounted expresses were deMuslims and the other Chinese.
spatched to the seventy-two districts with In the contiguous province of Yun-nan instructions to this effect to the printhese things were carried out on a still cipal mandarins. First, three hundred
rger scale. Here Islam was a compar- Muslim families of the town of Po-li were atively late importation, but since its in- surprised by night and butchered; their troduction in the thirteenth century it houses were sacked and their mosque has marvellously increased, and until the burnt; then village after village was sublast terrible revolt the Muslims formed jected to the same barbarous fate. A cry the large majority of the population of the of horror rang through the province, and province. Up to the present century the Mohammedans rushed to arms and they seem to have received the same tol- collected in vast numbers, thirsting for