« VorigeDoorgaan »
were the best hated of all during the later liament, into garbling their version in the Middle Ages ever managed to draw Times of the somewhat inaudible lanon itself the same intensity of mingled guage of a venerable Irish peer lately hatred and distrust. It is more material deceased, and it is not beyond their cato remark, what is at first sight far more pacity to control by invisible and unsus. inexplicable, that not only bishops but pected agencies the policy of States, and the popes themselves have from the days virtually to shape the destinies of the of Ignatius downwards shown a deep civilized world. They are gifted with the distrust of the society expressly organ- preternatural power, as well as the Satanic, ized by him for the maintenance and aug- malice, of the genii of Eastern fable, mentation of papal autocracy. Paul 111. while, unlike them, they are closely bound inserted a clause in the original bull of together in a federation of evil for the authorization, limiting the number of pursuit of a common end. They are dismembers to sixty, and although he was guised at this moment, in spite of the afterwards induced to withdraw a restric- labors of the Church Association, in the tion so fatal to their aims, Sixtus V., by surplice of Anglican rectors, while “the far the ablest pontiff of the sixteenth female Jesuit” plies her seductive arts century, resolved on enforcing several under the innocent semblance of a Protsweeping changes in their constitution, estant kitchen-maid. Let no one imagine including a change of name, about which that we have dressed up a mere scarethey were extremely sensitive, and was crow of our own, or laid on one touch of only prevented from carrying out his in- coloring which it would not be easy to tentions by the shortness of his reign. match in the familiar pictures drawn by Two centuries later Clement XIV. was Protestant alarmists. No rational person willing enough to accede to the universal of course accepts this startling caricature demand of Catholic Europe for their sup- — which may be compared with the delinpression; and it is an open secret that eation of the Freemasons sometimes there is little love lost between the Jesuits found in foreign Jesuit treatises — but and the present occupant of the papal even the silliest caricature has usually throne. It must be allowed that such some kind of basis, however inadequate, facts require an explanation, which is not and there could hardly be so much smoke adequately supplied by their own proud if there was no fire. More plausible, and boast of how completely their founder's less wildly inaccurate, is the opposite prayer has been answered, that they might hypothesis, formerly prevalent among be hated of all men, like him whose name English Liberals, and accepted with a they have assumed, and for his name's difference by many earnest Roman Cathsake.
olics, that the Jesuits are much like other There may be said, roughly speaking, orders in the Church of Rome, more zealto be three current phases of opinion ous and energetic perhaps, and therefore which may be taken variously to interpret naturally more offensive to those who the traditional instinct or prejudice against regard with dislike or fear the progress of the Jesuits. We have first the popular the Roman Catholic religion, but not othProtestant hypothesis, of which Mr. erwise distinguishable from the general Whalley used to be the spokesman in mass of religious corporations from which Parliament, and which found a ghastly they are so sharply and unfavorably disillustration in the sensational religious criminated by the recent action of the works of the days of our grandmothers. French government. This view on the According to this view the Jesuits are a surface looks reasonable enough, and it kind of secret police of the evil one, be is really nearer the truth than the Proting occupied in promoting the interests estant bogy view, but it is not the less of their Church, which are identified with quite unequal to the exigency of facts. their own, by fair means or foul, with a Benedictines, Dominicans, and Francisdiabolical craft only exceeded by their cans have been in their day as zealous diabolical wickedness. They have spies and as influential as Jesuits, and the or familiars, male or female, in every Dominicans moreover were officially concourt, every society, in almost every pri- nected with the hateful and hated Inquisi vate family especially in Protestant tion, yet none of these vast and powerful families; they are united in a clironic organizations have encountered, conspiracy against the peace alike of either within the pale of their own Church households and of empires. It was not or beyond it, a tithe of the suspicion and beneath them to bribe or coerce the re- enmity so persistently roused by the chil porters, as he publicly complained in Par-dren of Ignatius. Some third hypothesis
is manifestly required, which, without vio- ubi bene, nihil melius, there is also anlating the dictates of experience and com- other and a darker side to the picture. mon sense, shall yet do justice to the The ambitious design which was indelibly admitted facts of the case past and pres- impressed by Ignatius Loyola on the conent. And that hypothesis may perhaps stitution — we might add the very name be not inaptly summed up in the well- — of his order has proved throughout the known saying about the Jesuits, ubi bene, secret both of its weakness and its nihil melius : ubi male, nihil pejus. They strength. To that supreme end all conhave been powerful alike for good and for siderations, moral and religious, not exevil, but always powerful, and always cluding their most cherished theological using their power, whether well or ill, for principle, have been subordinated. From the aggrandizement of their order. They the first they were not content to trust to have acted all along as an imperium in their enormous educational and spiritual imperio, confronting "the white pope” influence, but aspired also to “shape the with “the black pope," and not unfre- whispers” of all the Catholic thrones of quently pitting the one against the other Europe, and to undermine all the thrones with a large measure of at least tempo- which they regarded as anti-Catholic. rary success. And hence from their first They governed the French Church origin the popes have been very naturally through the mistresses of Louis XIV., suspicious of these self-chosen prætori- and they plotted persistently against the ans, as the Roman emperors were jealous crown and life of Queen Elizabeth. They of the Prætorian Guards and the sultan did not scruple to make good their posiof the Janissaries, lest they too should tion at the French court by more than aspire to make and unmaké and mould conniving at Gallican opinions — which the rulers before whose throne they could never have been their own — and bowed in professedly absolute subjeć- actually helped to frame the Declaration tion.
