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sary to transcribe these works. In the minor third. We have however no need mean time we must use what we have to to have recourse to such devices. The the best advantage, and as much as it is French commission on pitch in 1858 has possible in the sense which the com- given a satisfactory answer to the quesposers intended. And what was that? tion. It has settled a value for A nearly The principal historical fact which Mr. half-way between the old and the new, Ellis seems to have established is that all but, as is just, rather nearer to the old, over Europe, for two centuries, down to and has fixed this pitch by a beautiful 1816 at earliest in Vienna, later in the standard fork properly preserved in the rest of Germany and in France, and down Musée du Conservatoire at Paris, the to 1828 in England (taking the Philhar- only real standard of pitch in the world. monic. Concerts as the standard), the This diapason normal is exactly twosound assigned to the tuning A did not eighths of a tone above Handel's fork, vary above one-sixth of a tone above or and about three-eighths of a tone below below the value of Handel's own fork, the Crystal Palace organ at mean temnow in the possession of the Rev. G. T. peratures, that is, below our highest conDriffield, rector of Bow, and that hence cert pitch. An important resolution was this well-known fork represents the mean passed at Dresden in 1862 by eminent pitch of Europe for all classical music. conductors (quoted by Mr. Ellis), saying What is that pitch ?. It is five-eighths of that such “a lowering of pitch to the new a tone below the pitch of the great concert Paris standard appears equally desirable organs at the Crystal Palace, the Albert and satisfactory for singers and for orHall, and Alexandra Palace. When dur- chestra; that quality of tone would gain, ing a hot June or July day at the Crystal the brilliancy of the band would not be Palace on a Handel Commemoration the lost, and the power of the singers would temperature, and hence the pitch of the not be so severely taxed or strained." organ, is driven up, Handel's music has The rise in pitch since 1816 has been to be sung three-quarters of a tone at the result of a series of accidents. Nothleast, sometimes a whole tone, higher ing approaching to scientific or musical than he imagined when he wrote it. The thought appears in it. The most that can strain thus laid on the sopranos and now be done is to recognize its existence tenors, especially in the choruses, is out by adopting the French compromise. of all reason, and the music, deprived of And, by the way, this is by, no means its proper fulness and richness, loses French' except in name, for'in 1828 Sir greatly in effect. Of course such a prac- George Smart, then conductor of the Phil. tice can only be excused on the ground of harmonic, adopted what was practically. ignorance, and that is a plea which can the same pitch in England, and the greater no longer be raised after the proofs which number of so-called Philliarmonic forks have been adduced.

sold down to thirty years ago gave the C But what is to be done ? Much music, of the later French pitch. It has left its considerably less in quantity, and per- impress, too, on numerous organs which haps in quality, if we except Mendels- during this period were tuned to “Smart's sohn's, has been written to a much higher pitch, as it was then called. It is in pitch.' Thus the celebrated Gewandhaus fact a long-tried English pitch, displaced Concerts at Leipzig, representing Men- only by accidental circumstances during delssohn's pitch, were a whole semitone Costa's conductorship of the Philharmonsharper than Handel's fork, as is shown ic. In France its use is universal, in by Mr. Ellis. Are we to destroy the new Germany it was generally accepted, music for the sake of the old, as we now though a fresh rise is there perceptible, destroy the old for the sake of the new? in Madrid it has lately been adopted, and Or are we to have two sets of instruments even in Belgium, the only country in

two organs at the Crystal Palace and Europe which approaches the English Albert Hall, or at least two sets of stops heights of pitch, a recent commission rein the same case? Of course such ideas ported in its favor for both concerts and are wild, though not so wild as they look, military bands. Finally, the enormous for Dresden has two sets of instruments, inconvenience felt by singers accustomed and old churches (as the cathedral at to this pitch, when coming over for a Lübeck and the Franciscan Convent at London season or special concerts (as at Vienna) have two organs in different the recent Wagner festival, according to pitches, nay, one German organ certainly Wagner's own statement), have induced had stops in two pitches differing by a the Covent Garden Opera to revert to it again this season, so that musicians will and quality of tone by being brought have an excellent opportunity of judging down to French pitch. It is a mere matof its effect.

