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Edinburgh Review,
Johnny Ludlow. Conclusion,


Fortnightly Reviere',

Fraser's Magazine,


Fortnightly Review, VII. THE PINCH OF POVERTY,



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Without, the sweet, still sunshine, A HOMELY cottage, quaint and old,

Within, the holy calm,
Its thatch grown thick with green and gold,

Where priest and people waited
And wind-sown grasses ;

For the swelling of the psalm.
Unchanged it stands in sun and rain,
And seldom through the quiet lane

Slowly the door swung open
A footstep passes.

And a little baby girl,

Brown-eyed, with brown hair falling Yet here my little woman dwelt,

In many a wavy curl,
And saw the shroud of winter melt

With soft cheeks flushing hotly,
From meads and fallows;

Shy glances downward thrown,
And heard the yellow-hammer sing

And small hands clasped before her, A tiny welcome to the spring

Stood in the aisle alone.
From budding sallows.

Stood half abashed, half frightened, She saw the early morning sky

Unknowing where to go,
Blush with a tender wild-rose dye

While like a wind-rocked flower,
Above the larches;

The form swayed to and fro;
And watched the crimson sunset burn

And the changing color Auttered
Behind the summer plumes of fern

In the little troubled face,
In woodland arches.

As from side to side she wavered

With a mute, imploring grace.
My little woman, gone away
Tó that far land which knows, they say,

It was but for a moment;
No more sun-setting !

What wonder that we smiled,
I wonder if her gentle soul,

By such a strange, sweet picture
Securely resting at the goal,

From holy thoughts beguiled ?
Has learnt forgetting ?

When up rose some one softly,

And many an eye grew dim, My heart wakes up, and cries in vain ;

As through the tender silence
She gave me love, I gave her pain

He bore the child with him.
While she was living ;
I knew not when her spirit fled,
But those who stood beside her, said

And I- I wondered (losing
She died forgiving.

The sermon and the prayer)

If when sometime I enter My dove has found a better rest,

The "many mansions” fair,

And stand abashed and drooping
And yet I love the empty nest
She left neglected;

In the portals' golden glow,

Our God will send an angel I tread the very path she trod,

To show me where to go! And ask, - in her new home with God

Am I expected ?

If it were but the Father's will
To let me know she loves me still,

This aching sorrow
Would turn to hope, and I could say,
Perchance she whispers day by day,

“He comes to-morrow.

I linger in the silent lane,
And high above the clover plain

The clouds are riven;
Across the fields she used to know
The light breaks, and the wind sighs low,

** Loved and forgiven.” Good Words.


UNDERNEATH their eider-robe
Russet swede and golden globe,
Feathered carrot, burrowing deep,
Steadfast wait in charmed sleep;
Treasure-houses wherein lie,
Locked by angels' alchemy,
Milk and hair, and blood, and bone,
Children of the barren stone;
Children of the flaming Air,
With his blue eye keen and bare,
Spirit-peopled, smiling down
On frozen field and boiling town
Boiling town that will not heed
God his voice for rage and greed;
Frozen fields that surpliced lie,
Gazing patient at the sky;
Like some marble carven nun,
With folded hands when work is done,
Who mute upon her tomb doth pray,

Till the resurrection day.
Nov. 25, 1945. CHARLES KINGSLEY.

Macmillan's Magazine.


BY JULIA C. R. DORR. THE church was dim and silent

With the hush before the prayer, Only the solemn trembling

Of the organ stirred the air;

From The Edinburgh Review. be induced to bestir themselves and set MOHAMMEDANISM IN CHINA.*

out on a career of conquest which should The history of Mohammedanism is a reflect not unworthily the violence and series of surprises. Islam began by as the terror of the first flood of Saracenic tonishing the world in its original out- invasion. The place of Islam in the burst, and ever since, from time to time, future of China must determine in a great it has ministered to the Western craving degree the place of China in the future of for amazement. Not many years ago,

Asia. people had made up their minds that the There is no religion about which so religion of Mohammed was passing into much is ill-known as Islam. It is hardly its stage of dotage, and that no more ad- saying too much to assert that the barest vance was to be looked for in a faith that fundamental doctrines of Mohammedanwas at last about to verify the predictions ism are either unknown or misknown by of its Christian "

unveilers,” and to die the vast majority of educated Englishthe death of all falsehoods. But more men. University preachers of the highrecently, the eyes that were thought to est honors still denounce the creed which be shut forever upon the forward march teaches the worship of Mohammed along of Islam were roughly awakened to sev- with the worship of God! Such ignoreral unwelcome facts about that creed. ance of the essence of this religion is It appeared from incontrovertible testi- combined with equal darkness in the matmony that Mohammedanism was advanc- ter of its extent and present condition. ing with giant strides in western Africa In England, whose forty million Muslim at the expense of Christianity, and that subjects in India would, if the creed of Muslim teachers were working a social the majority constituted the State religreform where Christian missionaries had ion, almost make Great Britain a Mohamfailed. It was discovered that an able, medan power, the importance of the study resolute man had founded a vast Muslim of Islam and of the knowledge of its progkingdom between Russia and China, in ress and possibilities in the future cannot the