of Gallican Liberties. When threatened No estimate of the Jesuits would be a with expulsion from France in the last fair one which ignored the real services century, they offered to purchase a rethey have rendered to the highest inter- prieve by teaching the four Gallican artiests of their Church, and indeed to the cles, which directly contravene the fundacause of Christian civilization. They mental principles of Jesuit theology: have been effective preachers, and were Their influence has everywhere been used, for a long time the ablest and most accom- and perhaps consistently used, in the plished teachers of youth throughout the service of both civil and ecclesiastical continent of Europe; even now, when despotism, but the means employed have they seem to a great extent to have lost not unfrequently been such as no plea of their educational cunning, their schools conscience could excuse. When the orin France are pronounced by independent der was dissolved by the authority of the critics, like Mr. Matthew Arnold, to be Holy See, which they of all men were at least equal in intellectual working, and bound to respect as final and absolute, decidedly superior in moral culture, to they held together in defiance of it under the best of the government lycées. They the shelter of the schismatic governments have on the whole maintained unbroken, of Russia and Prussia. They are not in spite of the worse than questionable only," Catholics first and patriots afterethical system exposed by Pascal, a far wards,” in whatever country their lot may higher standard of moral purity in their be cast, but Jesuits first and Catholics own body than any of their rivals either afterwards. The interests of the Church among religious orders or the secular are to their minds summed up in the inpriesthood. And they have shown them- terests of their own order, and a pope selves devoted, untiring, and very success. who opposes them, like Ganganelli, is, ful missionaries in heathen lands. Yet ecclesiastically speaking, no better than a even here their career has been marked suicidal maniac, whose dangerous perversby strange aberrations, inconsistent at ity it is the truest charity to restrain. once with their religious profession and Still more of course are secular governwith the principles of morality, as in the ments which pursue an anti-Catholic – famous controversy about the “Chinesc that is an anti-Jesuit — policy to be Rites," described at length in Mr. Cart-treated as natural enemies; while in dealwright's “ Historical Sketch.” And that ing, with governments which could be very controversy would alone suffice to made subservient to their purposes they remind us that, after full allowance has would adopt, as they have shown in been made, as it ought to be made, for | France, in Mexico, in China, and in Russia, a policy of the extremest Erastian- | in temperature between the two places of ism. That a society numbering many junction cause electric currents varying in thousands of members, spread over the intensity with the greatness of the differface of the world and organized on the ence. A magnetic needle, brought under strictest principle of military discipline, the influence of the current, registers on so resolute in its ambitious aims, and so a dial these differences. The wires were versatile and unscrupulous in its methods inserted in the Jardin des Plantes at of prosecuting them, should be viewed various depths varying from five to sixty with jealousy by civil governments — and centimetres, and observations were made not least by the governments of Roman from November 26 to the close of DecemCatholic countries, where its influence is ber. Frost first appeared in the garden most likely to be felt can be no matter November 26. December 3 snow fell in of surprise. Their official organ, the Ci- abundance, and the temperature of the viltà Cattolica, specially authenticated by air sank to II° C. The layer of snow a brief of Pius IX., declared shortly be- was twenty-five centimetres deep. Defore the Vatican Council that “Christian cember 10, the temperature had sunk to States have ceased to exist; human soci- - 21°, and commenced then gradually to ety has relapsed into heathenism, and is rise. December 15, the snow was ninelike an earthly body with no breath from teen centimetres in depth. heaven.” The Syllabus and the Vatican Coming now to the observations made Council, the two crowning achievements below the surface of the ground under of modern Jesuitism, were their chosen the above circumstances, we find at once instruments for reversing this fatal ten- a striking difference between the results dency of modern civilization. It is not obtained in soil covered with grass, and wonderful that the civil power, thus rudely those obtained below a bare surface of challenged, should have learned to regard the ground. In soil protected by grass, the Church which they claimed to repre- before as well as after the snowfall, at all sent, and under the last pontificate prac-depths below that of five centimetres, the tically ruled, as “an organization bristling temperature never descended below oo. C. with dangerous sentiments,” and the Jes- Registering 3°5 at the depth of five uit Order itself as “the Prætorian Guard centimetres on November 26, it slowly of a dangerous ecclesiastical Cæsarism.” sank to o-18° on December 14. The pres
ence of grass would appear, then, to effectually protect the earth beneath i from freezing at the lowest temperatures
attained in our climate. Quite different SOIL DURING absence of grass. results, however, are yielded in the
In this case ata
depth of five centimetres the thermome The French physicists, Edmond and ter sank below zero on November 27 Henry Becquerel, took advantage of the Two days later it registered – 20.6. Or intense cold prevailing at Paris last De December 3, just before the snowfall, i cember, to study the changes in tempera- reached its minimum of —3°:17. After ture below the surface of the soil under being covered with snow_it registered various conditions. It is a widely spread -0°.8, and later — 1°:4. The snow here belief anjong farmers, that when protected appears to act in a certain measure as a by a layer of snow, crops sown in the screen against changes in temperature autumn are effectually guarded against but its conductive properties are still to freezing. This opinion, however, must marked to prevent these changes from lose much of its weight in view of these being felt sensibly at a certain depth ir late observations, which we will briefly the earth. In the case of the agriculturist summarize.