ter of stringing and tuning, not of conA strong argument usually brought struction. against a change of pitch is the difficulty Besides the importance of having a of getting new brass and wood instru- uniform pitch to the singer and the manuments. The French pitch has now lasted facturers of instruments, there is a theolong enough for good instruments to be retical advantage to the listener. With made in it, and it is in fact more easy, out equal temperament when properly carried of London, to obtain instruments in that out, the relations of the intervals in difpitch than in any other. But considering ferent keys remain precisely the same, that it was used in England and in France and the effect of change of key therefore for about twenty years prior to 1850, and is due to the change of pitch of the tonic that the bands accommodated themselves and its related notes. When the ear is to the gradual change then, there seems accustomed to one pitch it easily recogno reason why they should not do so nizes the - key. When the pitch varies now. Organs present a difficulty, but no from time to time and place to place, the mercy should be shown to them. Organs sense of key becomes deadened and lost, sharpen so much by temperature in a and even the most experienced ears beconcert room crowded or lighted up, or come confused. Hence, both theoretiin summer, that it is really inhuman to cally and practically uniformity of pitch build organs that even at mean tempera- is imperative. Practically an intermetures strain the voice of a singer of Han- diate pitch between the old pitch of Handel to follow. They are essentially solo del, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and instruments. French pitch is the highest the new pitch of Mendelssohn, Costa, and admissible pitch for organs which have to Verdi, is the only one feasible to allow of lead voices, and those which are sharper both kinds of music being played by one should be flattened forthwith. Church organ or one band. And such a pitch is organs are even now usually constructed the French, the pitch of all French and but a trifle sharper than French . pitch. most German modern music, the pitch in As for pianos, it is well known that the which the works of Wagner can alone be concert grand pianos improve in richness properly heard.

TAPESTRY. - It is difficult to fix the precise | ufacture real tapestry. The art rapidly devel. period at which the manufacture of tapestry in oped in their country, both on account of the a loom began in European countries. Several excellent methods of dyeing employed by the documents, going back to the tenth and eleventh weavers, and also by reason of the abundance centuries, establish the fact that in certain con- and quality of the wool, which was sent to vents in France carpets made of wool, orna- them from England. France, so prosperous mented with flowers and animals, and even in the thirteenth century, soon followed the hangings representing religious subjects, as towns of the north in this branch of industry. well as portraits of kings or emperors, were These new manufactures became from that woven for the decoration of churches and time the rivals of the Sarrazinois tapestries, palaces, but no positive knowledge of the mode which were very inferior in workmanship, and of manufacture employed at that time has come many disputes arose, both in Flanders and in down to us. It is probable that these hang. Paris, between the representatives of the two ings were rather embroidered stuffs - like that industries. It appears that in Paris the de. preserved in the mairie at Bayeux, which re- mand for Sarrazinois tapestries had even in. cords events in the conquest of England by the creased, and the workmen employed on them Normans, in 1066 — than actual tapestries had formed a powerful corporation.

In the made in a loom. This kind of fabric was inventories or accounts of that period which known in the Middle Ages by the name of have come down to us, the Sarrazinois tapes“Sarrazinois” carpets, and had, doubtless, tries are distinguished from high and low warp been brought from the East either by the Sara- tapestries. The former are designated emcens of Spain or at the close of the Crusades. broideries, the latter are generally called arras. It was towards the end of the twelfth century This distinction was kept up till the period of that the Flemish weavers began to make use the Renaissance. of high-warp and low-warp looms, and to man

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

Fifth Series, Volume XXX.

}

No. 1874. – May 15, 1880.

From Beginning,

Vol. OXLV.

387

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CONTENTS.
I. THE HISTORY OF RENT IN ENGLAND, Contemporary Review, .
II. ADAM AND EVE By the author of “Dorothy
Fox.” Part VIII.,

Advance Sheets,
III. THE IRISH SMALL FARMER, .

Fortnightly Review,
IV. PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF MARY CAR-
PENTER. By Frances Power Cobbe,

Modern Review,
V. VERENA FONTAINE'S REBELLION. Ву
Johnny Ludlow. Part IV.,

Argosy,
VI. ILLUSIONS OF MEMORY,

Cornhill Magazine, VII. The Civil CODE OF THE JEWS. Part VI., Pall Mall Gazette,

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PALINGENESIS.

And for days I travel wholly I was fashioned long ago

Muffled up in melancholy; In an element of snow,

Yet for all this weary pain And a white pair of cold wings

I would not be calm again,

Yield the warmth and Aush and riot
Bore me towards sublunar things;
Over thought's immense dominions,

For my earlier crystal quiet,

Or this burning flesh resign
Floating on those chilly pinions,
Long I wandered faint and thin,

For those wings and robes of mine;
As a leaf the wind may spin,

Having tasted life and breath And the tossing, flashing sea

And the bitter fear of death, Moaned and whispered under me,

Who could any more endure And the mountains of man's mind

That chill ether rare and pure ? Cast short shadows far behind,

Having known the ache of loving, And the rivers of the soul,

And the warm veins' stir and moving, That still thunder as they roll,

And the yearning hopes that start,

Who could live without a heart? At my cold height streamed and fled

Cornhill Magazine.

EDMUND W. GOSSE. Silent as a glacier-bed. I was light and gay and bold, Bathing in the sunset's gold, Though my forehead's only flush Came from the aurora's rush, And my white wrists held on high

ON THE EMBANKMENT. Showed no blue veins coursing by. Through the world a dream I went, Under the mist and the moonlight I wander Swathed in a frozen element,

alone along, Watching with a temperate breath Between the hum of the city and the river's All the masque of birth and death,

soothing song, Pleased to watch around, below,

And the wind that blows from the water is The currents of emotion flow,

keen like a sword and strong. Pleased in my insane conceit That I had no heart to beat.

