now to discuss, Mr. Fairbairn wholly re- proper name of one God” had come into pudiates the idea of a primitive revelation use, and this name in its different forms, (p. 13). I accept his dictum under protest Dyaus, Zeus, and the rest, pervades the for the purpose of the present argument, branches of the Aryan family (p. 24). since the aim of that argument is to deal There was also a term expressive of the with the evidence and the probabilities of idea of deity similarly pervasive ; subject the case on grounds entirely apart from however, to a doubt whether the Greek either the proof or the assumption of has a radical affinity with deus and such a revelation. If the upshot of this the other unquestioned members of the process shall be to bring out the primitive family (p. 25). The co-existence of the idea of God in a form accordant with that two is an indication of polytheism ; for form which certain records purporting to us, there is no distinction between deity embody such a revelation exhibit, that is and God. The general or abstract name a fit matter for consideration in its own seems to have been the older, and to have place: at present we have nothing to do been at first individual, so that individwith it.

uality is the starting-point (p. 28). Dyaus Mr. Fairbairn seeks to follow up to its was Deva, Zeus ó oeós (p. 29); it is in convery cradle the idea of God among our formity with this representation that Indo-European or Iranian ancestors, and amidst the strongly marked polytheism of to trace its lineaments as he finds them the Homeric poems we find their Zeus tbere exhibited. He recognizes the ten- holding a relation to their theos, which is dency of the Semitic races to monotheism held by none other of the gods. (p. 16), and considers that Indo-European Admitting the sense of Dyaus, and of man not only has been tolerant of the Deva, to be related to light, Mr. Fairbairn different gods of different nations, but refuses to admit that the distinction of has conceived the divine unity as ab- sex in deities, and the marriage of heaven stract, while the Semite holds it as per- and earth, belongs to a primitive stage of sonal. The "Indo-European tendency religion. Earth is not so old a goddess, was to religious multiplicities, but to as heaven is a god (p. 30). The German philosophic unities” (p. 17); The god of Zio has no consort. “ The separation of a religion is an object of worship; the the sexes implies an anthropomorphism, deity of a philosophy is a product of rudimentary indeed but real” (p. 31). speculation.

This, I apprehend, is a proposition alike As an historical basis, Mr. Fairbairn true and pregnant. It leads, of course, assumes (1) the original unity of the Indo- to this among other modes of application European nations ; (2) the existence of — that whenever we find in a mythology the rudimentary form of their civilization facts which belong to an order not based before they separated; (3) the connection on separation of the sexes, we have an of their several mythologies with the faith indication of a primitive or very ancient of the still united family, as of branches tradition. Such, in the Homeric poems, with their parent stem (p. 18). These is the remarkable case of Athenè. Arès, propositions will probably, in their gen- after he has been wounded by Diomed, eral form of expression, be admitted. sharply expostulates with his father Zeus

He considers it undeniable that these for the partiality which induces him to mythologies resolve themselves into sim- allow to this goddess unbridled freedom pler and fewer elements, the farther they of action. She was a pet, and a privileged are traced back. The Greek polytheism disturber of the peace of the Olympian is formed by a confluence of several halls, because he was her sole parent. streams, which can be traced to their

αλλ' άνιείς, έπει αυτός εγείναο παϊδ' αΐδηλον.* respective Indo-European, Pelasgic, Hellenic, Oriental, and Egyptian fountain-Hence arises a presumption that the heads (p. 20). So likewise, “centuries mythological origin of Athenè from the behind the Vedas,” we can trace the point brain of Zeus was the mythical form of a of severance between two streams, which tradition older than the anthropomorphic parted to form the Indian and Iranian constitution of the Olympian court; and peoples, with their respective religions. this presumption is sustained by a great Subsequently to this parting, philology deal of independent evidence. shows us that there were fewer gods than in the Vedic age, but more than before

The same meaning is perhaps conthe separation (p. 22). With these new veyed by v: 875, yùp Tékes uppova koúpnv, as TÉKES

in the Iliad is usually applied to the mother; there are, gods a priesthood had arisen; during the however, instances, in ordinary parentage, to the contime of the unity of the Aryan race," the trary.