very centre of Asia, the cradle of the longer thus be lightly ignored. Mohamnations of Christian Europe; and in 1872 medanism is closely linked with the future an appeal to England on behalf of an of India and of China, and through them important Mohammedan kingdom in with the future of Russia and of England. southern China conveyed to Western ears It is, therefore, a fit subject for regret the information that there were villages that it should have been left to a French and towns and districts of Muslims in the consul to inform us of that which so nearly midst of the Buddhist and Confucian in- touches our interests; but, whatever the habitants of the Celestial Empire. There source, it is the information that we want, are some who would assign to China a and we owe our thanks to M. de Thiergreat part in the future of the world; and sant for the valuable service he has renthough it is hard to feel much apprehen- dered to all whom the present and future sion whilst the empire is in its present condition of Chinese Mohammedanism divided and exhausted condition, it is may concern. He has gathered together possible that, with the help of the fiery a large quantity of really important mareligion of the Arabs, the Chinese might terials, and his work deserves the careful

study not merely of Orientalists and gen1. Le Mahométisme en Chine et dans le Turkes- eral readers, but of statesmen. It must,

Par P. DABRY DE THIERSANT, ConsulGénéral et Chargé d'Affaires de France. 2 vols. Paris: however, be admitted that the manner of 1878.

the work is not so excellent as its inten2. Prières des Musulmans Chinois traduites sur

tion. The Parisian mucb-vaunted virtue l'original en arabe et en persan Da'aouât el-Moslemin, imprimé à Canton en 1876. Paris: 1878.

of conciseness is here conspicuously ab3. The Life of Yakoob Beg, Athalik Ghazi, and sent. M. de Thiersant has filled two baudalet, A meer of Kashgar. By DEMETRIUS volumes with the matter of one, and he Charles BOULGER.

London : 1878. 4. Religion in China. By Joseph Edkins, D.D. has arranged the matter in a troublesome Second edition. London : 1878.

and irrational form. He has inserted a

tan Oriental.

number of literal translations of decrees The kingdom of Medina (says the Chinese and the like, most of which are identical record) is near that of India ; and it is in this in purport, and of which one would have kingdom that these strangers' religion arose, sufficed as a specimen of all. He has which is quite different from that of Fo spread out into a series of chapters the (Buddha). They eat no pork, and drink no history of Islam in the various provinces have themselves killed. They call them now

wine, and hold impure all flesh but what they in a very unconnected manner, instead of

adays Hoey-Hoey. They had a temple (at giving a concise chapter on the history of Canton), called the “ Temple of Sacred MemMohammedanism in all China. And his ory,” which was built at the beginning of the second volume, containing the ritual and Tang dynasty. By the side of the temple was creed, might have been easily and effec- a tower, called the “Unadorned Tower,round, tually condensed, for the Hanafy doctrine and one hundred and sixty feet high. These and practice of the Chinese Muslims strangers used to go every day to this temple differ in no essential manner from the to perform their ceremonies. Having asked orthodox creed in the rest of the Moham- and obtained the emperor's leave to reside in medan world; and the comments and Canton, they built themselves magnificent explanations of the Chinese theologians houses, of a different style from the architecare scarcely worth printing at length. obeyed a chief of their own choosing. They

ture of our country. They were very rich, and Finally, M. de Thiersant would have done were so numerous, and so influential in their well if he had given the authorities for wealth, that they could maltreat the Chinese his statistics, and had, generally speaking, with impunity (Mah. en Chine, vol. i., pp. placed the book on a more positive basis 19, 20). as an authoritative exposition of facts. Who these first importers of Islam to In spite of these defects, “Le Mahomé- China were, their descendants are entirely tisme en Chine" is a valuable work, and at a loss to inform us. They were cerbears on its surface the impression of tainly Arabians, for they have left their fidelity to truth and personal experience. faces to their posterity; but from what