this slow conduction, when united to the The observations were made by means still lower conductive properties of of Becquerel's electric thermometer, which tolerably thick layer of dead shoots o consists simply of two wires isolated by cereal crops sown in autumn may fre a coating of gutta-percha, and soldered quently insure immunity from freezing to together at their extremities. Differences the roots below the surface.
T, H. N.
TEMPERATURE OF THE
Fifth Series, Volume XXX
No. 1873. – May 8, 1880.
CONTENTS. I. METTERNICH, .
Contemporary Review, .
Popular Science Review,
Part VIL. A Swiss NOVELIST,
Fraser's Magazine, VIII. OUT OF IT,
Saturday Review, IX. MUSICAL PITCH,
365 368 379
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EiGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually íorwarded for a year, free of postage,
An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.
Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-ofice money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter, All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.
Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGB, 18 cents.
IN FIRLE PARK.
Or turn thee to the dawn of day, I FOUND a fairy-land to-day,
Land of romance and sacred tale; A wonder-world, not far away;
Fair is the scene, nor far the way,
Thither, O loved one! let us sail.
Nor South, nor East? Then turn thee last Nor fancies born of morning beams;
Where evening star-girt doth appear. I trod the earth, I breathed the air,
Ah no! the evening fades too fasi;
The night beyond is dark and drear.
Then, maiden mine, we will remain,
We two alone; no need to roam, A moss-grown path, not over-wide ;
Nor ever wander forth again Its windings seen a little space,
Afar, if love but stay at home. Then lost in boughs that interlace.
R. C. LEHMANN. Soon as I saw I owned the spell; My feet in quiet reverence fell ; For there were mosses and long grass, Catching at sunbeams as they pass; And many leaves, new leapt from earth,
SEEKING REST. Green from their fresh and dewy birth. THUS saith my soul, “The path is long to
tread, But oh, that I could tell the sight,
Behind me far it stretches, far before ; That flooded all my soul with light !
Wearily, drearily, sight travels o'er There, 'mid green leaves luxuriant, grew
Leagues that have lengthened as the slow days Violets, a hundred eyes of blue.
sped, Each cluster seemed a fairy band, Each nest of leaves a fairy-land;
And wearily o'er leagues untraversed
Which I must traverse ere I gain the door And all the air was odorous
That shuts not night nor day. What need With joys no words can tell to us,
Than to find rest at last in that last bed ?
Is it well said, O soul? The way is long,
Weary are heart and brain and aching feet, Had I a blackbird's song, perchance But 'mid thy weariness thou still art strong, E'on I might make your spirit dance,
And rest unearned is shameful; so entreat Your soul be thrilled a little space
This one thing — that at last the conqueror's With my sweet memories of that place.
song Now, with weak words I strive in vain;
May echo through a sleep divinely sweet. Into my breast they turn again;
J. ASHCROFT NOBLE, And, all unwillingly, my heart Feeds on her heavenly joys apart. Spectator.
F. W. B.
WHAT God us here hath given
Is time, we all agree;
We call eternity.
The gifts that time here proffereth
Are changing grief and glee,
WHERE SHALL WE ROAM? WHERE shall we roam, O maiden mine?
To North, to South, to East or West? Raise but thine eyes, and give the sign;
Where shall we roam ? — which way is best? See ! to the North the clear, cold star
Would lead us, where the icebergs rise ; Where silence reigns, and from afar
The snowflakes falling shroud the skies. No, no; the North is bleak and bare :
Too cold the wind, too chill the sea; The sun itself is icy there,
The North is not the land for me.
Upon that mystic morrow
What waiteth-joy or woe?
Whilst I this comfort know :
Then seek the South, where skies are bright,
Where flowerets kiss the wand'rer's feet, Where whisp'ring zephyrs woo the night,
And but to live and love is sweet.
We shall in time know gladness,
If wise in time we be,