or heaped manure there; or ground his ( his oven, or suffered him to dig a pit for corn there for a period of three years: manure, then a three years' enjoyment of in these cases he could at any time be the privilege gave him the right of hazastopped; the arrangement was not con- kah. The acquiescence of the owner was sidered permanent. His neighbor might here taken for granted; if he had objected justly say, I have so far allowed you to he could have made a declaration before do this; I cannot, however, permit you witnesses that the arrangement was only longer to do so. If, however, the owner temporary, and could readily have comof the yard had permitted the other to pelled the intruder to remove the conerect any permanent structure there, a structions on his property. shed for his beasts, a bricked square for

THE CLASSIC ORDER OF ARCHITECTURE. placed it, the culprit came forward and ap. The vitality of the ordinance of column and plauded himself for mending the work of entablature, roughly hinted by the Egyptians "some stupid fellow” who did not know where and perfected by the Greeks, is certainly the to place medical books! A friend sent me most remarkable fact in the history of archi- Miller's “Old Red Sandstone." It burst its tecture. For it must be remembered that in cover in the post-bag coming from England, speaking of the life of the Greek order, or, at and a discussion arose as to whom it might all events, of the Greek column, we are not have been sent. At last some one suggested I even confined to what are called the classical was the most likely owner of a work of that periods of architecture, original or revived. class, and I was summoned. On arriving at Although in the Middle Ages the entablature the P.O. with the sender's letter, I accosted disappeared, being thrown from its seat, as the P.M.G. with the remark that I believed one may say, by the rising of the arch to super. the book then in his hands was mine.

“ It is,” sede it, the Gothic shaft and capital is still I said, “the Old Red Sandstone,' by Miller, traceable by direct descent from its Greek who wrote” - I was going to add "The Tesancestor, and had the one not existed the other timony of the Rocks,” when my old friend cut never would have been developed, or would me short with — “Yes, yes, I know, the jokes, have assumed some very different form. Yet, the jokes”!! Shades of old Joe! I gravely after this Gothic progeny of the classic column acquiesced, and walked off with my book. had run through its changes, and been worn

Nature. out, the Greek column, so far from being now done with and forgotten, rose up again for a new race under different conditions, and has exerted a more direct sway over architecture than perhaps it ever did before. It has trav- A DEVONSHIRE Town. - Imagine a series elled to Australia and New Zealand, to the of little hills, or rather a mingling of little hills new and old settlements of America; in the and little valleys! Imagine a cluster of houses cities of the states of Mexico, of Brazil, in built upon this combination of hill and valley! our own colonies in Canada, and elsewhere, Imagine an intermingling of paved streets and the classic column is a familiar object; so also green lanes, of houses, delightful villas, and in the buildings erected under our rule in the fruit gardens. Imagine walking out of oldgreat cities of the Hindostan peninsula. And fashioned streets filled with old-fashioned recently we have found a constantly increasing houses, into paved ways which seemed to go number of indications that its modern journey everywhere, “ up hill and down dale," between into this Indian territory is its second visit; high walls covered with wall ferns, wallthat it has been there before as an original flowers, and mosses! Imagine yourself walkfeature, not as conveyed in the borrowed archi- ing along all sorts of terraced roads at every tecture of a modern people.

conceivabie height above the river level houses being above you, beneath you, around you! Imagine bricks and mortar placed at a disadvantage in a contest with sites that are

so charmingly rural as to make you feel that SOME years ago, when we moved into the they could never have been intended to be combined South African Library and Museum built upon! Imagine, finally, a queer interbuildings, several volunteers assisted in placing mingling of town and country, with ferns grow. the books in the shelves. One morning the ing on the houses and on the garden walls, and librarian, with an amused smile on his face, meeting you at every corner wherever you turn ! showed me a book he had found among the Such is Totnes; and from every part of the medical works; it was Burton's “Anatomy of little town — at the top, at the bottom, and on Melancholy"! Next day it was back again! each side- :- one may get away into the most and while we were wondering who had so I delightful country.

Fern Paradise.


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Í. NOTES ON INFINITY. By Richard A. Proc.

Gentleman's Magazine,
Hon. W. E. Gladstone,

Nineteenth Century,
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XVI., .

Advance Sheets,

Church Quarterly Review,

Gentleman's Magazine,

Chambers' Journal,



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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

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Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGB, 18 cents.


APRIL, 1880.