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* II. v. 880.

And the worship of Dyaus, says Mr. | forms in which the Indian conceptions Fairbairn, may be termed a nature-wor- of deity were, as time flowed on, more ship, because one word was the name and more thickly clothed ; having disboth of heaven and of God; but nature missed the motley tribe, the bunt Gewimis here only a synonym for God (pp. 33, mel of the European mythologies, and 38). Nature personified was only nature reached that inner sanctuary, in which conceived as living. (p. 34); but Indo- God is conceived as one God, ruler of the European religion founded itself on di- world and man; having come within an vine fatherhood, Semitic on divine sov- easy stage of the Semitic conception as ereignty (p. 37). Imagination supplied it is defined by historical and philological the physical, conscience the moral part of inquirers, is there any reason why we the conception.

should halt at such a point, or why that Terror, distempered dreams, fear of the un stage also should not be traversed, and known causes of the accidents and destructive why we should not examine whether there phenomena of nature, the desire to propitiate be or be not an original identity between the angry ghosts of ancestors deceased - none the Indo-European and the Semitic conof these could have produced the simple, sub- ceptions of the deity respectively? lime faith of our Indo-European manchild (p. Let it not for a moment be supposed 38).

that I seek to beg this question. I have Here subsisted a faith, in which natu- only pleaded, hus far, that there is no ralism and spiritualism existed together legitimate bar to an examination into the harmoniously as form and matter, letter

evidence. and spirit (p. 42); when they part, the

The great authority for the Semitic higher element predominates in the Ira. conception of God is acknowledged to be nian, the lower in the Indian branch. In found in the Scriptures of the old Testa

I later developments we find not the moral ment, and especially, I apprehend, in the emerging slowly from the physical, but the traditions which the book of Genesis rephysical eclipsing the moral.

cords. Around these records there gath

ered among the Jews a group of illustraWe require, therefore, a faculty generative tive oral traditions, only committed, or of these primary religious acts and ideas, and only known to have been committed, to we have it in conscience. Consciousness and writing at periods comparatively so late, conscience rose together (p. 43). The idea of God was thus given in the very

that their claim to authority must princisame act as the idea of self : neither could be pally depend upon their accordance, their said to precede the other (p. 43).

inner sympathy, so to speak, with the

more authentic forms of the written books. A priesthood was developed in course Now the idea of deity is revealed, or of time, the result of more toilsome and let me say exhibited, in these ancient occupied life, and of a sense of faults and records not alone but with accompanisins (p. 47). And Mr. Fairbairn traces ments. It is (1) exhibited not absolutely in some detail the probable forms of the- and exclusively under the idea of a unity, ogonic and anthropomorphic evolution; but also under the idea of a tri-unity. as likewise the formation of amalgamated Man, the vassal and creature of this religions, formed from confluences of a deity, is also subjected to the action (2) of diversity of ethnical elements (p. 53). a tempting spirit, that solicits and mis.

The general result then is that Mr. leads him into disobedience, sorely perFairbairn traces upwards Indo-European verting and enfeebling, without wholly religion from its more complete to its destroying, his true relation to his legitisimpler forms, until he finds it in that mate ruler. This tempting and misleading condition which is generally understood spirit, which brings no compensation for by the word monotheism, but which, it the injury it inflicts, is exhibited (3) under must be admitted, is more accurately the figure of the serpent. (4) The tree, designated as henotheism, the affirma- as well as the serpent, forms a prominent tive belief in one God without the sharply figure in the imagery which describes the defined exclusive line, which makes it a great moral catastrophe of our race. (5) belief in him as the only God. "This lat. There is a deliverer who, in the future, ter form of monotheism proper may be not without suffering to himself, shall rather the Semitic than the Aryan con- effectually quell the serpent-tempter, ception. But having mounted up so far working the divine will against him, and towards the fountain-head, is there any re-establishing the harmony, of which he thing to prevent us from proceeding fur- had brought about the breach. (6) In this ther? Having got behind the elemental deliverer, the purpose of whose life and being is so identified with the will of the It is found in other tracts of literature and Supreme, the character of humanity is tradition, but as having probably come in strongly marked by his description as the through later contact with the East, and seed of the woman, and to the woman, not presenting the presumptions of direct who thus forms the link between him and derivation from an archaic source, which our common humanity, a certain glory I contend may reasonably attach to the cannot but