Those who know anything of Arabian part of Arabia it is perhaps impossible to history, or even of the “ Arabian Nights,” say. They may have been sent by Mowill find nothing surprising in the intro- hammed himself in the year when he sent duction of Islam into China. The trade ambassadors to all the great kings to call of the far East passed in a great measure them to “ the true religion;" or they may through Arab hands to Syria and the have formed part of an expedition of ports of the Levant. In the sixth century exiles, like those who emigrated, by their there was a brisk commerce between prophet's advice, to Abyssinia. The only Arabia and the “ Flowery Land” by way thing certain appears to be the early date of Ceylon; and at the beginning of the of their arrival: there were undoubtedly Tang dynasty, in the first quarter of the Muslims in China about the end of the seventh century, the trade between China first quarter of the seventh century, or at and Persia and Arabia was greatly ex- least within ten years after the Hijra. tended. Siraf, the Persian Gulf, was Who the chief of these men, the first the entrepôt of the Chinese merchants, Mohammedan missionary in China, was, who seldom came further west; and here is another obscure question. He is certhe Arab traders from Maskat and Syria tainly a distinct person, about whom they met them and carried their goods on to preserve traditions, but he is not easy to the next stage. An official journal re- identify. M. de Thiersant produces an cords a voyage from China to Persia as inscription, dated 1351 A.D. (or rather its taking over a year; but the travellers Chinese equivalent), which testifies that must be admitted to have taken their jour- there was a special apostle sent in early ney very leisurely. Among the traders times to the Chinese from Arabia ; but who came to China early in the Tang the name throws no light on the identity dynasty, i.e. just when Mohammed was of this apostle beyond the fact that he preaching to his Arabs, were men from was a sahhaby, or “companion” of Mo. Medina.


At the foot of the Mountain of White Snows | tury of the Hijra, the famous Muslim is a very high tower, built by the exertions of general Kuteyba crossed the Oxus, took a man of the West, under the dynasty of the Bukhara and Samarkand, and “carried Ly-Tang. The great saint of the West, Mo- fire and sword through Kashgar to behammed, whose disciples turn upwards the yond Kucha,” he was actually on Chinese holy stone in praying, sent one of his companions (Sa-ka-pa) to China to propagate his territory. He sent ten officers of his

staff as deputies to the emperor of China, religion, some eight hundred years ago. It took a year and more for this disciple to reach who should offer him the friendship of our land by sea; he landed at Canton, and the khalif, if he submitted himself and traversed China, and began to establish his paid an annual tribute to the court of religion at Canton (Mah. en Chine, vol. i., p. Islam, which was then at Damascus; or, 22).

in case of refusal, should put before him

the alternative of fire and sword, the This apostle, variously styled Sarta, burning of cities, the slaughter of men, Sa-ka-pa, Wang-ka-ze, M. de Thiersant and the enslaving of women and children, identifies, but we think on doubtful throughout the dominions of his Majesty. grounds, with Wahb Abu-Kebsha, a ma- This audacious message was delivered ternal uncle of Mohammed. Whoever with the customary sang-froid of the he was, it seems clear that this apostle Arab. The ambassadors indulged the reached China about the sixth or seventh emperor with an allegory in dress. The year of the Hijra (A.D. 628-9), where he first day they appeared before him in was graciously received by the emperor sumptuous attire, perfumed à ravir, and, Tai-Tsung, who permitted him to build a having regarded the emperor in grave mosque at Canton and to practise the silence, immediately retired. The next rites of the Mohammedan religion. Re-day they came in rich garments of a somturning to Arabia in 632, he found his bre hue, and acted as before. The third prophet was dead, and so chagrined was day they presented themselves armed capSa-ka-pa at this disaster that he went à-pie, and wearing an exceeding fierce back at once to Canton, bearing with him aspect. The emperor, who had been at Abu-Bekr's authorized Koran, and there some pains to receive them with honor, he died; and thither do many pious could no longer restrain his amazement at Muslims resort each year to pay respect this solemn rite, and demanded the reato the tomb of the first Mohammedan son thereof. “The first day's dress,” missionary of China.

they said, " is that in which we visit our Islam, once planted in the Celestial wives; in the second we go to court; the Empire, speedily grew and waxed power- third is what we wear when we encounter ful. The scanty group of Arab traders our enemies.” And then they delivered settled at Canton multiplied, partly by their message. The Arabian legend will new arrivals, partly by marriage with the have it that the emperor was so much Chinese, and by conversions. In 755 struck by the bearing of these men and they received a considerable reinforce- the boldness of their language, that he ment in the four thousand Muslim sol- loaded them with honors, and cheerfully diers who were sent by the 'Abbâsy consented to pay tribute to the distant khalif, El-Mansûr, to aid the emperor khalif. Without committing ourselves to Suh-Tsung against the rebel Gan Luh- the truth of this conclusion, this much is Shan, and who, when they had done their certain, that the khalif and the emperor fighting, were permitted to settle in China were ever afterwards on very cordial and take left-handed wives from among terms, and were in the habit of sending the natives. This alliance between the each other costly presents, and, generally khalif of Baghdad and the emperor of speaking, holding out the right hand of China is not so surprising as at first sight fellowship. The motive for this alliance it would appear. The two empires were is easily found in the fact that the two nearer to each other than one is accus- empires were equally subject to the matomed to think. When, in the first cen- rauding inroads of their common enemy

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