VOTE out, from where the heather-blush Into the fields flew a little bird ;
Purples the hills of Scottish song,

In the joyous sunshine his song was heard ; The sand-heaps raised of self and wrong, And wondrous sweet was the sound of his lay. Vote out the policy of plush.

“Farewell, I am going !” it seemed to say,

“Far, far away

Must I travel to-day."
Vote in, with him who first upreared,
Over the wave of northern moss,

Tó that sweet field-music I lent an ear;
The banner of the Fiery Cross,
Vote home the good ship, homeward steered.

It made me sorry and glad to hear ;
With an aching joy, with a gladsome pain,

My heart rose lightly, then sank again.
Vote in the old, vote out the new ;

“Say, heart, say, heart, Bring back the calm and steadfast days, Art thou breaking for pleasure, or breaking When England's truth was England's praise,

for pain?" Vote out the false, vote in the true.

The leaves around me fell sadly down,

Then I said, “ Alas! the autumn is nigh! Vote Honor to the front once more,

The summer swallow has homeward flown. Whose drooping hands have veiled her face, Perchance, thus love and longing fly, While every weak and savage race

Far, far and swift, The might of England overbore.

With time they drift.”

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Vote up the men whose life is work,

Whose honest labor makes the world;

Vote down the fashions, crimped and curled, And stand for Christian, not for Turk.

Full slight and small she was, and bent
Her lithe neck shyly, as she went,
In some childlike bewilderment.

Stand for the lesson taught of old,

That as the work the meed shall be;

Give freedom to who would be free, And in our boldness would be bold.

Vote out the slain and slaying cause ;

Perverted forms of party strife;

Vote in the nobler wars of life,
For growing nations, - growing laws.

Gold was the color of her hair;
The color of her eyes was vair;
The sun shone on her everywhere.

O fair she was as hawthorn flowers !
It seemed the flush of the spring hours
Lay on her cheeks, and summer showers

Had bathed her in a sweet content,
A virginal faint ravishment
Of peace ; for with her came a scent

Of flowers plucked with a childish hand
In some forgotten fairyland,
Where all arow the sweet years stand.

And all the creatures of the wood
Crept from their leafy solitude,
And wondering around her stood.

The fawns came to her, unafraid,
And on her hand their muzzles laid:
And fluttering birds flew down and stayed.


Praise God! our England's motto still,

After this long, perplexing night, Is, in her poet's second-sight, “Broad-based upon the people's will."

Vote out the false, vote in the true !

For honor, honesty, and peace;

The people's rest, the land's increase. And so we thank Him, who foreknew. Spectator.

H. M.

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From The Gentleman's Magazine. that which a French philosopher has NOTES ON INFINITY.

called the “scientific apotheosis of man:” Were it not for the infinities by which in this sense, that, so far as quality of he is surrounded, man might believe that knowledge is concerned (as distinct from all knowledge is within his power — at range of knowledge), men may become as least, that every kind of knowledge is, gods, knowing all things, and even in the to a greater or less degree, masterable. fulness of time able to discern good from Men have analyzed, one by one, the mys- evil, distinguishing that real good which teries which surround the very great and exists in what, with our present knowlthe very little. On the one hand they edge, seems like absolute evil. have penetrated farther and farther into But so soon as we consider the infinite, the star-depths, and have brought from the absolute necessity, according to our beyond the remotest range of the tele- conceptions, of infinity of space and time, scope information not only as to the ex- if not of matter and of energy, we recogistence, but as to the very constitution of nize not only that there is much to which the orbs which people space. We know our researches can never be extended, the actual elements which build up worlds but that the knowledge which is unattainand suns on the outskirts of our presentable infinitely transcends that which is domain in space; and that domain is attainable. Take, for instance, the inwidening year by year, and century by finity of space. If we could suppose that century, as telescopes of greater power the extremest possible range of telescopic are constructed and greater skill acquired vision fell short to some degree only of in their use. On the other hand, men the real limits of the universe, we might have not only analyzed the minutest not unreasonably believe that the unatstructure of organic matter, have not only tainable parts were not unlike the pordealt with the movements of molecules tions over which our survey extends. and even of atoms, but they have inquired But when we consider what infinity of into the motions taking place in a medium space really means, we are compelled to more ethereal than matter as conmonly admit that the portion of the universe understood a medium utterly beyond which we have examined, or can conceivour powers of direct research, and whose ably examine, is absolutely as nothing characteristics are only indirectly inferred a mere mathematical point — compared from the study of effects produced by its with the actual universe. This being so,