ittach in respect this most poems. And the analogues of these Hesolemn and mysterious relationship. (7) brew traditions, which the verse of HoOne and only one physical phenomenon mer supplies, are not mere copies or is, in Genesis, associated with the estab- mechanical reproductions, but bear the lishment and assurance of peace in the marks of transmission through the mind natural world between God and man. It of a race with a different tendency and a is the rainbow, which is appointed, says genius original to itself, and appear in the book, to tell from God to man, as often forms attempered to that genius and that as it appears, that the covenant of order is tendency. Those marks are principally still in force. (8) The sublime conception as follows. of the wisdom of God appears only in the 1. In the Hebrew Scriptures not only later Scriptures in connection with a per- is the idea of sin, which had been manisonality; but it is claimed by the He- fested at the first, carefully preserved, but brews as a part of their tradition, and it is educated, enlarged, and developed, so when it thus appears, it appears as an- that in the historic ages it becomes a nexed to the character of the deliverer, strong and sharp mark of mental and and as forming one side or manifestation moral severance between the Jew and the of that character. (9) We are also from Gentile. In the Hellenic race, which is nearly the earliest date introduced to the cut off from the searching discipline and practice of animal sacrifice, which is training accorded to the Semitic Hebrews, offered, after man has developed at least this idea becomes by degrees more and into nomad communities, without the more faint. medium of a priestly caste. (10) These 2. The powerful imagination of the later Scriptures also describe to us a “war Greek, seeking for congenial pasture, in heaven," with the defeat and ejectment lays hold upon the anthropomorphic eleof the spirits rebellious against the Most ment, which the Hebrew tradition of the High. So far all I may say is undisputed. deliverer manifestly introduces into reNor is any question thus raised as to a ligion, that is to say into the consideration primitive revelation. These traditions are of the relation between God and man. placed before us only as being, like other The idea thus supplied it freely enlarges traditions, matter of fact; and this, wheth- and applies in the prevailing humanism er they truly report facts, or whether they of the entire Olympian system. do not.

3. As in these two particulars the Hel. It is at this point that the evidence lenic, and especially the Achaian, form of offered to us with remarkable abundance religion is broadly distinguished from and multiformity by the poems of Homer that of the Hebrew-Semite, so in third puts in, as I conceive, its claim to a dis- point it is marked off from the systems tinctive function altogether its own. It is of other races, who had a less elevated true, indeed, that in various quarters we conception of human nature than the may find abundance of fragmentary coin-children of Hellas. Wherever, in the cidences, in the practice or religion of Hebrew tradition, there is an opening for Indo-European races, with the remarkable religious reverence or superstition to group of Hebrew traditions, of which I gather itself round an object inferior to have thus briefly reminded the reader. man, that opening is in the Homeric It may suffice for the present to refer to poems, and in the Olympian system, the worship of the serpent and the tree, effectually barred. The ox, habitually and the remarkable association between offered in sacrifice, grew into an object them. But it is only in the Homeric of worship, and to such worship, as we poems, so far as I know, that we find a know, the Hebrews themselves were cureproduction of every one of these ex- riously and fatally prone. In Homer traordinary characteristics of the Hebrew there is not so much as the idea of animalnarrative; an assemblage · which nearly worship; but the ox, in the Eastern exhausts the distinctive features of the sphere of his outer geography, becomes most ancient Scriptures. For, among the consecrated animal and favorite of these features, there is only the deluge of the sun, whom he evidently regards as which the poems do not bear the trace. the prevailing divinity of the Eastern