I love to roam by the river in the grey of the

winter nights, But, one mornin as I flew

Till I seem to be nought but a shadow among Higher in the vault of blue,

the shadowy sights, On a storm's eccentric curve

Above and below and around me a dazzling All my flight began to swerve.

tangle of lights. Ah! my crystal limbs expire In this new domain of fire !

Lights that glow in the water, lights that burn Ah! my dædal wings must scorch

in the sky, In this vast aërial torch,

Lights that twinkle and change, lights that And my fairy garments made

flitter and fly, Of the frost's breath, all will fade !

And the great moon over all ruling supreme

on high,
Shrieking in a robe of pain,
Darkness fell upon my brain.
When I wakened, far away

Clothed by the shining mist with a wedding

garment of white. In a still green dell I lay,

And the tide of the Thames to left and the Shivering, naked; warm within,

city's tide to right What was this I heard begin'

Run swiftly out in the darkness, filling the ear Throbbing, pulsing, like the sound

of night Of a hammer underground? Then I caught a voice, repeating, “ 'Tis thy new-born heart that's beating.” With a musical, mingled murmur that wakes

in my dreaming brain

Thoughts that are sad for pleasure and yet to Since that day I have not flown

soothing for pain, O'er the radiant world alone;

And steals 'twixt the thoughts awakened like a I am all content to follow

far-off song's refrain.
Love round this one mountain-hollow;
Weak I am, and flushed with feeling
Tender hopes across me stealing;

There is passion and pain and sorrow, there i Tears between my eyelids creep,

hope and rest and ease, And I waken still to weep;

And labor with love for a guerdon in the min Often as I walk along

gling melodies, I am agonized with song,

And my vague unrest is quiet, and I am con Thoughts of one beloved form

tent and at peace. Lash me like a sudden storm,

H. E. CLARKE.

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From The Contemporary Review. the fundamental condition of civilization, THE HISTORY OF RENT IN ENGLAND.

as its success is the measure of all other The theory of rent has always been a industry. Whatever dwarfs it therefore, matter of peculiar interest to English renders it insecure or especially risky, or economists. Foreigners who write about in any way impedes its healthy progress, political economy have frequently ex- is a mischief in the excision of which all pressed their surprise at the copiousness are interested, and for which no surgery with which the topic is debated in En- can be too prompt. It is not indeed ingland, and have even thought that the tended in the present article to enter into attention which Englishmen give to the any economical or political controversy, subject is akin to the eagerness with to discuss the theory of rent, or to examwhich everybody who pretends to social ine the consequences of primogeniture. position is supposed to purchase a peer- These are topics of great, perhaps of enage. There is some reason for the aston- during interest, though the latter is a ishment. It is very rarely that the late mere conventional arrangement, the beMr. Mill is intolerant of adverse opinion ginning of which is to be found in the when he is dealing with economical sub- importance of an expedient long since jects. But as he states that any man who passed away, – the policy which William attempts to tamper with bargains which the Norman adopted towards his comthe State has made is a knave, so he hints rades of the Conquest. not obscurely his conviction, that any one The very rudest agriculture has always who rashly touches the ark of the deduc- produced much more than is sufficient for tive economists, the Ricardian theory of the laborer and for those dependent on rent, is a fool.

him. An agricultural people always The present appears to the writer to be therefore develops a leisure class, and as a peculiarly fit time to discuss, not the invariably renders that state of things theory, but the history of rent. With possible in which other laborers beside those who believe that political economy, the agriculturist can obtain the means of taken apart from facts, is always a barren, subsistence. The development of agriand very often a dangerous theory, noth- culture is, therefore, the first condition of ing which throws light on the process by civilization, and the primary or rather sole which farmer's rents have been devel. cause of that division of employments oped, will be without its value in the which all economists have recognized as economical interpretation of social prob- at once the great result and the principal lems. For it is quite certain that the factor of opulence. Undoubtedly the first present disturbance of the traditional re- recipients of rent treated the contributor lations between landowners and farmers with great indiscretion, for they oppressed will lead to permanent results, certainly him mightily, and even up to the period in the occupation, and not improbably which immediately preceded the French in the tenure of land. For the landed Revolution, the peasant in France bore interest, however widely or however nar- nearly all the burdens of government as rowly it may be interpreted (whether it well as supplied the means for all the enis understood to refer to the three recip-joyments of the nobles. Thus Adam ients, landlord, farmer, and farm laborer, Smith was historically not far wrong

when as Lord Beaconsfield has divided that in- be alleged that ancient rents were in their terest, omitting somewhat oddly the nature a tax levied by the strong hand Church, of which the present prime min. upon the defenceless agriculturist. Some ister is understood to be as staunch a of the most instructive illustrations of defender as Henry the Eighth was; or this kind of rents are to be gathered fron whether it merely refers to the territorial the records of the conquests effected b: magnates, whom ungenerous critics say the Saxon Christians of the tenth cen that Lord Beaconsfield was merely think- tury in their struggle with the heather ing of), must be always able to command Slavs, and continued for several centu. the most active attention. Agriculture is ries afterwards by the Teutonic knights,

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