Such is the extreme present it would be utterly unreasonable to suprange of man's researches in the direction pose that what we know of the universe of the vast on the one hand and the affords any measurable indication of the minute on the other; and at first sight structure of the rest. The part we know this range seems to include all that is or being as nothing compared with the can be. For if the portions of the uni- whole, to assume that the remainder reverse to which man cannot now penetrate, sembles it, is as unreasonable as it would or may never be able to penetrate, re- be for a man who had seen but a single semble in the general characteristics of thread of a piece of cloth to attempt to their structure and constitution the por- infer from it the pattern of the whole. If tions which he can examine, then, though such a man assumed that the whole piece he may examine but a part, he has in was of one color and made throughout of reality sampled the whole. And again, if the same kind of thread, he would be the intimate structure of matter forming much in the position of the man of the visible universe, and the structure of science who should assume that the inthat far subtler matter which forms the finity of space surrounding the finite porether of space, represent the ultimate tion which we have examined, consists texture - so to speak - of the universe, throughout of systems of suns -single, then in the analysis of the minute also multiple, and clustered

attended by man has attained a similar success. We systems of planets. might thus recognize the possibility of So agair of the infinity of time. We

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know of certain processes which are tak- infinitely small, or is to the finite as nothing place in that particular portion of time ing. A million, equally with a single unit, in which our lives are set, or over which is as nothing compared with a number our reasoning powers range; inferring infinitely large; a million years, equally from the present what has happened in with a single second, is as nothing comthe remote past or will happen in the dis- pared with eternity. The whole of what tant future. We trace back our earth to modern astronomy calls the universe is, its beginning "in tracts of fluent heat,” equally with the minutest atom, as nothor pass farther back to what Huxley has ing compared with infinite space. “Syscalled the “nebulous cubhood” of the tem of nature !” exclaims Carlyle justly; solar system, or even attempt to conceive “to the wisest man, wide as is his vision, how the system of multitudinous suns nature remains of quite infinite depth, of filling the depths of space may have been quite infinite expansion, and all experiformed by processes of development. ence thereof limits itself to some few And looking forward to the future, we computed centuries and measured square trace out the progress of processes aris- miles." ing from those earlier ones, recognizing Let us consider, however, whether, apparently the ultimate surcease of every after all, we must admit that space is inform of life, the life of all creatures living finite or time eternal. Remembering that upon worlds, of worlds themselves, of space and time are forms of thought, and solar systems, of systems of such sys- that the ideas of infinite space and infinite tems, and of even higher orders of sys- time are inconceivable, may it not be that, tems. If time were but finite, if we could though we cannot escape the inconceivconceive either a beginning or an end of able by rejecting these infinities, we may absolute time, we might fairly enough nevertheless be able to substitute some suppose that processes such as these, other conditions less utterly oppressive and the subordinate processes associated than they are ? with them, were the fulfilment of time. So far as time is concerned, no attempt But time being infinite, of necessity we has been made, so far as I know, in this have no more reason for supposing that direction. It does not seem easy to imwhat we are thus cognizant of in our agine how time can be regarded as other domain of time resembles what takes than infinite. We should have entirely to place in other portions of time, than a change our conception of time, for inman who listened for a single second to a stance, before we could regard it as selfconcerted piece of music would have for repeating. We can readily conceive the imagining that the notes he heard during idea of a sequence of events being conthat second were continued throughout tinually repeated, and thus assign a cyclithe whole performance.

cal character to occupied time. But if we Combining the consideration of the in- thus imagined that all the events now tak. finity of space with that of the infinity of ing place had occurred many times before time, we have no better right to consider and will occur many times again, always that we understand the operation of the in the same exact sequence, the cycles mighty mechanism of the universe, than thus imagined would only be new and one who for less than a second should be larger measures of absolute time. Though shown the least conceivable portion of a infinitely extended in duration, according mighty machine would have thereafter to our conceptions, they could no more to assert that he understood its entire be regarded as bearing a measurable ratio workings. The saying of Laplace (whom, to time itself than the seconds or minutes however, Swedenborg anticipated) that into which we divide the part of time in “what we know is little, while the un- which we live bear a measurable ratio to known is immense,” may truly be changed the duration, past, present, and future, of into this, that the known is nothing, the the visible universe. unknown infinite; for whatever is finite, I am not, indeed, prepared to admit however great, bears to the infinite a ratio that a more successful effort has hitherto


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