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lands. The worship of the serpent, also put her services in requisition. All again, spread quickly through the world, this looks like the poet's manner of telling and may even be found to throw some us that the region of ideas in which his light on the contested question as to the swift and gentle Iris had been born, was unity of the race. In the Hebrew history, the henotheistic region, and that it formed the animal has a place most singular and no part of the more promiscuous and significant. In Homer, there are indeed more recent formations. So we find, on legendary traces of serpent-worship not the one hand, that the poet, to work out Achaian, but the creature comes no nearer his idea, keeps the Iris of Olūmpos all to the sphere of religion, than by appear along most carefully separated from the ing as a portent for the augur to interpret, Iris of the sky; and that this Olympian and mostly fills the harmless though high agent, on the other hand, never had priest, character of an heraldic symbol.

temple, or sacrifice, never entered into If the Achaian system refused to bow the operative religion of the race, but the lofty head of man before the inferior lived and died only in the theology of orders of animated nature, still less would Homer. it stoop before objects belonging to the It is surely no accident, but a law, and vegetable kingdom. We have not there a law full of meaning, by which in each fore a sign of tree-worship in Homer; of these instances a subtle change is but, as in the other cases, we have the brought to bear, which does not efface the marks that the Hebrew tradition of the identity of the tradition, but modifies it tree, associating it with the subject-matter in accordance with a peculiar genius, and of religion, had passed into the mental upon a basis of essential uniformity, such stock of the ancestors of the Greeks. as may alınost seem to carry an analogy Accordingly the tree appears connected with Grimm's law, which unveils to us the with deity in more ways than one; as the transmutation by an unvarying rule of lofty oak, out of which the oracles of consonants; the one following the strucZeus were delivered at Dodona, and in ture of the vocal organs, the other obedithe consecrated grove of poplars (aiyelpoi) ent, in a loftier sphere, to the varieties of which fringed the bank of the great river mind. ocean on the way to the under-world. Now do not let it be imagined that I

And yet once more. We have no evi- profess to have exhibited in this paper dence from the Scriptures of worship, or the full proof of kinship between the even reverence, offered to the rainbow. Achaian, or Hellenic, element of the But the rainbow is placed in the book of Olympian religion, and those more reGenesis in direct relations with religion; markable traditions recorded or indicated in such relations as to be within a proxi- in the Hebrew Scriptures, which form mate likelihood of attracting religious part of the base of the great scheme of worship. Accordingly precaution is taken faith still dominant over the civilized by the Achaian mind against this degra. world, and the ruling development of dation. And as the ox, the serpent, and mankind. To draw out this evidence the tree were confined within safe pre- requires much more than could be supcincts, wholly exterior to the Olympian plied by any paper in a review. We court, so, in the case of the rainbow, should (for example) have to examine there is evoked from the bosom of the the peculiar character and formation of natural phenomenon a beautiful anthropo- the Homeric trinity, which are such as to morphic impersonation, under the name require the supposition that it is not a of Iris, who becomes an acknowledged thing indigenous to Greece, or a mere member of the Olympian court, and there creation of the poet's mind, but has also fulfils the office of messenger between an historical being, and is imported from God and inan. And it is a striking though an extraneous source. We should require a subtle testimony to the purity and an- to show the utterly shadowy, nay I must tiquity of the conception from which she add futile, character of all attempts to took her origin, that she is never the explain the character, and the Olympian messenger of the collective court, as if position, of the profoundly venerated to show that she had no relations with the Leto, which do not recognize her root in variegated family of gods belonging to the the great Hebrew tradition of Genesis. composite order. She is the personal Above all we should have to pursue messenger of Zeus, and of him only; through, not a wilderness, but an order of except that Herè, by a certain derivation almost countless details the two great or reflection of his attributes, which prac- characters of Athene and Apollo as they tically marks this particular goddess, can stand in Homer, stamped at almost every



point with the clearest evidence of sharp severances from the other members of the Olympian family who gather around the throne of Zeus, and with notes difficult or

CHAPTER XXIX. impossible of explanation except when The news of Sir William Markham's we find the key in the Hebrew doctrines death made a great sensation in the neighof the Deliverer and the Wisdom.

borhood. It was as if a great house had What I seek now to point out is this: fallen to the ground, a great tree been that it is a grave matter for the inquiry riven up by the roots. There are some and consideration of competent persons people whom no one expects ever to die, whether the Homeric poems, in their rep- and he was one of them. There seemed resentation of Achaian religion, do or do so much for him to do in the world. He not carry true marks of kindred with the was so full of occupation, so well qualiSemitic traditions recorded in the Scrip- fied to do it, so precise and orderly in all tures of the older Testament. If they do his ways, every moment of his time filled not, cadit quæstio. But I have even here up. He did not seem to have leisure for shown certain tokens of presumption that all the troublesome preliminaries of dying. they do. If they do, the concurrence is But as it happened, he had found the time one full of weight and meaning. For for them, as we all do, and everybody was then the religions of Semite and Indo- astonished. It was whispered in the European are shown to us as springing county that there had been“a very strange from a common source: as having once scene at his deathbed,” and everybody presented under features of identity what concluded that this was somehow conwe now trace as features of resemblance. nected with the heir, it being well known

This chapter of inquiry will then be one that Paul had only appeared the day becomplete in itself. It will only add to the fore his father's' death.

Some vague able investigation of Mr. Fairbairn that rumors on this score flew about in the one stage, in which, as it seems to me, he days which elapsed before the funeral, still stops short of the final and crowning but nobody could tell the rights of the truth. It will not be in conflict with the story, and it had already begun to fade evidence for the solar theory (so to call it) before the great pomp and ceremonial of at any point short of that at which the the funeral day. This was to be a very theory, grown as I think over-bold, claims great day at Markham Royal. In the to be, among Aryans at least, both abso- Markham Arms all the stables were getlutely original and absolutely universal, ting cleared out, in preparation for the and disclaims that region lying in the horses of the gentry who would collect dim distance, the true incunabula of its from far and near to pay honor to the last historic or legendary life, which all or scene in which the member for the county some of its most distinguished champions would ever play any part; and all the cannot refrain from acknowledging. But village was roused in expectation. No undoubtedly it will convert into solid doubt it was a very solemn and sad cerepractical roadway what is otherwise mo-monial, and Markham Royal knew that it

or quicksand. From it we may had lost its best friend, but, notwithstandtravel on to ulterior investigations with ing, any kind of excitement is pleasant in increased advantage. And among them the country, and they liked this too in will obviously be the inquiry, whether default of better. The little gentleman those traditions, now called Semitic, so too, who was living at the Markham Arms, remarkable in themselves, and thus forti- was of great diversion to the village. He fied with fresh evidence of their deriva- gave himself the air of superintending tion from the very cradle of our race, were everything that was done at the Markham really, with all the touching, all the pro- burying-place. He went about it solfound, all the noble elements they em- emnly -- as if it could by any possibility body, the mere inventions of that race's be his business — and he put on all the infantine ingenuity, like the playthings of semblance of one who has lost a relation. the child-artificer Hephaistos in his ep He put away his light clothes, and apsea-cave; or whether the Almighty was peared in black, with a hat-band which pleased, 'by direct instruction from him- almost covered his tall hat. The village self, to supply the creatures of his hand, people felt it very natural that the little whom he had made subject to special dan- gentleman should be proud of his relagers and temptations, with a provision tionship to the Markhams, and should also of special guards and guarantees. take such a good opportunity of showing

W. E, GLADSTONE. I it, but those who knew about such mat


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